;

Book of Mormon Covenant Lands

Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model



See "Zarahemla.site". Help uncover
the city of Zarahemla (click here)



It is named: Zarahemla!

Doctrine and Covenants 125:3
Let them build up a city unto my name upon the land opposite the city of Nauvoo, and let the name of Zarahemla be named upon it.


 1 Introduction
revised: 26 Jun 2020

The Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model (ZCHM) presents an extensive logical and a physical model of Book of Mormon geography centered on the city of Zarahemla (per Helaman 1:27 and D&C 125:3). The ZCHM is a database driven model that presents 149 unique physical locations with their equivalent modern place-names, and defines 872 interrelationships found in the Book of Mormon text. I started this project in March of 2015.

Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem can be summarized as "any logical model of reality is incomplete (and possibly inconsistent) and must be continuously refined/adapted in the face of new observations" and so I invite your contributions, observations, and insights. - Jay Mackley


Notes:
- Information is presented with "accordion style" drop-down Sections. Prior to clicking an internal link to another Section, first click on "Open All" at the top of this page.
- I am affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and with the Heartland Research Group. However, conclusions and opinions contained on this website are my own and have not been endorsed by the Church or by the Heartland Research Group.

 1.1 Mapping The Book of Mormon
revised: 29 July 2020

This work is for those interested in exploring the history in the Book of Mormon, the special covenant of God upon the land of North America, and the locations of Book of Mormon lands. If you are interested more in the Logical Model and the ontology of it, I suggest you skip the Physical Model information in sections 1, 2 and 4 and go directly to Logical Model in 3 Section. This may also help avoid any bias regarding the Physical Model vs the Logical Model.

Sections 1, 2, and 4 present North America as the Book of Mormon "land of promise" with the city of Zarahemla in the center and heart of the land. Overall I call this the Zarahemla Centric Model map for Book of Mormon geography. This Zarahemla Centric Model map is based on a series of Entity Relationship definitions of geography (see the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2) that are taken from the Book of Mormon text (The Book of Mormon - The Earliest Text, Royal Skousen), and put into a condensed form using a standardized nomenclature, and then sorted by location. The Entity Relationship table is the foundation of the Logical Model which also includes a set of working rules/postulates regarding textual interpretation (see also Section 3.3). The Entity Relationships and the Rules of Interpretation together form the Logical Model. The Logical Model entities serve as the reference tool for creating a Physical Model. The physical model is represented as a series of maps. In addition to the physical location of Book of Mormon place names, the maps also detail missionary journeys, military campaigns, and other activity. See Section 4.

In theory, one could take the Logical Model as presented here to support a different Physical Model. However, the Logical Model is where some logical consensus can most likely be found among researchers. I encourage those with input and insights to share them with me directly. My email address is found at the bottom of this page. My goal is to help establish the Book of Mormon as an accurate historical document and thus widen the audience of those who take the Book of Mormon itself seriously, so it can achieve its ultimate purpose of "the convincing of Jew and Gentile that Jesus is the Christ" (title page of the Book of Mormon). For this purpose I have created a Logical Model of Book of Mormon lands that is the most rigorous, complete, formalized, open, and transparent - so that anyone can use it to validate a physical map and to study the Book of Mormon in the context of common reference points.

However, before viewing the details of the Logical ZCHM, I know you may just want to "skip to the end" to see the overall map (the Physical ZCHM) for the Nephite, Lamanite, and Jaredite nations of the Book of Mormon. However, before you do so I recommend that you at least watch this introductory video so you can get an overview of what is going on. The "master map" follows the video.

Below is the Zarahemla Centric Model "master map" that is built from the Logical Model as defined in Section 3:

This is the "master map" for Nephite/Lamanite and Jaredite civilizations in the Book of Mormon. The master map is built to be as compatible as possible (in my opinion) with the Logical Model as described in Section 3. Enlarge to see more detail.
Master map for Nephite/Lamanites
 1.2 A Sacred Covenant Land
revised: 31 Mar 2019

The ancient Nephites of the Book of Mormon, by divine means, "saw" our day. They saw the future.

Mormon 8
35 Behold, I speak unto you as if ye were present, and yet ye are not. But behold, Jesus Christ hath shown you unto me, and I know your doing.

They wanted us to know that their land was a special covenant land, preserved for a righteous people - a land of promise for both them and for us, if we would live worthy of it.

Ether 2
7 And the Lord would not suffer that they should stop beyond the sea in the wilderness, but he would that they should come forth even unto the land of promise, which was choice above all other lands, which the Lord God had preserved for a righteous people.
8 And he had sworn in his wrath unto the brother of Jared, that whoso should possess this land of promise, from that time henceforth and forever, should serve him, the true and only God, or they should be swept off when the fulness of his wrath should come upon them.
9 And now, we can behold the decrees of God concerning this land, that it is a land of promise; and whatsoever nation shall possess it shall serve God, or they shall be swept off when the fulness of his wrath shall come upon them. And the fulness of his wrath cometh upon them when they are ripened in iniquity.

The Nephites seemed to assume we would have some understanding of their lands and even have access to their historical records.

Jacob 1
2 And he [Nephi] gave me, Jacob, a commandment that I should write upon these plates a few of the things which I considered to be most precious; that I should not touch, save it were lightly, concerning the history of this people which are called the people of Nephi. For he said that the history of his people should be engraven upon his other plates ...

The plates of brass are prophesied to come forth.

1 Nephi 5
17 And now when my father saw all these things, he was filled with the Spirit, and began to prophesy concerning his seed--
18 That these plates of brass should go forth unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people who were of his seed.
19 Wherefore, he said that these plates of brass should never perish; neither should they be dimmed any more by time. And he prophesied many things concerning his seed.

And also the entire set of Nephite records are prophesied to be preserved and to come forth.

Enos 1
15 Wherefore, I knowing that the Lord God was able to preserve our records, I cried unto him continually, for he had said unto me: Whatsoever thing ye shall ask in faith, believing that ye shall receive in the name of Christ, ye shall receive it.
16 And I had faith, and I did cry unto God that he would preserve the records; and he covenanted with me that he would bring them forth unto the Lamanites in his own due time.
17 And I, Enos, knew it would be according to the covenant which he had made; wherefore my soul did rest.
18 And the Lord said unto me: Thy fathers have also required of me this thing; and it shall be done unto them according to their faith; for their faith was like unto thine.

Unfortunately, we don't yet have access to those other plates with the history. However, the Book of Mormon has a wealth of geographical references that make it possible to construct maps after a few anchor points are known. To help with the specific locations we have guidance from scripture and also the writings of Joseph Smith. Archaeology and topography provide important additional clues and confirmation.

 1.3 Questions and Answers
revised: 24 Jul 2020

Here are questions I have received and answers to each.

Q. Why have you done this Book of Mormon research?

A. I love the Book of Mormon and it's message of salvation and for its important role of building up Zion. It contains the "fullness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ" and is secondarily also an accurate and important historical record. So, I have five primary reasons for sharing this research:

  1. I believe it is important to better establish the historical veracity of the Book of Mormon as an additional testimony of its truthfulness. Some members of the church now believe the Book of Mormon geography and history parts to be allegorical fiction and even at BYU they teach the narrative with a faux map, as though the Book of Mormon were a Lord of the Rings type of fantasy saga. We can and must do better.
  2. I believe it's also important doctrinally to understand the special purposes and destiny of North America in Gods plan for the latter days, and what that means for those who live there. The Book of Mormon says the land comes with a special promise and responsibility attached to it - and that it has an important role to play in the latter days. So obviously knowing where the land is located is important.
  3. About one third of the Book of Mormon contains some form of geographical information and I find it very satisfying to read the Book of Mormon with a mental picture of the land involved. Everything in the narrative is thereby clarified and becomes more relatable.
  4. On the title page, the stated purpose of the Book of Mormon is for the convincing of Jew and Gentile that Jesus is the Christ. Many investigators have a need to accept the book before they can accept the message of Christ that is in it. The extensive geography in the Book of Mormon is not just incidental but crucial in establishing the Book of Mormon as real history.
  5. The Logical Model in Section 3 provides powerful evidence of the Book of Mormon's remarkable internal consistency, and is therefore a testimony of the divine origin of the text. This should be more widely known and is a part of the overall convincing process.

Q. Many maps for the Book of Mormon have been made. Why are you doing it again? What is different about your maps?

A. What is different is a unique methodology that yields a precise logical model, in form and content - which in turn leads to a new physical result (map). Yes, there have been many maps and theories for Book of Mormon geography published over the years. Unfortunately, they often contradict each other dramatically and little has ever been accomplished in the way of consensus or collaboration. All the previous geographical models have been woefully incomplete and therefore flawed. The ZCHM (Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model) logical and physical models are the most thorough and complete ever done. The model and map Logical Model definitions are integrated into a database where analytical programs can analyze and cross-check in ways otherwise impossible. Hear is summary of the contents of the database:

           ENTITY TYPES..............................   26  Example: city, land, mount, hill, wilderness ...
           ENTITIES..................................  115  Example: Zarahemla, Manti, Bountiful, ...
           FULL ENTITIES (TYPES with ENTITIES).......  149  Example: city of Zarahemla, land of Nephi, land of Zarahemla, ...
           KEYWORDS..................................   27  Example: near to, borders, south of, ...

           FULL ENTITIES + KEYWORDS + TYPES..........  244  Example: city of Ammonihah near to wilderness, ...
           FULL ENTITIES + KEYWORDS + FULL ENTITIES..  628  Example: city of Zarahemla borders Sidon river, ...
                                                      ---- 
           Total Entity Relationships (unique).......  872

Q. How can someone share ideas or inquire about the logical model?

A. One can contribute suggestions, improvements and ideas to the logical and physical model by emailing me directly (use the email address at the bottom of the page) or via the Book of Mormon Covenant Lands Forum.

My goal is to discover truth with an open mind and apply the "scientific method" to arrive at the best possible answer. The process of experimentation is validated by the Book of Mormon itself.

Alma 32
27 But behold, if ye will awake and arouse your faculties, even to an experiment upon my words, and exercise a particle of faith, yea, even if ye can no more than desire to believe, let this desire work in you, even until ye believe in a manner that ye can give place for a portion of my words.
28 Now, we will compare the word unto a seed. Now, if ye give place, that a seed may be planted in your heart, behold, if it be a true seed, or a good seed, if ye do not cast it out by your unbelief, that ye will resist the Spirit of the Lord, behold, it will begin to swell within your breasts; and when you feel these swelling motions, ye will begin to say within yourselves--It must needs be that this is a good seed, or that the word is good, for it beginneth to enlarge my soul; yea, it beginneth to enlighten my understanding, yea, it beginneth to be delicious to me.
29 Now behold, would not this increase your faith? I say unto you, Yea; nevertheless it hath not grown up to a perfect knowledge.
30 But behold, as the seed swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, then you must needs say that the seed is good; for behold it swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow. And now, behold, will not this strengthen your faith? Yea, it will strengthen your faith: for ye will say I know that this is a good seed; for behold it sprouteth and beginneth to grow.
31 And now, behold, are ye sure that this is a good seed? I say unto you, Yea; for every seed bringeth forth unto its own likeness.
32 Therefore, if a seed groweth it is good, but if it groweth not, behold it is not good, therefore it is cast away.
33 And now, behold, because ye have tried the experiment, and planted the seed, and it swelleth and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, ye must needs know that the seed is good.

Diagram illustrating the procedural methods (Scientific Method) that I follow.

Q. How is your research approach different?

A. I use a formalized and structured methodology, as described in Section 3.1. I also seek increased collaboration leading to consensus, especially for the logical model. I use a database driven approach with software to autocheck the internal consistency of the logical and physical model. I leave nothing out - every physical location and feature from the Book of Mormon is included in the model.

Q. How are your conclusions specifically different?

The proposed physical model (the "master map" in Section 1) is "Zarahemla Centric". Zarahemla is placed across the river (west side) from Nauvoo Illinois, the city of Nephi at St Louis Missouri, the city of Manti a little east of Minneapolis Minnesota, and the city of Bountiful is placed at Sault Ste Marie on the border of Michigan and Ontario Canada.

Q. How are your conclusions the same as other Heartland models?

A. The events described in the Book of Mormon took place in North America. There is only One Hill Cumorah and it is located at the traditional site in New York as described by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery. See also, Section 2.2.1.

Q. I have looked over your ZCHM map and found some things that are different that what is commonly understood. For example, should not Manti be north of Zarahemla and the Sidon flow north instead of south?

A. The ZCHM challenges some basic assumptions that, I believe, have been stumbling blocks for many years. The issues you mention and more are addressed fully on this website, in great detail. That doesn't mean I think the ZCHM is infallible. I am anxious to explore alternative solutions and hope this website will be a catalyst for further discussion and discovery.

Q. In Alma 22, Mormon describes the geography of the Book of Mormon. How does your model reconcile with that?

A. The ZCHM is fully consistent with Alma 22 — after I make major punctuation changes to the long run-on sentences. See Section 4.2 where this is done and explained in detail. Some may say that is "cheating" but I see the punctuation as well intentioned but incorrect, starting with the printer E.B. Grandin. Since the original manuscript was not punctuated, the punctuation is not an inspired part of the text. Also I do not believe Alma 22 can be punctuated to fit just any geography model of choice (but anyone is welcome to try!).

 1.4 The Translation Process
revised: 23 Jul 2020

The Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model (ZCHM) of Book of Mormon geography is based first and foremost directly upon the text of the Book of Mormon — and as close to the original text as possible for technical accuracy (For examples of this see the side-by-side textual comparisons in Section 5.2, Rules of Interpretation, IR2). This is made possible by Royal Skousen's study of the original manuscripts which has resulted in the publication of The Book of Mormon - The Earliest Text. Understanding the Book of Mormon translation process reveals that it was a "tight" translation, which is technically important to know when analyzing the text for geography. A "tight" translation means there should be great respect for the accuracy and the sacred nature of each and every word of the Book of Mormon.

There is much of controversy and conflicting testimony when it comes to the actual translation process. Most of the conflicting information comes from disaffected former members of the Church with a personal agenda to push (like Emma Smith) and with accounts that vary widely from one telling to the next, depending on the audience (like David Whitmer). In truth, only Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery had direct experience with the translation process. Fortunately their testimony is consistent, clear and concise, as in the Wentworth letter5 and other authoritative statements1. Therefore the testimony of Joseph and Oliver must be paramount. They testified the translation was: 1) Done by the power of God; 2) Included reading the golden plates; and 3) Involved the use of the Urim and Thummim -- also called the Holy Interpreters. The only real question in my mind is the role of the Urim and Thummim had in the translation process.

One fact we do know based on testimony and examination of the original manuscripts is that the translation was a one-time dictation1a,1b,1c. Some have argued that a young Joseph Smith had the necessary biblical vocabulary to dictate the Book of Mormon. However, I don't believe this is correct — and almost no one does.

It is also argued, for good reason, that the young Joseph Smith studied2a the language2b of the plates for at least three months2c, was tutored by angelic messengers3 and could actually understand the language on the plates2b based on his own study2d. I do believe this is true based on the historical record and also Section 9 of the Doctrine and Covenants4. However, the idea that Joseph Smith could understand the Reformed Egyptian characters on the plates does not explain a one-time dictation into a complex Biblical style English with no revisions. This is where, in my opinion, the role of the Urim and Thummim5 comes in. I believe that Joseph Smith had a gift of translating the written meaning from the plates into his own mind and then the role of the Urim and Thummim (also called "Interpreters"6) was to interpret (consecutive interpreting) those thoughts into the precise Hebrew-like language constructs and Bible-like vocabulary that is now found in the Book of Mormon.

This concept also explains why it was a one-time dictation instead of the normal multiple attempts required "to get the words right". Multiple attempts and revisions would be needed (double interpretation) for interpreting such a complex text without the aid of the Urim and Thummim. Nobody but nobody, on their own, would get the wording exactly right the very first time with no revision. Only God could do that7 and I believe God did do this via the Urim and Thummim. This was a blessing not only to Joseph Smith but also fulfilled prophecy given by the Lord to the ancient Nephite prophets8.

Thus, I believe the original text of the Book of Mormon to be the ultimate "tight" translation. Every word and every spelling is significant and precise as it came from the lips of Joseph Smith. That is also my experience and testimony as I have studied the text in regard to the geography of the Book of Mormon.


1 See the Wentworth Letter, also Doctrine and Covenants 3:19, 5:4, 10:38-45

1a The work of translation proceeded haltingly through 1828. Joseph’s wife, Emma, and others served as scribes until the spring of 1829, when Oliver Cowdery took over, recording the bulk of the 275,000-word text from Joseph’s dictation, concluding near the end of June 1829, a period of about 60 to 90 days. (see Church History, ChurchOfJesusChrist.org)

1b These were days never to be forgotten-to sit under the sound of a voice dictated by the inspiration of heaven, awakened the utmost gratitude of this bosom! Day after day I continued, uninterrupted, to write from his mouth as he translated" (Messenger and Advocate 1 [Oct. 1834]:14)

1c All witnesses of the translation stated that Joseph Smith dictated the text of the Book of Mormon. This claim is supported by certain errors in the original manuscript which clearly resulted from the scribe mishearing what Joseph had dictated. ... Evidence from the original manuscript supports the traditional belief that Joseph Smith received a revealed text by means of the interpreters. ... In fact, the occurrence of non-English Hebraisms such as the if-and construction strongly suggests that the text was tightly controlled down to the level of the word at least. This tight control is also supported by the consistent phraseology in the original text. And the spelling of names such as Coriantumr suggests that control could be imposed down to the very letter. (How Joseph Smith Translated the Book of Mormon, Royal Skousen, pp 25,30)

2a ...Joseph began to make arrangements to accomplish the translation of the Record; And the first step which he was instructed to take in regard to this matter, was, to take a Fac-Simile of the characters composing the alphabet: which characters were called reformed Egyptian... (Lucy Mack Smith History, 1845, pp 117,122, Joseph Smith Papers)

2b for truth is a matter of fact — and the fact is, by the power of God I translated the book of Mormon from hieroglyphics; the knowledge of which was lost to the world. In which wonderful event, I stood alone, an unlearned youth, to combat the worldly wisdom and multiplied ignorance of eighteen centuries. (James Arlington Bennet letter, Joseph Smith Papers)

2c I commenced copying the characters of all the plates. I copyed a considerable number of them and by means of the Urim and Thummin I translated some of them which I did between the time I arrived at the house of my wife’s father in the month of December, and the February following. (Lucy Mack Smith History, 1845, pp 117,122, Joseph Smith Papers)

2d With "true alphabet" languages, like English, one needs to generally speak the language in order to read it. However, for Pictographic and Logographic writing systems, this is not the case. See below. The "Reformed Egyptian" (Mormon 9:32) of the plates was likely a altered/customized form of the Egyptian Hieratic. The beautiful Egyptian Hieroglyphic's was used for monuments and Hieratic was the everyday "cursive" form, much simpler to write - and designed for parchment. Mormon explains that he used "Reformed Eyptian" that had been altered by the Nephites. One reason it had to be altered is that it was designed to be engraven on metal plates rather than parchment. That it also had to be logographic is clear when Mormon explains it was shorter than the Hebrew (Mormon 9:33).

In context of the Book of Mormon it is useful to understand the basics of the following writing systems

Pictographic/ideographic writing systems:

  • There is no single way to read them, because there is no one-to-one correspondence between symbol and language.
  • Only the author of a text can read it with any certainty, and it may be said that they are interpreted rather than read.
  • Such scripts often work best as mnemonic aids for oral texts, or as outlines that will be fleshed out in speech.
  • - Examples: Aztec, Mixtec, other Mesoamerican writing systems with the exception of Maya Hieroglyphs.

Logographic writing systems

  • Glyphs (A symbol, such as a stylized figure or arrow on a public sign, that imparts information nonverbally) represent words or morphemes (meaningful components of words, as in mean-ing-ful), rather than phonetic elements.
  • No logographic script is composed solely of logograms (A written symbol representing an entire spoken word without expressing its pronunciation; for example, for 4 read “four” in English, “quattro” in Italian.). All contain graphemes that represent phonetic (sound-based) elements as well.
  • Many glyphs are purely phonetic, whereas others function as either logograms or phonetic elements, depending on context.
  • Consonant-based logographies
  • - Examples: Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic – the writing systems of Ancient Egypt.
  • Syllable-based logographies
  • - Examples: Cuneiform, Chinese, Japanese, Mayan.

Abjad writing systems

  • Script containing symbols for consonants only, or where vowels are optionally written with diacritics.
  • - Examples: Arabian, Aramaic, Hebrew.

True Alphabets writing systems

  • A true alphabet contains separate letters (not diacritic marks) for both consonants and vowels..
  • - Examples: Coptic Egyptian, Cyrillic - Eastern Slavic languages, Greek, Latin-Roman (current western and central European languages).

3 And when Joseph Smith was raised up a a Prophet of God, Mormon, Moroni, Nephi and others of the ancient Prophets who formerly lived on this Continent, and Peter and John and others who lived on the Asiatic Continent, came to him and communicated to him certain principles pertaining to the Gospel of the Son of God. (John Taylor, Journal of Discourses, April 8 1875, Vol 17, p 374)

4 (revelation given through Joseph Smith to Oliver Cowdery)
Doctrine and Covenants 9
7 Behold, you have not understood; you have supposed that I would give it unto you, when you took no thought save it was to ask me.
8 But, behold, I say unto you, that you must study it out in your mind; then you must ask me if it be right, and if it is right I will cause that your bosom shall burn within you; therefore, you shall feel that it is right.
9 But if it be not right you shall have no such feelings, but you shall have a stupor of thought that shall cause you to forget the thing which is wrong; therefore, you cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me.
10 Now, if you had known this you could have translated; nevertheless, it is not expedient that you should translate now. (Doctrine and Covenants, 9:7-10).

5 "With the records was found a curious instrument, which the ancients called 'Urim and Thummim', which consisted of two transparent stones set in the rim of a bow fastened to a breast plate. Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift and power of God" (Joseph Smith, Wentworth Letter, History of the Church, 4:537).

6 5 Wherefore the Lord hath commanded me to write them; and I have written them. And he commanded me that I should seal them up; and he also hath commanded that I should seal up the interpretation thereof; wherefore I have sealed up the interpreters, according to the commandment of the Lord. (Book of Mormon, Ether 4:5).

7 2 And also, that I may remember the promises which I have made unto thee, Nephi, and also unto thy father, that I would remember your seed; and that the words of your seed should proceed forth out of my mouth unto your seed; and my words shall hiss forth unto the ends of the earth, for a standard unto my people, which are of the house of Israel; (Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 29:2).

8 Ether 12:
23 And I said unto him: Lord, the Gentiles will mock at these things, because of our weakness in writing; for Lord thou hast made us mighty in word by faith, but thou hast not made us mighty in writing; for thou hast made all this people that they could speak much, because of the Holy Ghost which thou hast given them;
24 And thou hast made us that we could write but little, because of the awkwardness of our hands. Behold, thou hast not made us mighty in writing like unto the brother of Jared, for thou madest him that the things which he wrote were mighty even as thou art, unto the overpowering of man to read them.
25 Thou hast also made our words powerful and great, even that we cannot write them; wherefore, when we write we behold our weakness, and stumble because of the placing of our words; and I fear lest the Gentiles shall mock at our words.
26 And when I had said this, the Lord spake unto me, saying: Fools mock, but they shall mourn; and my grace is sufficient for the meek, that they shall take no advantage of your weakness; (Book of Mormon, Ether 12:23-26).

 1.5 Recommended Videos
revised: 30 Apr 2020

Here is a summary list of recommended video's from this site and elsewhere, regarding the historical Book of Mormon and events leading up to it's publication.


Summary list of recommended videos

"Videos relating to the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model of the Book of Mormon.
Activities of the Heartland Research Group to discover and map out the ancient city of Zarahemla is on. Join in the effort!
Archeaological findings and evidence of Nephite civilization in and around the city of Zarahemla.
Additional videos relevant to the Book of Mormon and the restoration of the Church.
 2 North America Setting
 2.1 Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model Map
revised: 15 Apr 2020

The Book of Mormon peoples and events must be located in North America in order to be compatible with scripture and with the teachings of the prophet Joseph Smith. This basic premise is known as "Heartland Theory" and has rapidly gained acceptance as more people learn about ancient North American cultures, the content of the Book of Mormon, Gods covenant with the land of North America, and the teachings of the prophet Joseph Smith.

This website presents a Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model map for North America. There are four main reasons for being "Zarahemla Centric":

  1. The Book of Mormon says that the city of Zarahemla was a "great" city and the "capital city" in the "heart" and "center" of the land. (
    Helaman 1:16-33Helaman 1
    16 Therefore, the king of the Lamanites, whose name was Tubaloth, who was the son of Ammoron, supposing that Coriantumr, being a mighty man, could stand against the Nephites, with his strength and also with his great wisdom, insomuch that by sending him forth he should gain power over the Nephites--
    17 Therefore he did stir them up to anger, and he did gather together his armies, and he did appoint Coriantumr to be their leader, and did cause that they should march down to the land of Zarahemla to battle against the Nephites.
    18 And it came to pass that because of so much contention and so much difficulty in the government, that they had not kept sufficient guards in the land of Zarahemla; for they had supposed that the Lamanites durst not come into the heart of their lands to attack that great city Zarahemla.
    19 But it came to pass that Coriantumr did march forth at the head of his numerous host, and came upon the inhabitants of the city, and their march was with such exceedingly great speed that there was no time for the Nephites to gather together their armies.
    20 Therefore Coriantumr did cut down the watch by the entrance of the city, and did march forth with his whole army into the city, and they did slay every one who did oppose them, insomuch that they did take possession of the whole city.
    21 And it came to pass that Pacumeni, who was the chief judge, did flee before Coriantumr, even to the walls of the city. And it came to pass that Coriantumr did smite him against the wall, insomuch that he died. And thus ended the days of Pacumeni.
    22 And now when Coriantumr saw that he was in possession of the city of Zarahemla, and saw that the Nephites had fled before them, and were slain, and were taken, and were cast into prison, and that he had obtained the possession of the strongest hold in all the land, his heart took courage insomuch that he was about to go forth against all the land.
    23 And now he did not tarry in the land of Zarahemla, but he did march forth with a large army, even towards the city of Bountiful; for it was his determination to go forth and cut his way through with the sword, that he might obtain the north parts of the land.
    24 And, supposing that their greatest strength was in the center of the land, therefore he did march forth, giving them no time to assemble themselves together save it were in small bodies; and in this manner they did fall upon them and cut them down to the earth.
    25 But behold, this march of Coriantumr through the center of the land gave Moronihah great advantage over them, notwithstanding the greatness of the number of the Nephites who were slain.
    26 For behold, Moronihah had supposed that the Lamanites durst not come into the center of the land, but that they would attack the cities round about in the borders as they had hitherto done; therefore Moronihah had caused that their strong armies should maintain those parts round about by the borders.
    27 But behold, the Lamanites were not frightened according to his desire, but they had come into the center of the land, and had taken the capital city which was the city of Zarahemla, and were marching through the most capital parts of the land, slaying the people with a great slaughter, both men, women, and children, taking possession of many cities and of many strongholds.
    28 But when Moronihah had discovered this, he immediately sent forth Lehi with an army round about to head them before they should come to the land Bountiful.
    29 And thus he did; and he did head them before they came to the land Bountiful, and gave unto them battle, insomuch that they began to retreat back towards the land of Zarahemla.
    30 And it came to pass that Moronihah did head them in their retreat, and did give unto them battle, insomuch that it became an exceedingly bloody battle; yea, many were slain, and among the number who were slain Coriantumr was also found.
    31 And now, behold, the Lamanites could not retreat either way, neither on the north, nor on the south, nor on the east, nor on the west, for they were surrounded on every hand by the Nephites.
    32 And thus had Coriantumr plunged the Lamanites into the midst of the Nephites, insomuch that they were in the power of the Nephites, and he himself was slain, and the Lamanites did yield themselves into the hands of the Nephites.
    33 And it came to pass that Moronihah took possession of the city of Zarahemla again, and caused that the Lamanites who had been taken prisoners should depart out of the land in peace.
    )
  2. Zarahemla is easily mentioned more times (139 verses, 424 occurrences) than any other place-name in the Book of Mormon, indicating its key role in the Book of Mormon narrative from 280 BC onward.
  3. Zarahemla is identified specifically in the Doctrine and Covenants (
    Doctrine and Covenants 125:2-3Doctrine and Covenants 125
    2 Verily, thus saith the Lord, I say unto you, if those who call themselves by my name and are essaying to be my saints, if they will do my will and keep my commandments concerning them, let them gather themselves together unto the places which I shall appoint unto them by my servant Joseph, and build up cities unto my name, that they may be prepared for that which is in store for a time to come.
    3 Let them build up a city unto my name upon the land opposite the city of Nauvoo, and let the name of Zarahemla be named upon it.
    ) as being across the river from Nauvoo so this initial placement, combined with reason #2, is the anchor point for the Physical Model. See "Zarahemla" in Section 2.2.3 regarding the interpretation of Doctrine & Covenants 125:2-3. Many gainsay this scripture out of "stiffneckedness and unbelief", however, consider this: The Lord Himself has instructed His saints to call this location Zarahemla.
  4. It turns out that placing Zarahemla in the center and accross from Nauvoo is the only approach that works perfectly with the Logical Model as presented in Section 3.

 2.2 LDS Doctrinal Considerations
 2.2.1 The Book of Mormon in North America
revised: 29 July 2020
I have recently completed enough of this project online to invite others to review Book of Mormon Covenant Lands. Two published authors in this subject graciously agreed to take a look. One was Jonathan Neville. Jonathan has written many books on the Book of Mormon (my two favorites are The Lost City of Zarahemla and Letter VII) and authors a popular Book of Mormon blog. The second person, Brant Gardner, is also a Book of Mormon book author and author at FairMormon, an LDS apologetics site.


There is in the church now a great divide between those who: A) believe the narrative history of the Book of Mormon occurred in North America, USA/Canada (I call it N1C); and B) those who believe it occurred in Mesoamerica (called M2C). The M2C position is that there must be two hill Cumorah’s and that the hill Cumorah of the Book of Mormon is really located somewhere in Mesoamerica.

To deflect criticism or controversy it is sometimes argued that “geography doesn’t really make any difference” regarding the Book of Mormon. However, the Book of Mormon contains prophecies, warnings, and special covenants that apply to the land of the Book of Mormon and the people who inhabit it.

The question of N1C vs M2C is now a litmus test between Book of Mormon researchers (BTW, Jonathan Neville is N1C and Brant Gardner is M2C). If you are N1C then you are immediately suspect by M2C proponents in anything you write or propose about the Book of Mormon. Also vice-versa. Most M2C groups, when challenged, will claim to be neutral on the question of Book of Mormon geography. However, while M2C models are documented, they avoid presenting information on N1C geographic models, archaeological discoveries, or writings.

I find that FairMormon makes a claim to be neutral, but fails. They are N1C hostile, sometimes openly, but more often by just ignoring and suppressing N1C information.

Book of Mormon Central claims to be neutral, but in practice they are not. For example, their logo still contains a Mayan glyph. They exclude N1C information and perspectives and argue against anything N1C. Book of Mormon Central is owned by Book of Mormon Archaeological Forum (bmaf.org) whose mission statement is to promote the Book of Mormon as an “ancient Mayan codex“.

BYU Studies is a bastion of the M2C. They lead the charge and make no claim to neutrality in their policies. Their first “key objective” is to include only “authors who share the same goals and objectives as we do”, which in general is fine but for N1C that means “not welcome”.

My Book of Mormon Logical Model and Map declares that I am definitively of the N1C persuasion. The reason is not primarily because of geography or maps. It’s doctrinal. The scriptures declare it. The prophets declare it. The M2C people will say “the scriptures are not definitive” and the prophets only did “the best they could with what they knew” but just weren’t privy “to the additional information that scholars have since determined”. They say “it’s the science of archaeology that counts” and trumps all other considerations, and “not everything the prophets say is doctrine so I am not obligated to accept it”. It is not hyperbole for me to say that all of this is the consensus opinion of the M2C folks from my own personal experience. I disagree with it totally.

I have been alive long enough to see that “the sciences” are a moving target, always shifting and changing by definition. Not a foundation to build upon when the rains come and the winds blow. The M2C position is, in my opinion, untenable. By the standard of following only the sciences, the M2C boosters should abandon M2C because the overwhelming consensus of non-LDS archaeologists, the leading experts in Mesoamerican archaeology, is negative. They think it is a joke. They say the written language doesn’t match, the evidence on the ground doesn’t match, the animals don’t match, and the timelines don’t match up either. They say the decline of Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica is between the 8th and 9th centuries at the end of the Classic Maya Period, and that pre-classic Maya experienced a similar collapse in the 2nd century. None of this matches up with Book of Mormon time-lines. Not. Even. Close.

Most of the membership of the Church doesn’t buy into M2C, with it’s 2-Cumorah requirement, either. They trend to believing the prophets and the scriptures and Joseph Smith (e.g. the Wentworth letter) and they don’t read “academic” books and papers, especially those members who live outside the US. So now the M2C folks are arrayed against the scientific establishment, the lay members of the church, the Prophets, and the Scriptures. It’s what I mean by being “untenable”.

One of the most serious issues is the censoring and altering the words of the prophets in church publications and manuals. This is caused, I believe, by M2C tainted editors who are promoting their M2C worldview. It is not a systemic policy but it happens. What follows below is an egregious example. Simply deplorable.

Teachings of the Presidents, Brigham Young Manual,
Chapter 47: President Brigham Young's Witness of the Prophet Joseph Smith
Original talk by Brigham Young, delivered June 21 1874,
Journal of Discourses Vol. 18  p. 239
When Joseph first received the knowledge of the plates that were in the hill Cumorah, he did not then receive the keys of the Aaronic Priesthood, he merely received the knowledge that the plates were there, and that the Lord would bring them forth. ... He received the knowledge that [early inhabitants of the Americas] were once in possession of the Gospel, and from that time he went on, step by step, until he obtained the plates, and the Urim and Thummim and had power to translate them. When Joseph first received the knowledge of the plates that were in the hill Cumorah, he did not then receive the keys of the Aaronic Priesthood, he merely received the knowledge that the plates were there, and that the Lord would bring them forth, and that they contained the history of the aborigines of this country. He received the knowledge that they were once in possession of the Gospel, and from that time he went on, step by step, until he obtained the plates, and the Urim and Thummim and had power to translate them.

When Joseph Smith wrote the Wentworth Letter, he made this request:

At the request of Mr. John Wentworth, Editor and Proprietor of the Chicago Democrat, I have written the following sketch of the rise, progress, persecution, and faith of the Latter-day Saints, of which I have the honor, under God, of being the founder. Mr. Wentworth says that he wishes to furnish Mr. Barstow, a friend of his, who is writing the history of New Hampshire, with this document. As Mr. Barstow has taken the proper steps to obtain correct information, all that I shall ask at his hands, is, that he publish the account entire, ungarnished, and without misrepresentation."

Unfortunately, many church publications do not honor Joseph's request by publishing the entire account but instead use a censored version the Wentworth letter and intentionally removing just the following lines to obfuscate Joseph Smith's statement about Jaredites and Nephites being from America, "this country":

The Teachings of Joseph Smith, Priesthood Manual, p 441 The Encylopedia of Mormonism, 1992, Wentworth Letter, Appendix 12
Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift and power of God.
... This book ... tells us that our Savior made His appearance upon this continent after His resurrection; that He planted the Gospel here in all its fulness, and richness, and power, and blessing; that they had Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, and Evangelists, the same order, the same priesthood, the same ordinances, gifts, powers, and blessings, as were enjoyed on the eastern continent; that the people were cut off in consequence of their transgressions; that the last of their prophets who existed among them was commanded to write an abridgment of their prophecies, history, etc., and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should come forth and be united with the Bible for the accomplishment of the purposes of God in the last days.
Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift and power of God.
In this important and interesting book the history of ancient America is unfolded, from its first settlement by a colony that came from the Tower of Babel, at the confusion of languages to the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. We are informed by these records that America in ancient times has been inhabited by two distinct races of people. The first were called Jaredites, and came directly from the tower of Babel. The second race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred years before Christ. They were principally Israelites, of the descendants of Joseph. The Jaredites were destroyed about the time that the Israelites came from Jerusalem, who succeeded them in the inheritance of the country. The principal nation of the second race fell in battle towards the close of the fourth century. The remnant are the Indians that now inhabit this country.
This book also tells us that our Savior made His appearance upon this continent after His resurrection; that He planted the Gospel here in all its fulness, and richness, and power, and blessing; that they had Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, and Evangelists, the same order, the same priesthood, the same ordinances, gifts, powers, and blessings, as were enjoyed on the eastern continent; that the people were cut off in consequence of their transgressions; that the last of their prophets who existed among them was commanded to write an abridgment of their prophecies, history, etc., and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should come forth and be united with the Bible for the accomplishment of the purposes of God in the last days.

And so, because of surreptitious M2C editing and M2C stealth promotion, many members are unaware of the teachings of the prophets, and so the M2C position can seem okay to those who buy the books etc. — but I maintain that to contradict the clear pattern of what the of prophets and the scriptures have taught is out of step, doctrinally, with what the Book of Mormon teaches:

2 Nephi 9:28-29,4
28 O that cunning plan of the evil one! O the vainness, and the frailties, and the foolishness of men! When they are learned they think they are wise, and they hearken not unto the counsel of God, for they set it aside, supposing they know of themselves, wherefore, their wisdom is foolishness and it profiteth them not. And they shall perish.
29 But to be learned is good if they hearken unto the counsels of God.
42 And whoso knocketh, to him will he open; and the wise, and the learned, and they that are rich, who are puffed up because of their learning, and their wisdom, and their riches–yea, they are they whom he despiseth; and save they shall cast these things away, and consider themselves fools before God, and come down in the depths of humility, he will not open unto them.

The above scripture is harsher than I would dare to be, so I just quote it. I don’t think it would be right to do less. Also, consider that Jesus “upbraided” some of His Apostles for their initial unbelief of the testimonies of his resurrection. Upbraided means “chastised” and “severely criticized”. So, in fairness to the dedicated M2C people they are in good company, but if they are wise they will repent their ways as the ancient Apostles did.

Mark 1
14 Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

“Stiff neckedness and unbelief” also held back the early Apostles from understanding about the “other sheep”:

3 Nephi 15
11 And now it came to pass that when Jesus had spoken these words, he said unto those twelve whom he had chosen:
12 Ye are my disciples; and ye are a light unto this people, who are a remnant of the house of Joseph.
13 And behold, this is the land of your inheritance; and the Father hath given it unto you.
14 And not at any time hath the Father given me commandment that I should tell it unto your brethren at Jerusalem.
15 Neither at any time hath the Father given me commandment that I should tell unto them concerning the other tribes of the house of Israel, whom the Father hath led away out of the land.
16 This much did the Father command me, that I should tell unto them:
17 That other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.
18 And now, because of
stiffneckedness and unbelief they understood not my word; therefore I was commanded to say no more of the Father concerning this thing unto them.

In support of my position I quote President Oaks below. The complete talk is available here.

I maintain that the issue of the historicity of the Book of Mormon is basically a difference between those who rely exclusively on scholarship and those who rely on a combination of scholarship, faith, and revelation. Those who rely exclusively on scholarship reject revelation and fulfill Nephi's prophecy that in the last days men shall teach with their learning, and deny the Holy Ghost, which giveth utterance... (2 Ne. 28:4).

— Dallin H. Oaks, 29 October 1993, The Historicity of the Book of Mormon


Now that I have quoted President Oaks, I could probably end this post and be done. However, I also want to document just how strong the case for N1C really is. It is far stronger than most realize, and is definitively not limited to any one “opinion” but is backed up by many prophets, many scriptures, authoritative accounts, and word of the LORD himself. Below are significant testimonies that I have chosen to share because they transcend “opinion”.



The scriptures below indicate missionaries being sent to the “Lamanites” in Missouri. In the Doctrine and Covenants, the city of the future New Jerusalem mentioned by the prophet Ether is also identified as being in Missouri. These are canonized scriptures, with the Lord speaking in the first person and should not be construed by faithful members of the church as “just” the opinion of Joseph Smith. Because of the taint of M2C some LDS visitors centers have labeled the mission as “missionaries sent to the Indians” to obfuscate the reference to Lamanites in Missouri. Some visitors centers have also employed Mayan glyphs in their portrayals.

For more information on these first missionaries of the church, I recommend Lamanites in North America.

Doctrine and Covenants  10
45 Behold, there are many things engraven upon the plates of Nephi which do throw greater views upon my gospel; therefore, it is wisdom in me that you should translate this first part of the engravings of Nephi, and send forth in this work.
46 And, behold, all the remainder of this work does contain all those parts of my gospel which my holy prophets, yea, and also my disciples, desired in their prayers should come forth unto this people.
47 And I said unto them, that it should be granted unto them according to their faith in their prayers;
48 Yea, and this was their faith–that my gospel, which I gave unto them that they might preach in their days, might come unto their brethren
the Lamanites, and also all that had become Lamanites because of their dissensions.
49 Now, this is not all–their faith in their prayers was that this gospel should be made known also, if it were possible that other nations should possess this land;
50 And thus
they did leave a blessing upon this land in their prayers, that whosoever should believe in this gospel in this land might have eternal life;
51 Yea, that it might be free unto all of whatsoever nation, kindred, tongue, or people they may be.
52 And now, behold, according to their faith in their prayers will I bring this part of my gospel to the knowledge of my people. Behold, I do not bring it to destroy that which they have received, but to build it up.

Doctrine and Covenants 28:9
9 And now, behold, I say unto you that it is not revealed, and no man knoweth where the city Zion shall be built, but it shall be given hereafter. Behold, I say unto you that it shall be on the borders by the Lamanites.

Doctrine and Covenants 28:14
14 And thou shalt assist to settle all these things, according to the covenants of the church, before
thou shalt take thy journey among the Lamanites.

Doctrine and Covenants 54:8
8 And thus you shall take your journey into the regions westward,
unto the land of Missouri, unto the borders of the Lamanites.

Doctrine and Covenants 84
2 Yea, the word of the Lord concerning his church, established in the last days for the restoration of his people, as he has spoken by the mouth of his prophets, and for the gathering of his saints to stand upon Mount Zion, which shall be the city of New Jerusalem.
3 Which city shall be built, beginning at the temple lot, which is appointed by the finger of the Lord, in the
western boundaries of the State of Missouri, and dedicated by the hand of Joseph Smith, Jun., and others with whom the Lord was well pleased.

Ether 13
3 And that it was the place of the
New Jerusalem, which should come down out of heaven, and the holy sanctuary of the Lord.
4 Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning
a New Jerusalem upon this land.

DC 84
2 Yea, the word of the Lord concerning his church, established in the last days for the restoration of his people, as he has spoken by the mouth of his prophets, and for the gathering of his saints to stand upon Mount Zion, which shall be the city of
New Jerusalem.
3 Which city shall be built, beginning at the temple lot, which is appointed by the finger of the Lord, in the
western boundaries of the State of Missouri, and dedicated by the hand of Joseph Smith, Jun. , and others with whom the Lord was well pleased.

The scriptures above may seem conclusive however M2C proponents say that some church leaders have occasionally referred to Mesoamericans, South Americans and Pacific Islanders as being of Lamanite descent (and I don’t doubt that) so therefore, they say, “Lamanites can be anywhere” and therefore the scriptures cited “don’t mean anything specific”.

However, these first missionaries carried the message that the Book of Mormon was all about the forefathers of the “aboriginal inhabitants” of “this country” (Wentworth letter). When the missionaries took the Book of Mormon to the Lamanites the message from the Lord was that its history applied to this land (DC 10:49,50). This country or this land means whatever the land or country the hearer is from and not the “entire hemisphere” — despite M2C related sophistry.

Oliver Cowdery's Speech to the Delaware Indians about the Book of Mormon

Thousands of moons ago, when the red men's forefathers dwelt in peace and possessed this whole land, the Great Spirit talked with them, and revealed His law and His will, and much knowledge to their wise men and prophets. This they wrote in a Book; together with their history, and the things which should befall their children in the latter days. This Book was written on plates of gold, and handed down from father to son for many ages and generations. It was then that the people prospered, and were strong and mighty; they cultivated the earth; built buildings and cities, and abounded in all good things, as the pale faces now do. But they became wicked: they killed one another and shed much blood; they killed their prophets and wise men, and sought to destroy the Book. The great Spirit became angry, and would speak to them no more; they had no more good and wise dreams ; no more visions ; no more angels sent among them by the Great Spirit; and the Lord commanded Mormon and Moroni, their last wise men and prophets, to hide the Book in the earth, that it might be preserved in safety, and be found and made known in the latter day to the pale faces who should possess the land; that they might again make it known to the red man; in order to restore them to the knowledge of the will of the Great Spirit and to His favor. ... The Book, which contained these things, was hid in the earth by Moroni, in a hill called by him, Cumorah, which hill is now in the State of New York, near the village of Palmyra, in Ontario county.

Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt


I include a quote from Joseph Fielding Smith below because he speaks directly to the N1C vs M2C issue. Of course the M2C folks won’t accept Joseph Fielding Smith on this issue. They gainsay his teachings.

This modernistic theory of necessity, in order to be consistent, must place the waters of Ripliancum and the Hill Cumorah some place within the restricted territory of Central America, notwithstanding the teachings of the Church to the contrary for upwards of 100 years. Because of this theory some members of the Church have become confused and greatly disturbed in their faith in the Book of Mormon. It is for this reason that evidence is here presented to show that it is not only possible that these places could be located as the Church has held during the past century, but that in very deed such is the case.

Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, Volume3, Chapter 12, pp 592-597


I include Mark E. Peterson, Marion G. Romney, and Gordon B. Hinckley below because their statements were made publicly in General Conference while teaching in their official capacity as Apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Mark E Petersen, The Last Words of Moroni, October 1978
Quotes from General Conference talk

Moroni came back from the dead, a resurrected man! He had lived in America some fifteen hundred years ago and was the sole survivor of his people in a series of tragic battles which took many lives.

As the fighting neared its end, Mormon gathered the remnant of his forces about a hill which they called Cumorah, located in what is now the western part of the state of New York. Their enemies, known as Lamanites, came against them on this hill.

When finished with the record, Moroni was to hide it up in that same Hill Cumorah which was their battlefield. It would come forth in modern times as the Book of Mormon, named after Moroni's father, the historian who compiled it.

Mormon then wrote directly to us as modern Americans who now occupy this promised land and said: How can ye stand before the power of God, except ye shall repent and turn from your evil ways?

Marion G Romney, America's Destiny, October 1975
Quotes from General Conference talk

Millennia ago he [Jesus] declared: There shall none come into this land, he was speaking of America, save they shall be brought by the hand of the Lord.

It is my purpose in making these remarks to point out from the record of ancient inhabitants of America that the foregoing decrees have been carried out.

In the western part of the state of New York near Palmyra is a prominent hill known as the hill Cumorah.... (Mormon 6:6) On July twenty-fifth of this year, as I stood on the crest of that hill admiring with awe the breathtaking panorama which stretched out before me on every hand, my mind reverted to the events which occurred in that vicinity some twenty-five centuries ago — events which brought to an end the great Jaredite nation.

For behold, this is a land which is choice above all other lands; wherefore he that doth possess it shall serve God or shall be swept off; for it is the everlasting decree of God.... (Ether 2:7-10)

Pursuant to this decree concerning the land of America, the Jaredites were swept off in the manner we have reviewed, because, rebelling against the laws of Jesus Christ — the God of the land — they ripened in iniquity....

This second civilization to which I refer, the Nephites, flourished in America between 600 B.C. and A.D. 400. Their civilization came to an end for the same reason, at the same place, and in the same manner as did the Jaredites'.


Gordon B Hinckley,
An Angel from on High, the Long, Long Silence Broke, October 1979
Quotes from General Conference talk

We in this good land of America are now hearing much debate concerning the treaty designed to reduce the likelihood of nuclear attack on this continent. There is much talk of a balance of power and of a balance of terror. In the context of this current discussion I should like to read to you what the God of heaven said long ago concerning this land as recorded in the book of which we are speaking: Behold, this is a choice land , and whatsoever nation shall possess it shall be free from bondage, and from captivity, and from all other nations under heaven, if they will but serve the God of the land, who is Jesus Christ... (Ether 2:12).

Gordon B Hinckley, October Conference, 1979

I include a letter in response to an inquiry regarding the location of the hill Cumorah. The letter was sent by the Secretary to the First Presidency with instructions from the First Presidency.


Letter from the Office of the First Presidency,
written by Secretary F. Michael Watson, October 16, 1990

Dear Bishop Brooks:

I have been asked to forward to you for acknowledgment and handling the enclosed copy of a letter to President Gordon B. Hinckley from Ronnie Sparks of your ward. Brother Sparks inquired about the location of the Hill Cumorah mentioned in the Book of Mormon, where the last battle between the Nephites and Lamanites took place.

The Church has long maintained, as attested to by references in the writings of General Authorities, that the Hill Cumorah in western New York state is the same as referenced in the Book of Mormon.

The Brethren appreciate your assistance in responding to this inquiry, and asked that you convey to Brother Sparks their commendation for his gospel study.

Sincerely yours,
F. Michael Watson
Secretary to the First Presidency


The following quote from L. Tom Perry shows that N1C is still relevant in more recent times. The church leaders give the “academics” all the rope and latitude they ask for and demand – while still themselves teaching the scriptures, the Prophets, and the N1C perspective.

The Tradition of Light and Testimony

The United States is the promised land foretold in the Book of Mormon — a place where divine guidance directed inspired men to create the conditions necessary for the Restoration of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It was the birth of the United States of America that ushered out the Great Apostasy, when the earth was darkened by the absence of prophets and revealed light. It was no coincidence that the lovely morning of the First Vision occurred just a few decades after the establishment of the United States.

From a devotional address delivered on January 24, 2012, at Brigham Young University Idaho.


And there is more of evidence for N1C.

In contrast, zero prophets and zero scriptures testify in behalf of M2C.



Postscript:
A disingenuous M2C argument is “there is no archaeological evidence for the Book of Mormon in North America”. What this often means is “we don’t see any ancient stone temples in North America”. I don’t understand this because it is a fact that the Book of Mormon does not mention any such thing.

However, when early settlers came to America they found hundreds of thousands of mounds, massive earthworks, and old fortifications long ago abandoned. A number of these were carefully documented in Smithsonian field surveys and published in 1848 as Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. Personal histories and newspaper accounts are common that describe the artifacts, earthworks, and mass burials that were found by the early settlers.

For information on Book of Mormon archaeology in North America a good place to start is LDS Archaeology.

Below is Heber C Kimball’s experience near the hill Cumorah. It is not atypical.

“In the towns of Bloomfield, Victor, Manchester, and in the regions round about, there were hills upon the tops of which were entrenchments and fortifications, and in them were human bones, axes, tomahawks, points of arrows, beads and pipes, which were frequently found; and it was a common occurrence in the country to plow up axes, which I have done many times myself. I have visited the fortifications on the tops of these hills frequently… The hill Cumorah is a high hill for that country and had the appearance of a fortification or entrenchment around it. In the State of New York, probably there are hundreds of these fortifications which are now visible, and I have seen them in many other parts of the United States.”

Life of Heber C. Kimball, p. 49

 2.2.2 Location of the Hill Cumorah
revised: 26 Jun 2020

Modern day prophets have repeatedly and recently said that the United States is the promised land mentioned in the Book of Mormon. For example:

1 Nephi 2
20 And inasmuch as ye shall keep my commandments, ye shall prosper, and shall be led to a land of promise; yea, even a land which I have prepared for you; yea, a land which is choice above all other lands.

1 Nephi 22
7 And it meaneth that the time cometh that after all the house of Israel have been scattered and confounded, that the Lord God will raise up a mighty nation among the Gentiles, yea, even upon the face of this land; and by them shall our seed be scattered.

L. Tom Perry, "The Tradition of Light and Testimony", January 23, 2012
The United States is the promised land foretold in the Book of Mormon, a place where divine guidance directed inspired men to create the conditions necessary for the Restoration of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It was the birth of the United States of America that ushered out the Great Apostasy, when the earth was darkened by the absence of prophets and revealed light. It was no coincidence that the lovely morning of the First Vision occurred just a few decades after the establishment of the United States.

Even in the case of specific locations, there is one clear exception to "no official position". In my opinion it is the Hill Cumorah. The clearly stated position of modern Prophets, Seers, and Revelators has always been that the Hill Cumorah mentioned in the Book of Mormon is the same as the traditional site that Joseph Smith identified in northern New York State where he received the plates. Joseph Fielding Smith wrote extensively about this. James E. Talmadge, LeGrande Richards, B.H. Roberts, Bruce R McConkie, Marion G. Romney, George Albert Smith, Orson Pratt, and the Dedicatory Prayer of the Angel Moroni Monument have all indicated that the Book of Mormon events occurring at the "Hill Cumorah" is the same site in upper New York where Joseph Smith received the plates.

My faith is to believe in the words of the Prophets. Oliver Cowdery and Joseph Smith himself in their written histories referred to the locale of the final Nephite battles to be at the New York Hill Cumorah.

Doctrine and Covenants 128
And again, what do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah! Moroni, an angel from heaven, declaring the fulfilment of the prophets--the book to be revealed. ...

According to Lucy Mack Smith, it was the angel Moroni who first identified the hill with the plates as the "Hill of Cumorah" the first time he appeared to Joseph Smith. Was Lucy just "backfilling" in this information after the fact? There is no good reason, no evidence whatever for not accepting Lucy's statment at face value. Her testimony and recollection is simply in line with everyone else's understanding. Joseph Smith had kept his family informed, per the angels instructions. They were intensely interested and supportive.

Lucy Mack Smith History
[angel Moroni] "There is a record for you and Joseph, when you have learned to keep the commandments of God but you cannot get it until you learn to keep the commandments of God, for it is not to get gain for, but it is to bring forth that light and intelligence which has been long lost in the Earth. Now Joseph beware, when you go to get the plates your mind will be filled with darkness and all manner of evil will rush into your mind to keep you from keeping the commandments of God that you may not succeed in doing his work, and you must tell your father of this for he will believe every word you say. The record is on a side hill, on the Hill of Cumorah, 3 miles from this place. Remove the grass and moss and you will find a large flat stone. Pry that up and you will find the record under it laying on 4 pillars of cement." Then the angel left him.

See also N1C vs M2C

Letter VII
Written by Oliver Cowdery and published in the Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate with Joseph Smith's approval and assistance, Letter VII identifies in detail that the hill Cumorah in New York is the same hill Cumorah of the Book of Mormon.

See "History, 1834–1836," p. 86, The Joseph Smith Papers, https://www.josephsmithpapers.org/paper-summary/history-1834-1836/90

 2.2.3 Location of Zarahemla
revised: 06 Feb 2019

The location of Zarahemla is a starting point in constructing the Physical Model. The precise location of the city of Zarahemla is known thanks to Joseph Smith's writings and modern revelation. It starts with the understanding that Zarahemla is in Iowa across the river from Nauvoo, Illinois.

Doctrine and Covenants 125:2-3
1 What is the will of the Lord concerning the saints in the Territory of Iowa? ...
2 Verily, thus saith the Lord, I say unto you, if those who call themselves by my name and are essaying to be my saints, if they will do my will and keep my commandments concerning them, let them gather themselves together unto the places which I shall appoint unto them by my servant Joseph, and build up cities unto my name, that they may be prepared for that which is in store for a time to come.
3 Let them build up a city unto my name upon the land opposite the city of Nauvoo, and let the name of Zarahemla be named upon it.

So, according to the word of the Lord, the land opposite from Nauvoo is supposed to be called Zarahemla. Some may argue that Section 125 doesn't mean it was the same Zarahemla as the Book of Mormon Zarahemla, but the Lord doesn't designate names for places without a reason. In this case, I would say that Occam's Razor certainly applies, which means that the simpler explanation is the one that should be taken. In fact, there is no other good explanation for it. This interpretation is also compatible with a consistent scriptural pattern of Deity specifying proper names as a teaching device. For example, see Luke 1:11-14,57-64, Matthew 1:20-21, and DC 116:1. Another worthy argument for this interpretation is that the Lord does does not deceive or confuse. Therefore, if it was not the original Zarahemla I believe He would have indicated that in scripture by calling it by some other name or by saying the "New" Zarahemla as He did with the "New" Jerusalem as consistently mentioned in the Doctrine And Covenants and Book of Mormon both.

Ether 13:4
4 Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning a New Jerusalem upon this land.
5 And he spake also concerning the house of Israel, and the Jerusalem from whence Lehi should come--after it should be destroyed it should be built up again, a holy city unto the Lord; wherefore, it could not be a new Jerusalem for it had been in a time of old; but it should be built up again, and become a holy city of the Lord; and it should be built unto the house of Israel.
6 And that a New Jerusalem should be built up upon this land, unto the remnant of the seed of Joseph, for which things there has been a type.

The Church had a lot of land holdings in Zarahemla before the trek west.
Lands purchased in Zarahemla, 1839
 2.3 Joseph Smith
revised: 26 Jun 2020

The Prophet Joseph Smith knew all about the ancient lands of the Book of Mormon and Latter-day Saints should take the Joseph Smith at his word. He is not only a prophet, he is THE Prophet and Seer of the latter days. Joseph Smith knew all about Book of Mormon civilizations, their customs, and the location of their lands. In the famous Wentworth letter, written directly by Joseph Smith, he states:

Wentworth Letter

Joseph Smith, Wentworth Letter
I was also informed concerning the aboriginal inhabitants of this country, and shown who they were, and from whence they came; a brief sketch of their origin, progress, civilization, laws, governments, of their righteousness and iniquity, and the blessings of God being finally withdrawn from them as a people was made known unto me: I was also told where there was deposited some plates on which were engraven an abridgment of the records of the ancient prophets that had existed on this continent. The angel appeared to me three times the same night and unfolded the same things. ...

So here we have the angel Moroni himself informing Joseph about his people, "the aboriginal inhabitants of this country". Not once, but three times repeated in one night. That seems pretty clear. Note especially that Joseph was not just told about the ancient inhabitants of this land but also "shown".

A careful reading of the Joseph Smiths History account of what happened the next morning also reveals that Moroni did not just talk to the young Joseph at this time but also "unfolded" to him visions:

Joseph Smith History
I left the field, and went to the place where the messenger had told me the plates were deposited; and owing to the distinctness of the vision which I had had concerning it, I knew the place the instant that I arrived there.

Urim and Thummim

Doctrine and Covenants 130:6
The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth; But they reside in the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire, where all things for their glory are manifest, past, present, and future, and are continually before the Lord. The place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim. ...

Joseph Knight
"He (Joseph Smith) seemed to think more of the glasses or the Urim and Thummim than he did of the plates for says he, I can see anything. They are Marvelous."

Mosiah 8:13
Now Ammon said unto him: I can assuredly tell thee, O king, of a man that can translate the records; for he has wherewith that he can look, and translate all records that are of ancient date; and it is a gift from God. And the things are called interpreters, and no man can look in them except he be commanded, lest he should look for that he ought not and he should perish. And whosoever is commanded to look in them, the same is called seer.



Artist rendition of Urim and Thummim based on accounts of Lucy Mack and William Smith (Joseph's mother and brother)
Urim and Thummim

Joseph Smith had the Urim and Thummim that came with the gold plates, which allowed him to see into the past and view ancient Book of Mormon civilizations.

Emma Smith and Lucy Mack Smith

Excerpt from Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1844-1845. See Joseph Smith Papers
Excerpt from history written by Emma Mack Smith

Lucy Mack Smith

According to Joseph's mother, Lucy Mack Smith, Joseph had a detailed knowledge of the ancient Americans that he wrote about in the Wentworth Letter.

Lucy Mack Smith
In the course of our evening conversations Joseph would give us some of the most amusing recitals which could be imagined. He would describe the ancient inhabitants of this continent, their dress, their manner of traveling, the animals which they rode, the cities that were built by them, the structure of their buildings, with every particular of their mode of warfare, their religious worship, as particularly as though he had Spent his life with them.

Joseph Smith to Emma Smith

Joseph Smith wrote the following in a letter to Emma Smith, during the Zions Camp march to Missouri:

Joseph Smith
The whole of our journey, in the midst of so large a company of social, honest and sincere men, wandering over the plains of the Nephites, recounting occasionally the history of the Book of Mormon, roving over the mounds of that once beloved people of the Lord, picking up their skulls & their bones, as a proof of its divine authenticity, ...

Excerpt from June 4, 1834 letter to Emma Smith from Joseph Smith, written during the Zions Camp march (commencing May 4, 1834) to western Missouri. See Joseph Smith Papers
Excerpt of letter from Joseph Smith to Emma Smith

We have the statement above in Joseph's own handwriting. Also, there is no evidence whatever that Joseph Smith authored or approved the Times and Seasons articles in 1842 that erroneously linked discoveries in Central America to the Book of Mormon. He did not contradicted himself as regards to the location of Book of Mormon lands. All of Joseph Smith's personal and signed writings are very clear.

 2.4 Central and South America
revised: 27 May 2020

Chronologically, the only time period in the Book of Mormon that contains significant detail as regards to history and geography is between 91 BC and 34 AD. That's only 125 years of the approximate 1000 year Nephite time span, so it's a mental mistake to project the 91 BC and 34 AD historical time period to the overall geographical extent of the people. However, even from the time of Helaman the people were reported to have spread to "cover all the earth" (Helaman 3:8) but most of this is not reported on in the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon states plainly five times that not even "an hundredth part" of the history is being related (example, 3 Nephi 3:14).

From the perspective of archaeology the internal dating for Book of Mormon history does not match what is known to have occurred in Central America. For example, Wikipedia says:

In archaeology, the classic Maya collapse is the decline of Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period. Preclassic Maya experienced a similar collapse in the 2nd century.

None of this comes even close to matching up with the chronology given to us in the Book of Mormon. Nevertheless, I believe there is a great history of the peoples of Central and South America and the islands of the Pacific, as yet untold. I believe they have the blood of the House of Israel in their ancestry. Descendants of Laman and Lemuel and sons of Ishmael surely migrated south to Mexico and South America as well as north to Canada. Even in the time of the Book of Mormon the people became widely dispersed (Helaman 3:8).The distance from the mouth of the Mississippi to Ontario Canada is the same as to Mexico City: 1400 miles. Additionally, other peoples and descendants of Israel were also lead by the hand of God to Central and South America, according to 3rd Nephi:

3 Nephi 16
1 And verily, verily, I say unto you that I have other sheep, which are not of this land, neither of the land of Jerusalem, neither in any parts of that land round about whither I have been to minister.

2 Nephi 29
11 For I command all men, both in the east and in the west, and in the north, and in the south, and in the islands of the sea, that they shall write the words which I speak unto them; for out of the books which shall be written I will judge the world, every man according to their works, according to that which is written.
12 For behold, I shall speak unto the Jews and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto the Nephites and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto the other tribes of the house of Israel, which I have led away, and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto all nations of the earth and they shall write it.
13 And it shall come to pass that the Jews shall have the words of the Nephites, and the Nephites shall have the words of the Jews; and the Nephites and the Jews shall have the words of the lost tribes of Israel; and the lost tribes of Israel shall have the words of the Nephites and the Jews.
14 And it shall come to pass that my people, which are of the house of Israel, shall be gathered home unto the lands of their possessions; and my word also shall be gathered in one. And I will show unto them that fight against my word and against my people, who are of the house of Israel, that I am God, and that I covenanted with Abraham that I would remember his seed forever.

It appears that these words are written as an indication that the peoples of Central America and of South America "in the south" are of the House of Israel also. Jesus specifically says "all nations" and I do not believe He is given to hyperbole. Therefore I believe their traditions of a bearded God who came to to their forefathers are true. We just don't have their sacred records, yet - but the records exist, or can be restored, and are promised to come forth.

Joseph Smith said of those in Central and South America:

...speaking of the Land of Zion, it consists of all North and South America but that any place where the Saints gather is Zion which every righteous man will build up for a place of safety for his children"  The redemption of Zion is the redemption of all North and South America.

Jesus said that with faith we can understand and accept these things and that it is only our unbelief that keeps us from the truth.

3 Nephi 15:14-20
14 And not at any time hath the Father given me commandment that I should tell it unto your brethren at Jerusalem.
15 Neither at any time hath the Father given me commandment that I should tell unto them concerning the other tribes of the house of Israel, whom the Father hath led away out of the land.
16 This much did the Father command me, that I should tell unto them:
17 That other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.
18 And now, because of stiffneckedness and unbelief they understood not my word; therefore I was commanded to say no more of the Father concerning this thing unto them.
19 But, verily, I say unto you that the Father hath commanded me, and I tell it unto you, that ye were separated from among them because of their iniquity; therefore it is because of their iniquity that they know not of you.
20 And verily, I say unto you again that the other tribes hath the Father separated from them; and it is because of their iniquity that they know not of them.

 3 Logical Model
revised: 30 Apr 2020

The ontology of the Logical Model is a representation of all the geographical information contained in Book of Mormon, which is both systemic (integral to the whole) and systematic (organized to a set plan), — and it does not include a map. The purpose for having a Logical Model is to facilitate thoroughness, completeness, and to help compartmentalize information for the purpose of reducing bias. In it's final form, the Logical Model is also a quick reference and a working tool to validate Physical Models.

 3.1 The Methodology
revised: 15 Jun 2020

The "Methodology" is the systematic application of procedures used to create the components of the Logical Model and the Physical Model. The methodology outlined below was used to construct a Logical Model of Book of Mormon geography AND the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model map of the Book of Mormon. Yes, the Logical Model was actually created in it's entirety first, then the Physical Model was afterwards created. After the initial construction of a Physical Model, subsequent iterative improvements always start with the Logical Model and then "trickle down" to the Physical Model to keep it compatible.

Definitions:

  1. Entity: A named or described geographical reference in the Book of Mormon.
  2. Entity Relationships: How one entity relates to another. Example relationships: "is near to", "borders", "is a", "is located". etc
  3. Entity Relationship Nomenclature: A set of terms and symbols that help describe the Entity Relationships (see Section 3.2).
  4. Rule of Interpretation: A working theory on the meaning of Book of Mormon words or phraseology. Used when building the Logical Model. Example: The phrase "round about" indicates "circuitous or indirect, as a road, journey"
  5. Rule of Application: A guiding principle used when constructing the physical model. Example: When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
  6. Logical Model = Entities + Entity Relationships + Rules of Interpretation.
  7. Physical Model = Maps consistant with: Logical Model + Rules of Application.
  8. Entity Relationship Table: The working list of all the entities and their relationships and presented with the Entity Relationship Nomenclature. For each Entity the table includes scripture citations, Entity-to-scripture cross references, Rules of Interpretation, Rules of Application, maps/graphics, and commentary. The components in the Entity Relationship Table relating to the Physical Model are for convenience in constructing the Physical Model and are added only after the all the Entity Relationships are first defined.

Methodology:

  1. Build the Entity Relationships (Section 3.2) by examining the text of the Book of Mormon only. Focus on the text. Do not consider if an Entity Relationship conflicts with any current map and especially not with any archaeological considerations. Don't even think about any aspect of the Physical Model. The Logical Model defines the Physical Model and never vice-versa. Totally compartmentalize the LOGICAL from the PHYSICAL and deal with the LOGICAL first. This helps reduce bias and simplifies the overall tasks.
  2. For the Logical Model, formalize a set of Rules of Interpretation. If a Rule conflicts with any Entity Relationship, then it must be changed or removed. "Rules" are working theories. A Rule of Interpretation is not made invalid simply because it is not "proven" (it is a theory) or because it does not work with a given map - because a map is never source information for the Logical Model. In other words, Rules are working theories that guide research. The process is known as "Inference to the Best Explanation" and uses both Rules of Application and Rules of Interpretation to guide inferences. A Rule of Interpretation may be replaced by a better Rule. A Rule of Interpretation is removed if it is found to be conflicting with an Entity Relationship.
  3. For the Logical Model, define every known geographical Entity in the Book of Mormon. Leave nothing out. Every scrap of information is useful, contributes towards the whole, and must not be overlooked. This also eliminates the bias of leaving things out "for convenience".
  4. For the Physical Model create a list of Rules of Application. Entities are first placed on the Physical Model map to be consistent with the Entity Relationships Table and, secondarily, according to the Rules of Application. see Section 4.1, Building the Physical Model.
  5. To ensure consistency, the Entity Relationship table is parsed and the contents are placed into a database. Then a program is run to scan the database looking for any inconsistencies and also implied relationships that should be added. The results of the scan is used to validate the table and ensure updates to the table are appropriate.
  6. Test the result! This is done by reading the Skousen "Earliest Text" version of the Book of Mormon, including punctuation revisions outlined for Alma 22 (see section 4.2) and with the physical model map "in hand". Each reference to Book of Mormon geography, while reading and comparing to the map, must be understandable, plausible and non-contradictory to the reader.

 3.1.2 Entity Relationship Nomenclature
revised: 31 Jan 2020

There are several different varieties of Entity Relationship modeling, which was originally invented for modeling business processes. My version of ER modeling is adapted for the task of defining geographical entities for the Book of Mormon Logical Model. Here is the notation used:

  1. Square brackets [ ] specifies the Entity Name, which is a geographical proper noun or feature. The Entity Name may optionally include an Attribute in curly brackets. If the Entity Name is prefixed by a +, it means the entity relationship is used for map scoring.

    Example: [Zarahemla]
    Example: +[Zarahemla]{city}

  2. Each Entity Name is followed by a Relationship in angle brackets. Relationships are separated from Entities and Attributes by a operator which means "as implied or indicates".

    Example: [Zarahemla] <is a >

  3. The Relationship is then followed by an Attribute (adjective) in curly brackets { } or another Entity Name (in square brackets). All Entity names must include an Attribute. The cardinality is normally 1 to 1 but if 1 to N then additional entities are simply added. Attributes also have numeric superscripts for target Entities, which reference specific scripture citations.
    Distances are specified between two entities with the distance operator "~" and finally, the relation may optionally be suffixed with the "according to" operator of ≈ following by the Interpretation or Application rule number, suffixed with a I or A.
    Examples:
      +[Zarahemla]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Sidon]{river14,16,18>
      +[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Teancum]{city1,2}
      +[Alma]{valley}~[Zarahemla]{city} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {12 days2} ≈ IR4 AR7


  4. Each Entity name is highlighted with a color whether it is early Nephite (Reign of Judges), late Nephite, Jaredite, or land feature.

 3.2 Entity Relationship Table
revised: 29 July 2020

Entity Relationships for geography are represented with a nomenclature as defined in Section 3.1.2. Unlike the text, the Entity Relationships are relatively unambiguous and do not rely on context, grammar, punctuation, or archaic word definitions. Entity Relationship definitions should come from the study of the Book of Mormon text itself and from no other source. They are based on interpretation of the text according to the Rules of Interpretation (Section 3.3).

Period : Entity
Relationships
Notes References
(Click to view)
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Aaron +6
+[Aaron] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Aaron] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land2}
+[Aaron]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea2}
+[Aaron]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moroni]{city2}
+[Aaron]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah]{land2}
+[Aaron]{land}} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Moroni]{land2}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The key verse is Alma 50:13-14 which gives information on the coastal cities along the "east sea"2 or Lake Michigan, and indicates the relative order (bottom to top - see Section 3.3, item 5) of the cities which is (1) Moroni2, (2) Nephihah2, and (3) Aaron (Lehi comes later). Since both Moroni and Nephihah are specified as bordering the East Sea, then Aaron which borders both Moroni and Nephihah should also be at least near the East Sea. Note that these cities are founded and populated as part of a pre-determined plan by Moroni2. The final location of these cities is determined by assuming the most favorable topography of Book of Mormon times would still match that of today (i.e. where rivers empty into Lake Michigan, see Section 3.3, item 3), which results in the placement of Aaron in the location of present day Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Sheboygan borders the east side of Lake Michigan about half way up. See also, Section 4.6.3 and the city entity Moroni.

Modern City Location: Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 43° 45' 2.64", W 87° 42' 52.88"
  1. Alma 8:13 Alma 8
    13 Now when the people had said this, and withstood all his words, and reviled him, and spit upon him, and caused that he should be cast out of their city, he departed thence and took his journey towards the city which was called Aaron.

  2. Alma 50:7-9,13-14 Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
    14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.

Icon
image
Aerial view of Aaron and other Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
Icon
image
Up close view of the site for Aaron. Typically, the location for cities is where rivers and lakes meet. The Sheyboygan river is visible.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Ablom +5
+[Ablom] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place3} ≈ AR3
+[Ablom]{place} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {seashore4}
+[Ablom]{place} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [WhereNephitesDestroyed]{place2+4}
+[Ablom]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antum]{land1+4}
+[Ablom]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{land2+3+4}
+[Ablom]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shim]{hill4}

AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

Ablom is one of the Jaredite locations that has a cross reference to a Nephite location. It is stated as being east of "where the Nephites were destroyed" (See Section 4.8.1). This, along with topography, makes it easier to identify. Thessalon Ontario is the best candidate and with a natural topography for shipping and trade.

Modern City Location: Thessalon, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 15' 17.961", W 83° 33' 59.617"
  1. Mormon 1:1-5Mormon 1
    1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
    2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
    3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
    4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
    5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
  2. Mormon 4:1-3,6-23Mormon 1
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    ...
    6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
    7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
    14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.
    15 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and seventh year, the Nephites being angry because the Lamanites had sacrificed their women and their children, that they did go against the Lamanites with exceedingly great anger, insomuch that they did beat again the Lamanites, and drive them out of their lands.
    16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
    17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
    18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
    19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
    20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
    21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
    22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
    23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.
  3. Ether 7:5,6,15-17Ether 7
    5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
    16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
    17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.


  4. Ether 9:3Ether 9
    3 And the Lord warned Omer in a dream that he should depart out of the land; wherefore Omer departed out of the land with his family, and traveled many days, and came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed, and from thence eastward, and came to a place which was called Ablom, by the seashore, and there he pitched his tent, and also his sons and his daughters, and all his household, save it were Jared and his family.
Icon
image
The land of Ablom, east of Desolation.
Icon
image
Thessalon Ontario Canada, proposed to be in the land of Ablom.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Agosh +3
+[Agosh] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {plains1} ≈ AR3
+[Agosh]{plains} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Akish]{wilderness1} ≈ AR4
+[Agosh]{plains} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {seashore1}

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
The plains of Agosh are mentioned as part of the last battles that brought down the Jaredite civilization. There is enough detail in this part of the book of Ether to determine the location for the plains of Agosh. The location for Agosh is tied closely to the wilderness of Akish. See Akish and the Goulais River. See also Section 4.9.2. Since Agosh is close to Akish there is only one possible location available.

Modern Place Location: South of Goulais River, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 42' 02.9",W 84° 23' 24.6"
  1. Ether 14:3-16Ether 14
    3 And now, after the space of two years, and after the death of Shared, behold, there arose the brother of Shared and he gave battle unto Coriantumr, in which Coriantumr did beat him and did pursue him to the wilderness of Akish.
    4 And it came to pass that the brother of Shared did give battle unto him in the wilderness of Akish; and the battle became exceedingly sore, and many thousands fell by the sword.
    5 And it came to pass that Coriantumr did lay siege to the wilderness; and the brother of Shared did march forth out of the wilderness by night, and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr, as they were drunken.
    6 And he came forth to the land of Moron, and placed himself upon the throne of Coriantumr.
    7 And it came to pass that Coriantumr dwelt with his army in the wilderness for the space of two years, in which he did receive great strength to his army.
    8 Now the brother of Shared, whose name was Gilead, also received great strength to his army, because of secret combinations.
    9 And it came to pass that his high priest murdered him as he sat upon his throne.
    10 And it came to pass that one of the secret combinations murdered him in a secret pass, and obtained unto himself the kingdom; and his name was Lib; and Lib was a man of great stature, more than any other man among all the people.
    11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
    12 And it came to pass that he fought with Lib, in which Lib did smite upon his arm that he was wounded; nevertheless, the army of Coriantumr did press forward upon Lib, that he fled to the borders upon the seashore.
    13 And it came to pass that Coriantumr pursued him; and Lib gave battle unto him upon the seashore.
    14 And it came to pass that Lib did smite the army of Coriantumr, that they fled again to the wilderness of Akish.
    15 And it came to pass that Lib did pursue him until he came to the plains of Agosh. And Coriantumr had taken all the people with him as he fled before Lib in that quarter of the land whither he fled.
    16 And when he had come to the plains of Agosh he gave battle unto Lib, and he smote upon him until he died; nevertheless, the brother of Lib did come against Coriantumr in the stead thereof, and the battle became exceedingly sore, in the which Coriantumr fled again before the army of the brother of Lib.

Icon
image
The plains of Agosh, vis-a-vis land of Moron.
Icon
image
The plains of Agosh close-up.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Akish +3
+[Akish] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {wilderness1} ≈ AR3 IR4
+[Akish]{wilderness} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1} ≈ AR3
+[Akish]{wilderness} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Agosh]{plains1} ≈ AR3
+[Akish]{wilderness} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moron]{land1} ≈ AR3
+[Akish]{wilderness} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {seashore1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
To make a placement for Akish one has to find a large river near Moron that provides a distinct wilderness floodplain (see IR4 in Section 3.3) that can sequester an army for two years (food, water, and supplies are easier to obtain near a river). The river that fits this description is the Goulais River is only about 10 miles north of Moron. Not only is the Goulais the largest river near Moron but it also has very distinct flood plain (wilderness) with broad plains (Agosh) to the south of it and also a seashore where it empties into the West Sea (Lake Superior). The addition of the plain and the seashore nearby make this placement for Akish a very good fit.

Modern Place Location: Goulais River bottom lands, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 43' 25.4", W 84° 23' 22.3"
  1. Ether 14:3-16Ether 14
    3 And now, after the space of two years, and after the death of Shared, behold, there arose the brother of Shared and he gave battle unto Coriantumr, in which Coriantumr did beat him and did pursue him to the wilderness of Akish.
    4 And it came to pass that the brother of Shared did give battle unto him in the wilderness of Akish; and the battle became exceedingly sore, and many thousands fell by the sword.
    5 And it came to pass that Coriantumr did lay siege to the wilderness; and the brother of Shared did march forth out of the wilderness by night, and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr, as they were drunken.
    6 And he came forth to the land of Moron, and placed himself upon the throne of Coriantumr.
    7 And it came to pass that Coriantumr dwelt with his army in the wilderness for the space of two years, in which he did receive great strength to his army.
    8 Now the brother of Shared, whose name was Gilead, also received great strength to his army, because of secret combinations.
    9 And it came to pass that his high priest murdered him as he sat upon his throne.
    10 And it came to pass that one of the secret combinations murdered him in a secret pass, and obtained unto himself the kingdom; and his name was Lib; and Lib was a man of great stature, more than any other man among all the people.
    11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
    12 And it came to pass that he fought with Lib, in which Lib did smite upon his arm that he was wounded; nevertheless, the army of Coriantumr did press forward upon Lib, that he fled to the borders upon the seashore.
    13 And it came to pass that Coriantumr pursued him; and Lib gave battle unto him upon the seashore.
    14 And it came to pass that Lib did smite the army of Coriantumr, that they fled again to the wilderness of Akish.
    15 And it came to pass that Lib did pursue him until he came to the plains of Agosh. And Coriantumr had taken all the people with him as he fled before Lib in that quarter of the land whither he fled.
    16 And when he had come to the plains of Agosh he gave battle unto Lib, and he smote upon him until he died; nevertheless, the brother of Lib did come against Coriantumr in the stead thereof, and the battle became exceedingly sore, in the which Coriantumr fled again before the army of the brother of Lib.

  2. Helaman 3:5-10 Helaman 3
    5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
    6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
    7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell.
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.
    9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings.
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.

Icon
image
The wilderness of Akish, vis-a-vis land of Moron.
Icon
image
The wilderness of Akish close-up.
Icon
image
Hwy 17 about halfway between Moron and Akish show rugged land not suitable for farming or maneuvering for battle. In Jaredite times it was completely denuded of trees as was the plains of Akish. See Helaman 3:5-10.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Alma +6
+[Alma] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {valley2} ≈ AR3
+[Alma]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Amulon]{land2}
+[Alma]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land2}
+[Alma]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{land2}
+[Alma]{valley}~[Helam]{land} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {1 day1,2} ≈ IR4 IR6 AR7
+[Alma]{valley}~[Zarahemla]{city} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {12 days wilderness2} ≈ IR4 AR7

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
The valley of Alma is stated to be one days travel from Helam2. It is north of Helam towards Nephi because Amulon, Shilom and Shemlon also mentioned as being in the vicinity, and are on the east side of the Sidon/Mississippi, across from Nephi. They "departed in the wilderness", meaning they followed the flat river bottom areas (see Section 3.3) from Helam. The distance from Helam to the valley of Alma shown is 10.39 miles. This distance is only one half days travel by land according to AR7, but some extra time should be added for the river crossing too. After thus narrowing it down, the topography indicates a prospective location of Valmeyer Illinois. Valmeyer was named after a German immigrant named Val-Meyer who first settled there. The name means: "The valley of the Meyers". From the Valley of Alma to the land of Zarahemla we have a distance given as 12 days, so this can help validate the location. Since they are fleeing the Lamanites, we utilize AR7. This yields the following formula and distance: 12 days x 8 hrs/day x 2.5 mph = 240 miles. The actual distance to Zarahemla following todays Mississippi is 230 miles so that shows the placement for the Valley of Alma is at the correct approximate distance from Zarahemla.

Modern City Location: Valmeyer, Illinois. Geolocation: N 38° 18' 32.5", W 90° 16' 41.4"
  1. Mosiah 23:35-39Mosiah 23
    35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

  2. Mosiah 24:1-2,19-25Mosiah 24
    1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
    2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
    ...
    19 And in the morning the Lord caused a deep sleep to come upon the Lamanites, yea, and all their task-masters were in a profound sleep.
    20 And Alma and his people departed into the wilderness; and when they had traveled all day they pitched their tents in a valley, and they called the valley Alma, because he led their way in the wilderness.
    21 Yea, and in the valley of Alma they poured out their thanks to God because he had been merciful unto them, and eased their burdens, and had delivered them out of bondage; for they were in bondage, and none could deliver them except it were the Lord their God.
    22 And they gave thanks to God, yea, all their men and all their women and all their children that could speak lifted their voices in the praises of their God.
    23 And now the Lord said unto Alma: Haste thee and get thou and this people out of this land, for the Lamanites have awakened and do pursue thee; therefore get thee out of this land, and I will stop the Lamanites in this valley that they come no further in pursuit of this people.
    24 And it came to pass that they departed out of the valley, and took their journey into the wilderness.
    25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah did also receive them with joy.

Icon
image
Map showing the valley of Alma, and neighboring locations.
Icon
image
Aerial view of the valley of Alma, and in the background, the city of Helam.
Icon
image
The distance from Helam to the valley of Alma shown is 10.39 miles and includes a river crossing. This allows
half a day for the river crossing plus one half day for travel by land according to AR7 in Section 3.4.
Icon
image
Path plotted from from valley of Alma to the city of
Zarahemla is 230 miles in 12 days which is about
right according to AR7 in Section 3.4.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Ammonihah +9
+[Ammonihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,3,5} ≈ AR3
+[Ammonihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,4,5}
+[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Noah]{city5}
+[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Noah]{land3,5}
+[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Melek]{land1}
+[Ammonihah]{city}~[Melek]{land} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {3 days1} ≈ AR10
+[Ammonihah]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land4}
+[Ammonihah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Noah]{land5}
+[Ammonihah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidom]{land2} ≈ IR6
+[Ammonihah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {wilderness side borders1,3,5} ≈ IR4

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 3 mph.
The distance from Melek to Ammonihah is stated as 3 days journey. From AR10, the Iowa River journey upstream from Toolsboro Iowa (Melek) to Coralville Iowa (Ammonihah) is calculated as 8 hrs X 3 mph X 3 days = 72 miles. The actual (google map trace) distance on the Book of Mormon map, following the river, is precisely 75.5 miles so that is an excellent fit.
The scriptures refer to the "borders on the wilderness side" and the close proximity of the city of Noah. See Section 4.4.3 for information on the related topography.

Modern City Location: Coralville, Iowa. Geolocation: N 41° 41' 37.5", W 91° 35' 41.3"
  1. Alma 8:6-7 Alma 8
    4 And he began to teach the people in the land of Melek according to the holy order of God, by which he had been called; and he began to teach the people throughout all the land of Melek.
    5 And it came to pass that the people came to him throughout all the borders of the land which was by the wilderness side. And they were baptized throughout all the land;
    6 So that when he had finished his work at Melek he departed thence, and traveled three days' journey on the north of the land of Melek; and he came to a city which was called Ammonihah.
    7 Now it was the custom of the people of Nephi to call their lands, and their cities, and their villages, yea, even all their small villages, after the name of him who first possessed them; and thus it was with the land of Ammonihah.

  2. Alma 15:1 Alma 15
    1 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek were commanded to depart out of that city; and they departed, and came out even into the land of Sidom; and behold, there they found all the people who had departed out of the land of Ammonihah, who had been cast out and stoned, because they believed in the words of Alma.

  3. Alma 16:2-3 Alma 16
    2 For behold, the armies of the Lamanites had come in upon the wilderness side, into the borders of the land, even into the city of Ammonihah, and began to slay the people and destroy the city.
    3 And now it came to pass, before the Nephites could raise a sufficient army to drive them out of the land, they had destroyed the people who were in the city of Ammonihah, and also some around the borders of Noah, and taken others captive into the wilderness.

  4. Alma 25:2 Alma 25
    1 And behold, now it came to pass that those Lamanites were more angry because they had slain their brethren; therefore they swore vengeance upon the Nephites; and they did no more attempt to slay the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi at that time.
    2 But they took their armies and went over into the borders of the land of Zarahemla, and fell upon the people who were in the land of Ammonihah and destroyed them.

  5. Alma 49:1-3,10-14 Alma 49
    1 And now it came to pass in the eleventh month of the nineteenth year, on the tenth day of the month, the armies of the Lamanites were seen approaching towards the land of Ammonihah.
    2 And behold, the city had been rebuilt, and Moroni had stationed an army by the borders of the city, and they had cast up dirt round about to shield them from the arrows and the stones of the Lamanites; for behold, they fought with stones and with arrows.
    3 Behold, I said that the city of Ammonihah had been rebuilt. I say unto you, yea, that it was in part rebuilt; and because the Lamanites had destroyed it once because of the iniquity of the people, they supposed that it would again become an easy prey for them.
    ...
    10 Now, if king Amalickiah had come down out of the land of Nephi, at the head of his army, perhaps he would have caused the Lamanites to have attacked the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah; for behold, he did care not for the blood of his people.
    11 But behold, Amalickiah did not come down himself to battle. And behold, his chief captains durst not attack the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah, for Moroni had altered the management of affairs among the Nephites, insomuch that the Lamanites were disappointed in their places of retreat and they could not come upon them.
    12 Therefore they retreated into the wilderness, and took their camp and marched towards the land of Noah, supposing that to be the next best place for them to come against the Nephites.
    13 For they knew not that Moroni had fortified, or had built forts of security, for every city in all the land round about; therefore, they marched forward to the land of Noah with a firm determination; yea, their chief captains came forward and took an oath that they would destroy the people of that city.
    14 But behold, to their astonishment, the city of Noah, which had hitherto been a weak place, had now, by the means of Moroni, become strong, yea, even to exceed the strength of the city of Ammonihah.

Icon
image
Cities of Ammonihah and Noah relative locations to other nearby lands and cities.
Icon
image
View is from the east. Ammonihah is placed on the flat ground close to the Iowa River on the right (north).
Icon
image
Ammonihah is 75.5 miles (3 days) from Melek along the Iowa River.
Icon
image
View is looking south onto the Iowa River from Highway IA 22.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Amulon +9
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,3}
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Alma]{valley2}
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Helam]{land1} ≈ IR4
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{city3} ≈ IR6
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{land3} ≈ IR6
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Midian]{land4} ≈ IR6
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Mormon]{land3}
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1} ≈ IR4
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land2}
+[Amulon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{land2}

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
The land of Amulon, named by Lamanites and where they found the priests of King Noah, is placed not to far from the city of Nephi just across the river on the east side and a little south of Nephi. This relative location becomes desirable by a process of elimination and when considering the locations of Helam, Shemlon, and Shilom, and keeping in mind that Amulon was occupied by the priests of King Noah who fled out of the city of Nephi - so it's likely close to the city of Nephi. See Section 4.3.4.

Modern Land Location: East of Dupo, Illinois. Geolocation: N 38° 31' 17.4", W 90° 14' 06.2"
  1. Mosiah 23:30-31,36-39 Mosiah 23
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
    31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
    ...
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

  2. Mosiah 24:1-5,20,21Mosiah 24
    1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
    2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
    3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
    4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.
    ...
    20 And Alma and his people departed into the wilderness; and when they had traveled all day they pitched their tents in a valley, and they called the valley Alma, because he led their way in the wilderness. 21 Yea, and in the valley of Alma they poured out their thanks to God because he had been merciful unto them, and eased their burdens, and had delivered them out of bondage; for they were in bondage, and none could deliver them except it were the Lord their God.

  3. Alma 21:2Alma 21
    1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
    2 Now the Lamanites and the AmalekitesAmlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem.

  4. Alma 24:1,5,20Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amalekites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam, and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amalekites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.
    ...
    5 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
    ...
    20 And it came to pass that their brethren, the Lamanites, made preparations for war, and came up to the land of Nephi for the purpose of destroying the king, and to place another in his stead, and also of destroying the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi out of the land.
Icon
image
Amulon and nearby cities.
Icon
image
View of Amulon and nearby cities, looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Amnihu +4
+[Amnihu] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1}
+[Amnihu]{hill} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1}
+[Amnihu]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1} ≈ AR1
+[Amnihu]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1} ≈ AR1 AR3
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The Hill Amnihu, on the east side of the river across from Zarahemla, the highest point being where the Nauvoo Temple is located today. See the battle maps for Section 4.4.2 Amlicite War - Battle of Zarahemla. Early Latter-day Saints found mounds, burials and ancient artifacts in Nauvoo.

Modern City Location: Temple site, Nauvoo, Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 33' 01.6", W 91° 23' 03.6"
  1. Alma 2:14-19 Alma 2
    14 And it came to pass that Amlici did arm his men with all manner of weapons of war of every kind; and he also appointed rulers and leaders over his people, to lead them to war against their brethren.
    15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites.
    16 Now Alma, being the chief judge and the governor of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with his people, yea, with his captains, and chief captains, yea, at the head of his armies, against the Amlicites to battle.
    17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites.
    18 Nevertheless the Lord did strengthen the hand of the Nephites, that they slew the Amlicites with great slaughter, that they began to flee before them.
    19 And it came to pass that the Nephites did pursue the Amlicites all that day, and did slay them with much slaughter, insomuch that there were slain of the Amlicites twelve thousand five hundred thirty and two souls; and there were slain of the Nephites six thousand five hundred sixty and two souls.

Icon
image
Hill Amnihu and relative locations to other nearby lands and cities.
Icon
image
View from Amnihu looking west across the Sidon to Zarahemla.
Icon
image
View of Hill Amnihu and Nauvoo Temple, from the west side of the Mississippi looking directly east.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Ani-Anti +3
+[Ani-Anti]{village} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {village1} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Ani-Anti]{village}~[Jerusalem]{city} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {<1 day1} ≈ IR6
+[Ani-Anti]{village} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Middoni]{land1} ≈ IR6

IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The description of Aaron's missionary journey provides information regarding Ani-Anti and it's relative location on the west side of the Sidon river. It is consistent with the Logical Model to say that "came over" indicates crossing the river. See Section 4.3.3 Missionary Journey which contains a detailed map that allows Ani-Anti to be placed.

Modern City Location: Columbia, Illinois. Geolocation: N 38° 27' 32.6", W 90° 12' 50.4"
  1. Alma 21:2-4,11-12 Alma 21
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem. ...
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors. ...
    ...
    11 Therefore, when he saw that they would not hear his words, he departed out of their synagogue, and came over to a village which was called Ani-Anti, and there he found Muloki preaching the word unto them; and also Ammah and his brethren. And they contended with many about the word.
    12 And it came to pass that they saw that the people would harden their hearts, therefore they departed and came over into the land of Middoni.

Icon
image
View of Ani-Anti and nearby cities, looking north.
Icon
image
Ani-Anti and nearby cities.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Angola +4
+[Angola]{city} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ AR1 AR2 AR3
+[Angola]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[Angola]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Joshua]{land1}
+[Angola]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [David]{land1}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
This is a new city named at the end of the Book of Mormon narrative. We know that the final conflict begins in Zarahemla and that Mormon's army retreats, step by step, to the north countries and end up eventually in the land of Desolation. So given the framework of the logical model, it is just a matter of deducing the most logical route from Zarahemla to Desolation to propose locations for Angola, Joshua, and David. The proposed route is to first head north from Zarahemla in the direction of the Mississippi (Sidon) and then north in the direction of the Rock River until reaching Janesville Wisconsin (David), the an overland trip of 60 miles to South Milwaukee (Joshua) and finally, multiple sea trips from Joshua to the narrow passage (Detour Passage) leading to the land and city of Desolation.

Modern City Location: Davenport/Milan, Illinois. Geolocation: N 41° 29' 14.5", W 90° 34' 28.5"
  1. Mormon 1:10; 2:1-6Mormon 2
    10 And it came to pass that the war began to be among them in the borders of Zarahemla
    , by the waters of Sidon.
    ...
    1 And it came to pass in that same year there began to be a war again between the Nephites and the Lamanites. And notwithstanding I being young, was large in stature; therefore the people of Nephi appointed me that I should be their leader, or the leader of their armies.
    2 Therefore it came to pass that in my sixteenth year I did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites, against the Lamanites; therefore three hundred and twenty and six years had passed away.
    3 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and twenty and seventh year the Lamanites did come upon us with exceedingly great power, insomuch that they did frighten my armies; therefore they would not fight, and they began to retreat towards the north countries.
    4 And it came to pass that we did come to the city of Angola, and we did take possession of the city, and make preparations to defend ourselves against the Lamanites. And it came to pass that we did fortify the city with our might; but notwithstanding all our fortifications the Lamanites did come upon us and did drive us out of the city.
    5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
    6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.

Icon
image
Proposed location of the land Angola and surrounding areas.
Icon
image
View of Angola, David, Joshua. Nephite retreat path to Desolation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Antionum +13
+[Antionum] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,4} ≈ AR4
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Jershon]{land4}
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness south1} ≈ IR4
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Onidah]{hill1,2}
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <indirect journey> ⇒ [Manti]{land4} ≈ IR8
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <indirect journey> ⇒ [SidonHead]{river4} ≈ AR1 IR8
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [EastWilderness]{travel route1,5} ≈ IR4
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Siron]{land1,3} ≈ IR6
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒{seashore1}
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Siron]{land1,3} ≈ IR6
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Jershon]{land1,4}
+[Antionum]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {gathering place1,2,4}

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
IR8The phrase "round about" indicates "circuitous or indirect, as a road, journey"
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
Antionum is a vast swath of land that lies between the Illinois river on the south and east and to the Mississippi on the west - basically the land between Nauvoo and Peoria Illinois but then it turns east and extends further towards lake Michigan. In Book of Mormon times Antionum was the land of the Zoramites. Coming up the Illinois river (wilderness south) was a common invasion route for the Lamanites. This area was frequently mentioned in the military campaigns of "captain" Moroni. A place where the Zoramites were "gathered" is mentioned in Antionum but not named. The unnamed place contained the Rameumptum and was also near to the hill Onidah where Alma preached. See Section 4.4.3, 4.4.5, 4.4.6, and 4.5.2.

Modern Land Location: most of northeastern Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 34' 38.5", W 90° 31' 48.1"
Modern City Location: Peoria, Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 42 '32.1", W 90° 24' 44.0"
  1. Alma 31:2-6 Alma 31
    2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.
    4 Now the Nephites greatly feared that the Zoramites would enter into a correspondence with the Lamanites, and that it would be the means of great loss on the part of the Nephites.
    5 And now, as the preaching of the word had a great tendency to lead the people to do that which was just--yea, it had had more powerful effect upon the minds of the people than the sword, or anything else, which had happened unto them--therefore Alma thought it was expedient that they should try the virtue of the word of God.
    6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons.
    ...
    12 Now, when they had come into the land, behold, to their astonishment they found that the Zoramites had built synagogues, and that they did gather themselves together on one day of the week, which day they did call the day of the Lord; and they did worship after a manner which Alma and his brethren had never beheld;
    13 For they had a place built up in the center of their synagogue, a place for standing, which was high above the head; and the top thereof would only admit one person. ...
    21 Now the place was called by them Rameumptom, which, being interpreted, is the holy stand.

  2. Alma 32:4 Alma 32
    4 Now, as Alma was teaching and speaking unto the people upon the hill Onidah, there came a great multitude unto him, who were those of whom we have been speaking, of whom were poor in heart, because of their poverty as to the things of the world.


  3. Alma 39:2-3,11Alma 39
    2 For thou didst not give so much heed unto my words as did thy brother, among the people of the Zoramites. Now this is what I have against thee; thou didst go on unto boasting in thy strength and thy wisdom.
    3 And this is not all, my son. Thou didst do that which was grievous unto me; for thou didst forsake the ministry, and did go over into the land of Siron among the borders of the Lamanites, after the harlot Isabel.
    ...
    11 Suffer not yourself to be led away by any vain or foolish thing; suffer not the devil to lead away your heart again after those wicked harlots. Behold, O my son, how great iniquity ye brought upon the Zoramites; for when they saw your conduct they would not believe in my words.
  4. Alma 43:5,15-17,22 Alma 43
    5 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came with their thousands; and they came into the land of Antionum, which is the land of the Zoramites; and a man by the name of Zerahemnah was their leader.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass as the armies of the Lamanites had gathered together in the land of Antionum, behold, the armies of the Nephites were prepared to meet them in the land of Jershon.
    16 Now, the leader of the Nephites, or the man who had been appointed to be the chief captain over the Nephites--now the chief captain took the command of all the armies of the Nephites--and his name was Moroni;
    17 And Moroni took all the command, and the government of their wars. And he was only twenty and five years old when he was appointed chief captain over the armies of the Nephites.
    ...
    22 Behold, now it came to pass that they durst not come against the Nephites in the borders of Jershon; therefore they departed out of the land of Antionum into the wilderness, and took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti and take possession of the land; for they did not suppose that the armies of Moroni would know whither they had gone.

  5. Alma 50:7-9 Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.

Icon
image
The land of of Antionum and an unnamed Zoramite city in Antionum.
Icon
image
Aerial view of land of east of Zarahemla, showing the lands (all uppercase) and cities.
Icon
image
The "round about" journey from Antionum to Manti and head of Sidon (B to G). See Section 4.5.2
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Antiparah +12
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2,3} ≈ AR3
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [CityBySeashore]{city2}
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Cumeni]{city1,2}
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Judea]{city2}
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Manti]{city1,2}
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [SidonHead]{place2}
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city1,2}
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Cumeni]{city1,2} ≈ IR7
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Judea]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Manti]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city1,2} ≈ IR7
+[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [CityBySeashore]{city2} +[Antiparah]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1} ≈ IR7

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The campaign of the "stripling soldiers" provides lots of geographic information. IR7 and AR3 indicate Antiparah is up north nearly to Lake Superior at present day Salon Springs Wisconsin which is also next to Upper St Croix Lake, the source of the Sidon river. See SidonHead. When the Lamanites flee Antiparah it is a simple matter for them to float down river to the other cities they have possession of. See the campaign maps in Section 4.5.3.

Modern City Location: Salon Springs, Wisconsin. Geolocation: W 46° 21' 03.2", 91° 48' 54.0"
  1. Alma 53:8-9,22/56:13-14Alma 53 Alma 56
    8 And now it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites, on the west sea, south, while in the absence of Moroni on account of some intrigue amongst the Nephites, which caused dissensions amongst them, had gained some ground over the Nephites, yea, insomuch that they had obtained possession of a number of their cities in that part of the land.
    9 And thus because of iniquity amongst themselves, yea, because of dissensions and intrigue among themselves they were placed in the most dangerous circumstances.
    ...
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.
    Alma 56:13-14
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
  2. Alma 56:13...36Alma 56
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city.
    ...
    18 And now it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that Antipus had received a greater strength to his army, they were compelled by the orders of Ammoron to not come against the city of Judea, or against us, to battle.
    19 And thus were we favored of the Lord; for had they come upon us in this our weakness they might have perhaps destroyed our little army; but thus were we preserved.
    ...
    25 Neither durst they march down against the city of Zarahemla; neither durst they cross the head of Sidon, over to the city of Nephihah.
    26 And thus, with their forces, they were determined to maintain those cities which they had taken.
    ...
    29 And the Lamanites, thus seeing our forces increase daily, and provisions arrive for our support, they began to be fearful, and began to sally forth, if it were possible to put an end to our receiving provisions and strength.
    30 Now when we saw that the Lamanites began to grow uneasy on this wise, we were desirous to bring a stratagem into effect upon them; therefore Antipus ordered that I should march forth with my little sons to a neighboring city, as if we were carrying provisions to a neighboring city.
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    35 And it came to pass that when they had been informed by their spies, they came forth with their army and marched against us.
    36 And it came to pass that we did flee before them, northward. And thus we did lead away the most powerful army of the Lamanites;

  3. Alma 57:1-4 Alma 57
    1 And now it came to pass that I received an epistle from Ammoron, the king, stating that if I would deliver up those prisoners of war whom we had taken that he would deliver up the city of Antiparah unto us.
    2 But I sent an epistle unto the king, that we were sure our forces were sufficient to take the city of Antiparah by our force; and by delivering up the prisoners for that city we should suppose ourselves unwise, and that we would only deliver up our prisoners on exchange.
    3 And Ammoron refused mine epistle, for he would not exchange prisoners; therefore we began to make preparations to go against the city of Antiparah.
    4 But the people of Antiparah did leave the city, and fled to their other cities, which they had possession of, to fortify them; and thus the city of Antiparah fell into our hands.

Icon
image
Aerial view of Judea and other cities in the land of Manti.
Icon
image
Aerial view of land of Manti including Upper St Croix lake, the source of the Sidon
Icon
Source of Sidon continental divide
Aerial view of Antiparah including and Upper St Croix lake, the source of the Sidon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Antipas +4
+[Antipas] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {mount1} ≈ IR2 IR9 AR5 AR9
+[Antipas]{mount} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {valley1}
+[Antipas]{mount} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Oneidah]{place of arms1} ≈ IR9
+[Antipas]{mount} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR5Sites with archaeological remains are preferred as likely Book of Mormon sites if they are compatible with the Logical Model.
IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The Hebraic root meaning for the name "Antipas" is "for all, or against all" which ties in well for a gathering place named "Oneidah" the "place of arms" (where troops gather). Antipas is therefore clearly a fortified location and not a "mountain". As to the location of the fortified Antipas mount we know it to be in the land of Nephi and probably not far from the king near the capital city of Nephi. The ancient mounds once at East St Louis (destroyed in late 1800's) are a logical location for Antipas and Oneidah, the place-of-arms. See also, IR9 in Section 3.3.

Modern City Location: St Louis, Missouri. Geolocation: W 46° 21' 03.2", W 91° 48' 54.0"
  1. Alma 47:1,5-12 Alma 47
    1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites.
    ...
    5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
    6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
    7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle.
    8 Now it was not Amalickiah's intention to give them battle according to the commandments of the king; but behold, it was his intention to gain favor with the armies of the Lamanites, that he might place himself at their head and dethrone the king and take possession of the kingdom.
    9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas.
    10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him.
    11 And it came to pass that when Lehonti received the message he durst not go down to the foot of the mount. And it came to pass that Amalickiah sent again the second time, desiring him to come down. And it came to pass that Lehonti would not; and he sent again the third time.
    12 And it came to pass that when Amalickiah found that he could not get Lehonti to come down off from the mount, he went up into the mount, nearly to Lehonti's camp; and he sent again the fourth time his message unto Lehonti, desiring that he would come down, and that he would bring his guards with him.

Icon
image
Topographical map of Nephi and nearby regions, including proposed Antipas location. Mississippi restored to former horseshoe route that may have still existed
two millennia ago.
Icon
image
Nephi and nearby regions, including proposed Antipas location. These are the most densely populations regions of the Book of Mormon
during the times of Lamanite occupation.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Antum +9
+[Antum] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1} ≈ IR9
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Shim]{hill1}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ablom]{place1+5}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Teancum]{city1+2+3}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jashon]{land1,2}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jordan]{city3,4}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{city1,3}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{land1,3}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {seashore1+3,5}
+[Antum]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Boaz]{city1+2+3}

IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
Because the hill Shim is located in the land Antum, the location of hill Shim applies to the location of the land Antum also. Antum is included because Mormon travels to Antum from Jordan by water (the hill Shim is in the land of Antum) to retrieve the plates. See Section 4.8.2. A common mistake is to place Shim in the land of Cumorah simply because the Nephite records were at one time deposited at Shim and because it is near to "the place where the Nephites were destroyed", but Shim is in the land Antum and not the land of Cumorah. Chronologically, the "place where the Nephites were destroyed" in Ether 9:3 refers to events of Mormon 4 which was the time of Nephite defeats where the war was lost, 9 years before the Cumorah battle.

Modern Land Location: Between Echo Bay and East Neebish Island, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 16' 48.2", W 84° 09' 27.2"
  1. Mormon 1:1-6Mormon 1
    1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
    2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
    3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
    4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
    5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
    6 And it came to pass that I, being eleven years old, was carried by my father into the land southward, even to the land of Zarahemla.
  2. Mormon 2:16-17Mormon 2
    16 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and forty and fifth year the Nephites did begin to flee before the Lamanites; and they were pursued until they came even to the land of Jashon, before it was possible to stop them in their retreat.
    17 And now, the city of Jashon was near the land where Ammaron had deposited the records unto the Lord, that they might not be destroyed. And behold I had gone according to the word of Ammaron, and taken the plates of Nephi, and did make a record according to the words of Ammaron.
  3. Mormon 4:1-3,6-23Mormon 1
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    ...
    6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
    7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
    14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.
    15 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and seventh year, the Nephites being angry because the Lamanites had sacrificed their women and their children, that they did go against the Lamanites with exceedingly great anger, insomuch that they did beat again the Lamanites, and drive them out of their lands.
    16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
    17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
    18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
    19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
    20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
    21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
    22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
    23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.

  4. Mormon 5:3-5 Mormon 5
    3 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come against us as we had fled to the city of Jordan; but behold, they were driven back that they did not take the city at that time.
    4 And it came to pass that they came against us again, and we did maintain the city. And there were also other cities which were maintained by the Nephites, which strongholds did cut them off that they could not get into the country which lay before us, to destroy the inhabitants of our land.
    5 And it came to pass that whatsoever lands we had passed by, and the inhabitants thereof were not gathered in, were destroyed by the Lamanites, and their towns, and villages, and cities were burned with fire; and thus three hundred and seventy and nine years passed away.
  5. Ether 9:3Ether 9
    3 And the Lord warned Omer in a dream that he should depart out of the land; wherefore Omer departed out of the land with his family, and traveled many days, and came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed, and from thence eastward, and came to a place which was called Ablom, by the seashore, and there he pitched his tent, and also his sons and his daughters, and all his household, save it were Jared and his family.

Icon
image
Proposed location of the land Antum and surrounding areas, including the hill Shim.
Icon
image
Topographical map of the land of Antum, city of Jashon, and the hill Shim.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Boaz +6
+[Boaz] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2} ≈ AR2 AR3
+[Boaz]{city} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [WhereNephitesDestroyed]{place2+3+4}
+[Boaz]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antum]{land1+2}
+[Boaz]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shim]{hill1+2}
+[Boaz]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jordan]{city2,3}
+[Boaz]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{city1+2}
+[Boaz]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{land2}

AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The city of Boaz is apparently outside the land of Desolation2 and therefore on the mainland of Ontario. Keep in mind that the hill Shim is actually within the land of Antum and knowing this allows the relationship of Boaz to Antum. It would have been just a little puddle jump to leave the north end of St Joseph island, crossing where Highway 548 (Bridge Road) goes today. According to the rules of application, Boaz is placed near the sea in the most (in my opinion) advantageous position on the mainland.

Modern City Location: Thessalon, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 15' 15.0", W 83° 33' 47.2"
  1. Mormon 1:1-5Mormon 1
    1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
    2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
    3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
    4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
    5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
  2. Mormon 4:16-23Mormon 4
    16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
    17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
    18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
    19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
    20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
    21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
    22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
    23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.
  3. Mormon 5:3-5 Mormon 5
    3 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come against us as we had fled to the city of Jordan; but behold, they were driven back that they did not take the city at that time.
    4 And it came to pass that they came against us again, and we did maintain the city. And there were also other cities which were maintained by the Nephites, which strongholds did cut them off that they could not get into the country which lay before us, to destroy the inhabitants of our land.
    5 And it came to pass that whatsoever lands we had passed by, and the inhabitants thereof were not gathered in, were destroyed by the Lamanites, and their towns, and villages, and cities were burned with fire; and thus three hundred and seventy and nine years passed away.
  4. Ether 9:3Ether 9
    3 And the Lord warned Omer in a dream that he should depart out of the land; wherefore Omer departed out of the land with his family, and traveled many days, and came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed, and from thence eastward, and came to a place which was called Ablom, by the seashore, and there he pitched his tent, and also his sons and his daughters, and all his household, save it were Jared and his family.
Icon
image
Proposed location of the land Boaz and surrounding areas, including the hill Shim.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Bountiful +20
+[Bountiful] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,3} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Bountiful] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land2,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11}
+[Bountiful]{begin fortified line}~[Bountiful]{end fortified line} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {1 day2} ≈ AR7
+[Bountiful]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gid]{city3}
+[Bountiful]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Mulek]{city3}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {fortified line2}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage4,8,9}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea2,4,7}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation]{land4,9}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Hagoth]{ships9}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Jershon]{land5}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route7,8}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea2,4} ≈ AR2
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land4,9}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea2,4,7}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Jershon]{land5} ≈ AR4
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Morionton]{land7}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1,2,6}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Desolation]{land4}
  [Bountiful] ⇒ <has> ⇒ {Temple11}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
AR7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
The city of Bountiful is placed where the modern city of Sault Ste Marie is located. This is an extremely important location for trade transportation as it controls access between Lake Superior (the West Sea) and Lake Michigan/Huron (the East Sea). It also sits on the border between the land of Bountiful and the land of Desolation, which is the same border that divides the United States and Canada today. For the Nephites, precious metals from the Keweenaw peninsula and other Lake Superior sites would have been available and shipped south through Bountiful. The Book of Mormon states explicitly (Helaman 3:10,14) that wood was shipped north and so would have gone by/through this city of Bountiful also. The portion of the land of Bountiful as the "narrow neck of land" is spoken of in the Book of Mormon and is what is known as "Upper Michigan" today. The actual location for Bountiful is a certain as it can be. It is the most described locale of any in the Book of Mormon outside of Nephi and Zarahemla. The 63 mile Bountiful/Desolation border (east sea to west sea) is a water border of 1.5 days journey "for a Nephite". Included near this water border is a 1 days journey fortified stretch of land on the west side (see purple line) that protects the areas where the water border can be most easily crossed. This entire border water-way was so important for trade and military strategy that it was never occupied by Lamanites until the Nephites were defeated there in Mormon's time around 400 AD.

Modern Land Location: Upper Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 08' 54.5", W 87° 21' 00.3".
Modern City Location: Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 29' 57.4", W 84° 21' 20.0"
  1. Helaman 1:23 Helaman 1
    23 And now he did not tarry in the land of Zarahemla, but he did march forth with a large army, even towards the city of Bountiful; for it was his determination to go forth and cut his way through with the sword, that he might obtain the north parts of the land.

  2. Helaman 4:5-8 Helaman 4
    5 And in the fifty and seventh year they did come down against the Nephites to battle, and they did commence the work of death; yea, insomuch that in the fifty and eighth year of the reign of the judges they succeeded in obtaining possession of the land of Zarahemla; yea, and also all the lands, even unto the land which was near the land Bountiful.
    6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
    7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.
    8 And thus those dissenters of the Nephites, with the help of a numerous army of the Lamanites, had obtained all the possession of the Nephites which was in the land southward. And all this was done in the fifty and eighth and ninth years of the reign of the judges.

  3. Helaman 5:14-15 Helaman 5
    14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful;
    15 And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;

  4. Alma 22:29-34 Alma 22
    29 And also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them. And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites; nevertheless the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land bordering on the wilderness, at the head of the river Sidon, from the east to the west, round about on the wilderness side; on the north, even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.
    34 Therefore the Lamanites could have no more possessions only in the land of Nephi, and the wilderness round about. Now this was wisdom in the Nephites--as the Lamanites were an enemy to them, they would not suffer their afflictions on every hand, and also that they might have a country whither they might flee, according to their desires.

  5. Alma 27:22 Alma 27
    22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.

  6. Alma 50:11 Alma 50
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.

  7. Alma 50:25-34Alma 50
    25 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges, there would also have been peace among the people of Nephi had it not been for a contention which took place among them concerning the land of Lehi, and the land of Morionton, which joined upon the borders of Lehi; both of which were on the borders by the seashore.
    26 For behold, the people who possessed the land of Morionton did claim a part of the land of Lehi; therefore there began to be a warm contention between them, insomuch that the people of Morionton took up arms against their brethren, and they were determined by the sword to slay them.
    27 But behold, the people who possessed the land of Lehi fled to the camp of Moroni, and appealed unto him for assistance; for behold they were not in the wrong.
    28 And it came to pass that when the people of Morionton, who were led by a man whose name was Morionton, found that the people of Lehi had fled to the camp of Moroni, they were exceedingly fearful lest the army of Moroni should come upon them and destroy them.
    29 Therefore, Morionton put it into their hearts that they should flee to the land which was northward, which was covered with large bodies of water, and take possession of the land which was northward.
    30 And behold, they would have carried this plan into effect, (which would have been a cause to have been lamented) but behold, Morionton being a man of much passion, therefore he was angry with one of his maid servants, and he fell upon her and beat her much.
    31 And it came to pass that she fled, and came over to the camp of Moroni, and told Moroni all things concerning the matter, and also concerning their intentions to flee into the land northward.
    32 Now behold, the people who were in the land Bountiful, or rather Moroni, feared that they would hearken to the words of Morionton and unite with his people, and thus he would obtain possession of those parts of the land, which would lay a foundation for serious consequences among the people of Nephi, yea, which consequences would lead to the overthrow of their liberty.
    33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morionton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

  8. Alma 52:9 Alma 52
    9 And he also sent orders unto him that he should fortify the land Bountiful, and secure the narrow pass which led into the land northward, lest the Lamanites should obtain that point and should have power to harass them on every side.

  9. Alma 63:5 Alma 63
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.

  10. 3 Nephi 3:22-23 3 Nephi 3
    22 And it came to pass in the seventeenth year, in the latter end of the year, the proclamation of Lachoneus had gone forth throughout all the face of the land, and they had taken their horses, and their chariots, and their cattle, and all their flocks, and their herds, and their grain, and all their substance, and did march forth by thousands and by tens of thousands, until they had all gone forth to the place which had been appointed that they should gather themselves together, to defend themselves against their enemies and the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla.
    23 And the land which was between the land Zarahemla and the land Bountiful, yea, to the line which was between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation and there were a great many thousand people who were called Nephites, who did gather themselves together in this land.
  11. 3 Nephi 11:1 3 Nephi 11
    1 And now it came to pass that there were a great multitude gathered together, of the people of Nephi, round about the temple which was in the land Bountiful; and they were marveling and wondering one with another, and were showing one to another the great and marvelous change which had taken place.
Icon
image
Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
Icon
image
Entire land of Bountiful which extends "from the east unto the west sea". This land is now called "Upper Michigan".
Icon
image
Fortified line of 1 days travel (military) that protects easy passage to the north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : CitybySeashore +8
+[CityBySeashore] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ AR1
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1,2}
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Cumeni]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Judea]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Manti]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city1+2} ≈ IR7
+[CityBySeashore]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city1,2}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
During the campaign of the stripling soldiers a city is mentioned beyond Antiparah on the west sea. It is never named, although from a trade route perspective such an outpost would be important for trade on Lake Superior. The city is never mentioned by name but we know it is "beyond" Antiparah, borders the west sea, and is held by the Nephites. See the campaign maps in Section 4.5.3.

Modern Feature Location: Mouth of the Bois Brule River, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 46° 44' 50.9", W 91° 36' 38.3"
  1. Alma 53:8-9,22Alma 53
    8 And now it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites, on the west sea, south, while in the absence of Moroni on account of some intrigue amongst the Nephites, which caused dissensions amongst them, had gained some ground over the Nephites, yea, insomuch that they had obtained possession of a number of their cities in that part of the land.
    9 And thus because of iniquity amongst themselves, yea, because of dissensions and intrigue among themselves they were placed in the most dangerous circumstances.
    ...
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.
  2. Alma 56:14-15,29-36Alma 56
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city. ...
    ...
    29 And the Lamanites, thus seeing our forces increase daily, and provisions arrive for our support, they began to be fearful, and began to sally forth, if it were possible to put an end to our receiving provisions and strength.
    30 Now when we saw that the Lamanites began to grow uneasy on this wise, we were desirous to bring a stratagem into effect upon them; therefore Antipus ordered that I should march forth with my little sons to a neighboring city, as if we were carrying provisions to a neighboring city.
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    35 And it came to pass that when they had been informed by their spies, they came forth with their army and marched against us.
    36 And it came to pass that we did flee before them, northward. And thus we did lead away the most powerful army of the Lamanites;

Icon
image
Aerial view of land of Manti including Upper St Croix lake, the source of the Sidon
Icon
image
Where the Bois Brule River empties into Lake Superior -- the location of the city "beyond" Antiparah.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Comnor +3
+[Comnor] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1}
+[Comnor]{hill} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Shurr]{valley1} ≈ AR3
+[Comnor]{hill} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Corihor]{land1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The highly defensible Sugar Island right next to the land of Moron is the proposed location of the land of Corihor. It has two valleys (Corihor and Shurr) and a hill (Comnor) that can match the description.

Modern Place Location: Sugar Island, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 28' 07.5", W 84° 12' 48.5"
  1. Ether 14:26-28Ether 14
    26 And it came to pass that Shiz did pursue Coriantumr eastward, even to the borders by the seashore, and there he gave battle unto Shiz for the space of three days.
    27 And so terrible was the destruction among the armies of Shiz that the people began to be frightened, and began to flee before the armies of Coriantumr; and they fled to the land of Corihor, and swept off the inhabitants before them, all them that would not join them.
    28 And they pitched their tents in the valley of Corihor; and Coriantumr pitched his tents in the valley of Shurr. Now the valley of Shurr was near the hill Comnor; wherefore, Coriantumr did gather his armies together upon the hill Comnor, and did sound a trumpet unto the armies of Shiz to invite them forth to battle.
Icon
image
Jaredite locations and battles taking place near the land of Moron.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Corihor +7
+[Corihor] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1}
+[Corihor] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {valley1}
+[Corihor]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Shurr]{valley1} ≈ AR3
+[Corihor]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Comnor]{hill1} ≈ AR3
+[Corihor]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Corihor]{valley1} ≈ AR3
+[Corihor]{valley} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shurr]{valley1}
+[Corihor]{valley} ⇒ <in> ⇒ [Corihor]{land1}

AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The highly defensible Sugar Island right next to the land of Moron is the proposed location of the land of Corihor. It has two valleys (Corihor and Shurr) and a hill (Comnor) that can match the description.

Modern Place Location: Sugar Island, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 28' 07.5", W 84° 12' 48.5"
  1. Ether 14:26-28Ether 14
    26 And it came to pass that Shiz did pursue Coriantumr eastward, even to the borders by the seashore, and there he gave battle unto Shiz for the space of three days.
    27 And so terrible was the destruction among the armies of Shiz that the people began to be frightened, and began to flee before the armies of Coriantumr; and they fled to the land of Corihor, and swept off the inhabitants before them, all them that would not join them.
    28 And they pitched their tents in the valley of Corihor; and Coriantumr pitched his tents in the valley of Shurr. Now the valley of Shurr was near the hill Comnor; wherefore, Coriantumr did gather his armies together upon the hill Comnor, and did sound a trumpet unto the armies of Shiz to invite them forth to battle.
Icon
image
Jaredite locations and battles taking place near the land of Moron.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Cumeni +8
+[Cumeni] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2,3} ≈ AR1
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [CityBySeashore]{city2,1}
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Judea]{city2,3}
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Manti]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city2} ≈ IR7
+[Cumeni]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1,2}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
See Section 4.5.3 for the campaigns of the stripling soldiers. In Alma 56, all of these cities are on or near the Sidon river (St Croix river to us) as it turns and heads towards Lake Superior and the cities appear to be listed in order, from south to north (i.e. bottom to top - see Section 3.3, item 5) as Manti, Zeezrom, Cumeni, and Antiparah. See also Section 3.5.2 for the course of the Sidon river and the continental divide at Salon Springs (the source of the Sidon). In Alma 57, soldiers provisions are mentioned as arriving from Zarahemla and Lamanite prisoners are mentioned as being sent to Zarahemla. Logically this transportation occurs on the Sidon river and is just a float trip as there are no waterfalls between Cumeni and Zarahemla requiring portage. So it is an easy trip, albeit a long one.

Modern City Location: Danbury, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 46° 00' 23.1",W 92° 22' 17.6"
  1. Alma 53:8-9,22Alma 53
    8 And now it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites, on the west sea, south, while in the absence of Moroni on account of some intrigue amongst the Nephites, which caused dissensions amongst them, had gained some ground over the Nephites, yea, insomuch that they had obtained possession of a number of their cities in that part of the land.
    9 And thus because of iniquity amongst themselves, yea, because of dissensions and intrigue among themselves they were placed in the most dangerous circumstances.
    ...
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.
  2. Alma 56:13-15,29-36Alma 56
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city. ...
    ...
    29 And the Lamanites, thus seeing our forces increase daily, and provisions arrive for our support, they began to be fearful, and began to sally forth, if it were possible to put an end to our receiving provisions and strength.
    30 Now when we saw that the Lamanites began to grow uneasy on this wise, we were desirous to bring a stratagem into effect upon them; therefore Antipus ordered that I should march forth with my little sons to a neighboring city, as if we were carrying provisions to a neighboring city.
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    35 And it came to pass that when they had been informed by their spies, they came forth with their army and marched against us.
    36 And it came to pass that we did flee before them, northward. And thus we did lead away the most powerful army of the Lamanites;
  3. Alma 57:7-12,23,30-34Alma 57
    7 And it came to pass that it was our desire to wage a battle with the army which was placed to protect the city Cumeni.
    8 And now behold, I will show unto you that we soon accomplished our desire; yea, with our strong force, or with a part of our strong force, we did surround, by night, the city Cumeni, a little before they were to receive a supply of provisions.
    9 And it came to pass that we did camp round about the city for many nights; but we did sleep upon our swords, and keep guards, that the Lamanites could not come upon us by night and slay us, which they attempted many times; but as many times as they attempted this their blood was spilt.
    10 At length their provisions did arrive, and they were about to enter the city by night. And we, instead of being Lamanites, were Nephites; therefore, we did take them and their provisions.
    11 And notwithstanding the Lamanites being cut off from their support after this manner, they were still determined to maintain the city ; therefore it became expedient that we should take those provisions and send them to Judea, and our prisoners to the land of Zarahemla.
    12 And it came to pass that not many days had passed away before the Lamanites began to lose all hopes of succor; therefore they yielded up the city unto our hands; and thus we had accomplished our designs in obtaining the city Cumeni.
    ...
    23 And we retained our city Cumeni, and were not all destroyed by the sword; nevertheless, we had suffered great loss.
    ...
    30 And now, these are the words which Gid said unto me: Behold, we did start to go down to the land of Zarahemla with our prisoners. And it came to pass that we did meet the spies of our armies, who had been sent out to watch the camp of the Lamanites.
    31 And they cried unto us, saying--Behold, the armies of the Lamanites are marching towards the city of Cumeni; and behold, they will fall upon them, yea, and will destroy our people.
    32 And it came to pass that our prisoners did hear their cries, which caused them to take courage; and they did rise up in rebellion against us.
    33 And it came to pass because of their rebellion we did cause that our swords should come upon them. And it came to pass that they did in a body run upon our swords, in the which, the greater number of them were slain; and the remainder of them broke through and fled from us.
    34 And behold, when they had fled and we could not overtake them, we took our march with speed towards the city Cumeni; and behold, we did arrive in time that we might assist our brethren in preserving the city.
Icon
image
Aerial view of cities in the land of Manti, south of the west sea. Looking north.
Icon
image
Map of Cumeni and other cities in the land of Manti.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Cumorah +5
+[Cumorah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1,2,4} ≈ IR1 AR3
+[Cumorah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land2,3}
+[Cumorah]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ogath]{place4}
+[Cumorah]{hill} ⇒ <is> ⇒ [Ramah]{hill2+4}
+[Cumorah]{hill} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Ripliancum]{waters4}
+[Cumorah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ripliancum]{waters4}

IR1When a modern place-name is associated with an ancient place-name in scripture or the writings of the prophets then that association is always honored.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Cumorah is one of anchor points of Book of Mormon Geography. We know exactly where it is from scripture and Church history. Anyone who is familiar with the construction of the Erie Canal would know well why the final gathering place for the Nephites would be in upper New York (see video below). From the Atlantic seaboard, Upper New York is the gateway to the heartland of America. From the east you have to get around the barrier of the Appalachians to conveniently travel the center of the continent — and the upper New York corridor, reached via the Hudson river is the best way to do it. From the Nephite point of view the same logic is in play, only in reverse. They start in the west and gathered to the east. Cumorah is a natural gathering place because from the west, by ship, one can travel to New York from any location on or near the Great Lakes and if you're coming from the east you can get there by traveling along the Atlantic coast and up the Hudson river. Coming from the Great Lakes, there are no portages to stop you until you get to Niagara falls. From there you can portage around Niagra or simply head overland to the Cumorah area. Palmyra was an Erie Canal town and only 4 miles from the hill Cumorah (3 miles from the Smith family farm). If traveling overland from Buffalo/Niagara the best route is along what is todays east/west Highway 90 that leads thru Manchester which is only 2 miles from the hill Cumorah. Cumorah is 106 miles from the portage location at Rome NY* to the east where the Erie Canal started and 104 miles from Niagra (95 miles from Buffalo NY) to the west. The land of Cumorah is the perfect central location and the hill Cumorah itself is, as Joseph Smith described, "a hill of considerable size, and the most elevated of any in the neighborhood". All these geographical reason's for the Nephites choosing the land of Cumorah and the hill Cumorah are apparently the same reasons that the Jaredites had for the same location. In both cases, there was a truce period to gather their people together and they needed to pick the location that was easiest to access from the both the west and the east. The hill Ramah (Jaredites) and the hill Cumorah (Nephites) are the same hill!

Modern Place Location: Hill Cumorah, New York. Geolocation: N 43° 00' 23.1", W 77° 13' 27.7"

* According to wikipedia "Rome was founded along an ancient Native American portage path known as the Oneida Carrying Place, Deo-Wain-Sta, or The Great Carrying Place to the Six Nations (Iroquois) or Haudenosaunee people, in their language.
Upper New York and the Erie Canal
  1. DC 128:20DC 128
    20 And again, what do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah! Moroni, an angel from heaven, declaring the fulfillment of the prophets--the book to be revealed. A voice of the Lord in the wilderness of Fayette, Seneca county, declaring the three witnesses to bear record of the book! The voice of Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna, detecting the devil when he appeared as an angel of light! The voice of Peter, James, and John in the wilderness between Harmony, Susquehanna county, and Colesville, Broome county, on the Susquehanna river, declaring themselves as possessing the keys of the kingdom, and of the dispensation of the fulness of times!
  2. Mormon 6:1-11Mormon 6
    1 And now I finish my record concerning the destruction of my people, the Nephites. And it came to pass that we did march forth before the Lamanites.
    2 And I, Mormon, wrote an epistle unto the king of the Lamanites, and desired of him that he would grant unto us that we might gather together our people unto the land of Cumorah, by a hill which was called Cumorah, and there we could give them battle.
    3 And it came to pass that the king of the Lamanites did grant unto me the thing which I desired.
    4 And it came to pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, and we did pitch our tents around about the hill Cumorah; and it was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains; and here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites.
    5 And when three hundred and eighty and four years had passed away, we had gathered in all the remainder of our people unto the land of Cumorah.
    6 And it came to pass that when we had gathered in all our people in one to the land of Cumorah, behold I, Mormon, began to be old; and knowing it to be the last struggle of my people, and having been commanded of the Lord that I should not suffer the records which had been handed down by our fathers, which were sacred, to fall into the hands of the Lamanites, (for the Lamanites would destroy them) therefore I made this record out of the plates of Nephi, and hid up in the hill Cumorah all the records which had been entrusted to me by the hand of the Lord, save it were these few plates which I gave unto my son Moroni.
    7 And it came to pass that my people, with their wives and their children, did now behold the armies of the Lamanites marching towards them; and with that awful fear of death which fills the breasts of all the wicked, did they await to receive them.
    8 And it came to pass that they came to battle against us, and every soul was filled with terror because of the greatness of their numbers.
    8 And it came to pass that they came to battle against us, and every soul was filled with terror because of the greatness of their numbers.
    9 And it came to pass that they did fall upon my people with the sword, and with the bow, and with the arrow, and with the ax, and with all manner of weapons of war.
    10 And it came to pass that my men were hewn down, yea, even my ten thousand who were with me, and I fell wounded in the midst; and they passed by me that they did not put an end to my life.
    11 And when they had gone through and hewn down all my people save it were twenty and four of us, (among whom was my son Moroni) and we having survived the dead of our people, did behold on the morrow, when the Lamanites had returned unto their camps, from the top of the hill Cumorah, the ten thousand of my people who were hewn down, being led in the front by me.
  3. Mormon 8:1-2Mormon 8
    1 Behold I, Moroni, do finish the record of my father, Mormon. Behold, I have but few things to write, which things I have been commanded by my father.
    2 And now it came to pass that after the great and tremendous battle at Cumorah, behold, the Nephites who had escaped into the country southward were hunted by the Lamanites, until they were all destroyed.
  4. Ether 15:7-11Ether 15
    7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
    8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
    9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
    10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
    11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.


Icon
image
Map showing Cumorah and surrounding areas.
Icon
image
Map showing the gateway connecting to the great lakes to the east coast.
Icon
image
Topographical map of Cumorah.
Icon
image
Painting of Joseph Smith with the golden plates at the hill Cumorah (churchofjesuschrist.org)
View is from the north of the hill Cumorah looking south.
Icon
image
View from the top of the hill Cumorah looking to the southwest.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : David +4
+[David] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1}
+[David]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Angola]{city1}
+[David]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Joshua]{land1}
+[David]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}

AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
The Book of Mormon history picks up again nearly 300 years after the coming of Christ. It is to be expected there are new lands and cities with some new names too, and the Book of Mormon narrative seems to indicate that. We do know that the final conflict begins in Zarahemla and that Mormon's army retreats, step by step, to the north countries and end up eventually at Jashon in the land of Desolation. We're not given any details but the logical model combined with the topograchy of the physical provides the most direct and logical routes from Zarahemla Angola to David to Joshua and finally to Jashon in the land of Desolation. The proposed route is to first head north from Zarahemla in the direction of the Mississippi (Sidon) and then north in the direction of the Rock River until reaching Janesville Wisconsin (David).

Modern City Location: Janesville, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 42° 41' 10.0", W 89° 01' 13.1"
  1. Mormon 1:10; 2:1-6Mormon 2
    10 And it came to pass that the war began to be among them in the borders of Zarahemla, by the waters of Sidon.
    ...
    1 And it came to pass in that same year there began to be a war again between the Nephites and the Lamanites. And notwithstanding I being young, was large in stature; therefore the people of Nephi appointed me that I should be their leader, or the leader of their armies.
    2 Therefore it came to pass that in my sixteenth year I did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites, against the Lamanites; therefore three hundred and twenty and six years had passed away.
    3 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and twenty and seventh year the Lamanites did come upon us with exceedingly great power, insomuch that they did frighten my armies; therefore they would not fight, and they began to retreat towards the north countries.
    4 And it came to pass that we did come to the city of Angola, and we did take possession of the city, and make preparations to defend ourselves against the Lamanites. And it came to pass that we did fortify the city with our might; but notwithstanding all our fortifications the Lamanites did come upon us and did drive us out of the city.
    5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
    6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
Icon
image
View of Zarahemla, Angola, David, Joshua. Nephite retreat path to Desolation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Desolation +10
+[Desolation] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6} ≈ AR1
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Moron]{land6+7+9} ≈ AR1
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Akish]{wilderness6+7+9} ≈ AR1
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [GreatJarediteCity]{city1+8+9+10} ≈ AR1
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1,4,5} ≈ AR1
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage1,3,4,5}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1,3}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land1,4}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1,3,4}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route3}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <has not> ⇒ {timber6}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {Jaredite destruction1,6}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {mass migration6}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Hagoth]{ships4}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1,2}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ {Nephite lands1,3,4,6}
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
The land of Desolation was named after the many destroyed remains of the Jaredite nation that were found there and also because of the lack of timber, that had all been used up by the Jaredites. Today it is within the Canadian province of Ontario. Because the land of Bountiful is so well attested, the border where the land Desolation is also not in doubt.

Modern Land Location: Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 39' 37.3", W 83° 53' 42.3"
  1. Alma 22:30-33 Alma 22
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Alma 46:17 Alma 46
    17 And it came to pass that when he had poured out his soul to God, he named all the land which was south of the land Desolation, yea, and in fine, all the land, both on the north and on the south--A chosen land, and the land of liberty.

  3. Alma 50:34 Alma 50
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

  4. Alma 63:5 Alma 63
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.

  5. 3 Nephi 3:22-23 3 Nephi 3
    22 And it came to pass in the seventeenth year, in the latter end of the year, the proclamation of Lachoneus had gone forth throughout all the face of the land, and they had taken their horses, and their chariots, and their cattle, and all their flocks, and their herds, and their grain, and all their substance, and did march forth by thousands and by tens of thousands, until they had all gone forth to the place which had been appointed that they should gather themselves together, to defend themselves against their enemies and the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla.
    23 And the land which was between the land Zarahemla and the land Bountiful, yea, to the line which was between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation and there were a great many thousand people who were called Nephites, who did gather themselves together in this land.
  6. Helaman 3:2-6 Helaman 3
    2 And there was no contention among the people in the forty and fourth year; neither was there much contention in the forty and fifth year.
    3 And it came to pass in the forty and sixth, yea, there was much contention and many dissensions; in the which there were an exceedingly great many who departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and went forth unto the land northward to inherit the land.
    4 And they did travel to an exceedingly great distance, insomuch that they came to large bodies of water and many rivers.
    5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
    6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
  7. Alma 22:30-33 Alma 22
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  8. Helaman 3:5-10 Helaman 3
    5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
    6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
    7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell.
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.
    9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings.
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.

  9. Ether 7:5,6,15-17Ether 7
    4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him.
    5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
    16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
    17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.
    18 And it came to pass as he was about to put him to death, the sons of Shule crept into the house of Noah by night and slew him, and broke down the door of the prison and brought out their father, and placed him upon his throne in his own kingdom.

  10. Ether 10:20-23 Ether 10
    20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
    22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain.
    23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.

Icon
Nephite land where the sea divides the land, 3D view
Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
Icon
Nephite land where the sea divides the land, 3D view
Land of Desolation, so named because of a lack of timber dating from Jaredite times.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Desolation2 +18
+[Desolation2] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city3,4} ≈ AR1 AR2 AR4
+[Desolation2] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,3,4} ≈ AR2 AR4
+[Desolation2]{city} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [WhereNephitesDestroyed]{place3,4,7+8}
+[Desolation2]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antum]{land2,4}
+[Desolation2]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Boaz]{city4}
+[Desolation2]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moriantum]{place6+7}
+[Desolation2]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sherrizah]{tower6+7}
+[Desolation2]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Teancum]{city4}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route1,3}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {the sea1,3,4}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ablom]{place8}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moron]{land9}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antum]{land2,4}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jordan]{city5}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shim]{hill2,4+8}
+[Desolation2]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Teancum]{city4}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
In the early (classic) period, Desolation referred a larger area of land representing a chunk of Ontario Canada all along the St Marys river and beyond. 400+ years later, in the late period, the name Desolation (entity name for the late period is Desolation2) is much more specific area. It is basically the first thing you would see after traveling "by the sea" through the "narrow pass which led to the land northward" (Du Tour Passage). For the Nephites, Desolation2 is a very strategic spot and, being an island, a good place for defense. Major battles were fought here.

Modern Land Location: St Josephs Island, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 12' 54.6", W 83° 57' 01.9"
  1. Alma 50:34 Alma 50
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east
    .
  2. Mormon 1:1-5Mormon 1
    1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
    2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
    3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
    4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
    5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
    6 And it came to pass that I, being eleven years old, was carried by my father into the land southward, even to the land of Zarahemla.
  3. Mormon 3:4-8Mormon 3
    4 And it came to pass that after this tenth year had passed away, making, in the whole, three hundred and sixty years from the coming of Christ, the king of the Lamanites sent an epistle unto me, which gave unto me to know that they were preparing to come again to battle against us.
    5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.
    6 And there we did place our armies, that we might stop the armies of the Lamanites, that they might not get possession of any of our lands; therefore we did fortify against them with all our force.
    7 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and first year the Lamanites did come down to the city of Desolation to battle against us; and it came to pass that in that year we did beat them, insomuch that they did return to their own lands again.
    8 And in the three hundred and sixty and second year they did come down again to battle. And we did beat them again, and did slay a great number of them, and their dead were cast into the sea.
  4. Mormon 4:1-3,6-23Mormon 1
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    ...
    6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
    7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
    14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.
    15 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and seventh year, the Nephites being angry because the Lamanites had sacrificed their women and their children, that they did go against the Lamanites with exceedingly great anger, insomuch that they did beat again the Lamanites, and drive them out of their lands.
    16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
    17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
    18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
    19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
    20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
    21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
    22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
    23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.

  5. Mormon 5:3-5 Mormon 5
    3 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come against us as we had fled to the city of Jordan; but behold, they were driven back that they did not take the city at that time.
    4 And it came to pass that they came against us again, and we did maintain the city. And there were also other cities which were maintained by the Nephites, which strongholds did cut them off that they could not get into the country which lay before us, to destroy the inhabitants of our land.
    5 And it came to pass that whatsoever lands we had passed by, and the inhabitants thereof were not gathered in, were destroyed by the Lamanites, and their towns, and villages, and cities were burned with fire; and thus three hundred and seventy and nine years passed away.
  6. Moroni 9:7-9,16-17Mormon 9
    7 And now I write somewhat concerning the sufferings of this people. For according to the knowledge which I have received from Amoron, behold, the Lamanites have many prisoners, which they took from the tower of Sherrizah; and there were men, women, and children.
    8 And the husbands and fathers of those women and children they have slain; and they feed the women upon the flesh of their husbands, and the children upon the flesh of their fathers; and no water, save a little, do they give unto them.
    9 And notwithstanding this great abomination of the Lamanites, it doth not exceed that of our people in Moriantum. For behold, many of the daughters of the Lamanites have they taken prisoners; and after depriving them of that which was most dear and precious above all things, which is chastity and virtue--
    ...
    16 And again, my son, there are many widows and their daughters who remain in Sherrizah; and that part of the provisions which the Lamanites did not carry away, behold, the army of Zenephi has carried away, and left them to wander whithersoever they can for food; and many old women do faint by the way and die.
    17 And the army which is with me is weak; and the armies of the Lamanites are betwixt Sherrizah and me; and as many as have fled to the army of Aaron have fallen victims to their awful brutality.
  7. Mormon 4:1-14Mormon 4
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    4 And it was because the armies of the Nephites went up unto the Lamanites that they began to be smitten; for were it not for that, the Lamanites could have had no power over them.
    5 But, behold, the judgments of God will overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked that the wicked are punished; for it is the wicked that stir up the hearts of the children of men unto bloodshed.
    6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
    7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    9 And now all these things had been done, and there had been thousands slain on both sides, both the Nephites and the Lamanites. 10 And it came to pass that the three hundred and sixty and sixth year had passed away, and the Lamanites came again upon the Nephites to battle; and yet the Nephites repented not of the evil they had done, but persisted in their wickedness continually.
    11 And it is impossible for the tongue to describe, or for man to write a perfect description of the horrible scene of the blood and carnage which was among the people, both of the Nephites and of the Lamanites; and every heart was hardened, so that they delighted in the shedding of blood continually.
    12 And there never had been so great wickedness among all the children of Lehi, nor even among all the house of Israel, according to the words of the Lord, as was among this people.
    13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
    14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.
  8. Ether 9:3Ether 9
    3 And the Lord warned Omer in a dream that he should depart out of the land; wherefore Omer departed out of the land with his family, and traveled many days, and came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed, and from thence eastward, and came to a place which was called Ablom, by the seashore, and there he pitched his tent, and also his sons and his daughters, and all his household, save it were Jared and his family.
  9. Ether 7:5,6,15-17Ether 7
    4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him. 5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
    16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
    17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.



Icon
image
View of Desolation and surrounding areas of conflict circa 326-380 AD. Looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : EastSea +22
+[EastSea] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {sea1,2,3,4,5} ≈ AR2
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Aaron]{city3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1,2}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1,3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Gid]{city4} ≈ IR7
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Lehi]{city4} ≈ IR7
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Lehi]{land3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Morionton]{city4} ≈ IR7
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Morionton]{land3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Moroni]{city3} ≈ IR7
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mulek]{city4} ≈ IR7
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land1}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah]{city3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah]{land3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Omner]{city4} ≈ IR7
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Lamanite land1,3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Nephite land1,3,4,5}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Nephite land1,7}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route3}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jershon]{land2}
+[EastSea]{sea} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1,3}
+[EastSea]{sea}~[WestSea]{sea} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {1.5 days water1}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
The East Sea figures prominently in Nephite geography with port cities on Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and the northern part of Lake Huron. These are all hydrologically one lake. The lakes/seas in the Book of Mormon are directionally named by their relationship to one another, not by their direction from Zarahemla. So therefore, the East Sea is east in relation to the West sea. The East and West sea are often mentioned together and are separated by a 1.5 day water journey. The West sea, Lake Superior, is west of the East Sea, lake Michigan/Huron and although it is also north, it is more west than north, and so it is called the West Sea. By the reverse logic, the East Sea is considered east rather than south. In the Book of Mormon, Nephite lands in Manti are also stated as being south of the West Sea, so that means the West Sea is north of Nephite lands (Alma 53:8 and Section 4.5.3) and the East Sea is east of both Nephite lands and the West Sea.

Modern Feature Location: Lake Michigan/Huron. Geolocation: N 45° 48' 28.9", W 84° 43' 56.0"
  1. Alma 22:27-28,32-33 Alma 22 (see Section 4.2 commentary)
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; Yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore; and also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.
    ...
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Alma 27:22 Alma 27
    22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.

  3. Alma 50:7-9,13-14,25-27,34Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
    14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.
    ...
    25 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges, there would also have been peace among the people of Nephi had it not been for a contention which took place among them concerning the land of Lehi, and the land of Morionton, which joined upon the borders of Lehi; both of which were on the borders by the seashore.
    26 For behold, the people who possessed the land of Morionton did claim a part of the land of Lehi; therefore there began to be a warm contention between them, insomuch that the people of Morionton took up arms against their brethren, and they were determined by the sword to slay them.
    27 But behold, the people who possessed the land of Lehi fled to the camp of Moroni, and appealed unto him for assistance; for behold they were not in the wrong.
    ...
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

  4. Alma 51:26 Alma 51
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  5. Alma 52:13 Alma 52
    13 And thus he was endeavoring to harass the Nephites, and to draw away a part of their forces to that part of the land, while he had commanded those whom he had left to possess the cities which he had taken, that they should also harass the Nephites on the borders by the east sea, and should take possession of their lands as much as it was in their power, according to the power of their armies.


Icon
image
Lands and cities near to the East Sea.
Icon
image
Aerial view of Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : East Wilderness +5
+[EastWilderness] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {travel route1,3} ≈ IR4 AR2
+[EastWilderness]{travel route} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land2,3}
+[EastWilderness]{travel route} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {border2,3} ≈ AR4
+[EastWilderness]{travel route} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antionum]{land2}
+[EastWilderness]{travel route} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[EastWilderness]{travel route} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Nephi]{land3}
+[EastWilderness]{travel route} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ {Lamanite ]{lands2,3}

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
The east wilderness is the alluvial plain of the Illinois river. Anciently it was dense with vegetation and trees but not a place for a permanent settlement since it's a floodplain. The east wilderness extends from St Louis Missouri almost to Chicago Illinois (city of Moroni) on the east sea. See Sections 3.3 and 4.3.2 for more information. In the Book of Mormon Lamanite hostiles would camp out in the east wilderness as a jumping off point for attacks, especially after the Zoramites joined with the Lamanites. See Alma 50.

Modern Feature Location: Illinois River bottoms, Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 40' 21.2", W 89° 35' 37.0"
  1. Alma 25:5-8Alma 25
    5 And the remainder, having fled into the east wilderness, and having usurped the power and authority over the Lamanites, caused that many of the Lamanites should perish by fire because of their belief--
    6 For many of them, after having suffered much loss and so many afflictions, began to be stirred up in remembrance of the words which Aaron and his brethren had preached to them in their land; therefore they began to disbelieve the traditions of their fathers, and to believe in the Lord, and that he gave great power unto the Nephites; and thus there were many of them converted in the wilderness.
    7 And it came to pass that those rulers who were the remnant of the children of Amulon caused that they should be put to death, yea, all those that believed in these things.
    8 Now this martyrdom caused that many of their brethren should be stirred up to anger; and there began to be contention in the wilderness; and the Lamanites began to hunt the seed of Amulon and his brethren and began to slay them; and they fled into the east wilderness.
  2. Alma 31:2-4Alma 31
    2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.
    4 Now the Nephites greatly feared that the Zoramites would enter into a correspondence with the Lamanites, and that it would be the means of great loss on the part of the Nephites.
  3. Alma 50:7-9,11Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.

Icon
image
Map shows the East Wilderness in context to nearby lands.
Icon
image
This terrain map shows a section of the East Wilderness as the Illinois River bottomlands, south of Peoria, Illinois.
Icon
image
Aerial view showing the East Wilderness from Zarahemla, looking east.
Jaredite Era.[~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Ephraim +2
+[Ephraim] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1} ≈ AR3
+[Ephraim]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nehor]{city1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The eastern tip of the Marquette Iron Range is proposed as a location for the hill Ephraim. This location is close to Lake Superior and the closest to the land of Moron. The distance is 170 miles which is 3-7 days travel by sea.

Modern Feature Location: Near Marquette, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 32' 44.8", W 87° 22' 55.2"
  1. Ether 14:9Ether 14
    9 Wherefore, he came to the hill Ephraim, and he did molten out of the hill, and made swords out of steel for those whom he had drawn away with him; and after he had armed them with swords he returned to the city Nehor and gave battle unto his brother Corihor, by which means he obtained the kingdom and restored it unto his father Kib.
Icon
image
The Hill Ephraim. Iron mining.
Icon
image
Sources of iron near Lake Superior and Jaredite land of Moron.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gad +4
+[Gad] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gad]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {fire1}
+[Gad]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Josh]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gad]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Kishcumen]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in as being destroyed by fire prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following criteria:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There are only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the IR7 Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NE. In the case of Kishcumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishcumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites, in order to find his own space as founder of the Gadianton robbers.



Modern City Location: Omaha, Nebraska. Geolocation: N 41° 14' 43.8", W 95° 55' 41.4"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishcumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

Icon
image
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen in areas populated by both Lamanites and later, Gadianton robbers.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gadiandi +3
+[Gadiandi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gadiandi]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {sunk into the earth1}
+[Gadiandi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gadiomnah]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen, Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross, Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha, Minnesota, and Gimgimno = Red Wing, Minnesota.



Modern City Location: Prairie du Chen, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 43° 02' 00.0", W 91° 08' 02.4"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk.
Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gadiomnah +4
+[Gadiomnah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gadiomnah]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {sunk into the earth1}
+[Gadiomnah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gadiandi]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gadiomnah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jacob]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen, Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross, Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha, Minnesota, and Gimgimno = Red Wing, Minnesota.



Modern City Location: La Cross, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 43° 51' 16.6", W 91° 10' 48.9"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk.
Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gid +6
+[Gid] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2,3} ≈ IR7 AR1
+[Gid]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Gid]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Bountiful]{city2,3}
+[Gid]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Morionton]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gid]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Mulek]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gid]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Omner]{city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gid]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ {Nephite lands1}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The city of Gid factors prominently in the wars of Amalickiah and is on the Bountiful/Desolation border. See also Section 4.6.2.

Modern City Location: Munuscong, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 14' 58.0", W 84° 10' 57.3"
  1. Alma 51:26 Alma 51
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.
  2. Alma 55:7,16,25-26 Alma 55
    7 Now the Nephites were guarded in the city of Gid; therefore Moroni appointed Laman and caused that a small number of men should go with him.
    ...
    16 And now this was according to the design of Moroni. And Moroni had prepared his men with weapons of war; and he went to the city Gid, while the Lamanites were in a deep sleep and drunken, and cast in weapons of war unto the prisoners, insomuch that they were all armed;
    ...
    25 And it came to pass that he did cause the Lamanites, whom he had taken prisoners, that they should commence a labor in strengthening the fortifications round about the city Gid.
    26 And it came to pass that when he had fortified the city Gid, according to his desires, he caused that his prisoners should be taken to the city Bountiful; and he also guarded that city with an exceedingly strong force.
  3. Helaman 5:14-16 Helaman 5
    14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful;
    15 And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;
    16 And even from one city to another, until they had gone forth among all the people of Nephi who were in the land southward; and from thence into the land of Zarahemla, among the Lamanites.

Icon
image
Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
Icon
image
Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gideon +17
+[Gideon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2,8} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Gideon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land3,4,5,6,7}
+[Gideon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {valley1,2}
+[Gideon]{city} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river2} ≈ AR1
+[Gideon]{city} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city2}
+[Gideon]{city} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Gideon]{valley2}
+[Gideon]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city1,2,6,7}
+[Gideon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1,2} ≈ AR1
+[Gideon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Manti]{land4} ≈ IR2
+[Gideon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land4}
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Gideon]{city2}
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river2} ≈ AR1
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city2}
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Minon]{land1}
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidon]{river2} ≈ AR1
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city2,7}
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1,4}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
We know that the land of Gideon is south and east of Zarahemla and is also less than 1 days march - because of the Amlicite war. The Amlicite battles are mapped out in detail in Section 4.4.2. The best topographical location for the city of Gideon is Hamilton, on the east side of the Mississippi, across the river from Keokuk, and at the end of the Des Moines rapids. See also Section 4.4.13. Of particular note is Alma 17:1 which gives the cardinal direction of Manti to both Gideon and Zarahemla. Gideon and Zarahemla are SOUTH. Manti is NORTH. Alma 17:1 is frequently misinterpreted as indicating Alma is traveling south to Manti however Alma is not traveling southward but is traveling FROM Manti and Manti is located southward. Obviously in normal English Alma 17:1 can be interpreted either way. However, in Book of Mormon English one is never stated as traveling in a direction but is always stated as traveling to or from a location, which has a direction.

Modern Land Location: 1-2 miles east of the Mississippi (Sidon) river between Nauvoo and Hamilton.
Modern City Location: Hamilton, Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 23' 47.8", W 91° 20' 59.3". Modern Valley Location: 2 miles Southwest of Nauvoo. Geolocation: N 40° 31' 31.8", W 91° 21' 23.3".
Modern Land Location: Area between Nauvoo and Hamilton, Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 28' 39.0", W 91° 20' 39.9"
  1. Alma 2:15-26Alma 2
    15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites. ...
    17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites. ...
    20 And it came to pass that when Alma could pursue the Amlicites no longer he caused that his people should pitch their tents in the valley of Gideon, the valley being called after that Gideon who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword; and in this valley the Nephites did pitch their tents for the night.
    21 And Alma sent spies to follow the remnant of the Amlicites, that he might know of their plans and their plots, whereby he might guard himself against them, that he might preserve his people from being destroyed.
    22 Now those whom he had sent out to watch the camp of the Amlicites were called Zeram, and Amnor, and Manti, and Limher; these were they who went out with their men to watch the camp of the Amlicites.
    23 And it came to pass that on the morrow they returned into the camp of the Nephites in great haste, being greatly astonished, and struck with much fear, saying:
    24 Behold, we followed the camp of the Amlicites, and to our great astonishment, in the land of Minon, above the land of Zarahemla, in the course of the land of Nephi, we saw a numerous host of the Lamanites; and behold, the Amlicites have joined them;
    25 And they are upon our brethren in that land; and they are fleeing before them with their flocks, and their wives, and their children, towards our city ; and except we make haste they obtain possession of our city, and our fathers, and our wives, and our children be slain.
    26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla..

  2. Alma 6:4-8Alma 6
    4 And thus they began to establish the order of the church in the city of Zarahemla.
    5 Now I would that ye should understand that the word of God was liberal unto all, that none were deprived of the privilege of assembling themselves together to hear the word of God.
    6 Nevertheless the children of God were commanded that they should gather themselves together oft, and join in fasting and mighty prayer in behalf of the welfare of the souls of those who knew not God.
    7 And now it came to pass that when Alma had made these regulations he departed from them, yea, from the church which was in the city of Zarahemla, and went over upon the east of the river Sidon, into the valley of Gideon, there having been a city built, which was called the city of Gideon, which was in the valley that was called Gideon, being called after the man who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword.
    8 And Alma went and began to declare the word of God unto the church which was established in the valley of Gideon, according to the revelation of the truth of the word which had been spoken by his fathers, and according to the spirit of prophecy which was in him, according to the testimony of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who should come to redeem his people from their sins, and the holy order by which he was called. And thus it is written. Amen.

  3. Alma 8:1 Alma 8
    1 And now it came to pass that Alma returned from the land of Gideon, after having taught the people of Gideon many things which cannot be written, having established the order of the church, according as he had before done in the land of Zarahemla, yea, he returned to his own house at Zarahemla to rest himself from the labors which he had performed.

  4. Alma 17:1 Alma 17
    1 And now it came to pass that as Alma was journeying from the land of Gideon southward, away to the land of Manti, behold, to his astonishment, he met with the sons of Mosiah journeying towards the land of Zarahemla.

  5. Alma 30:21 Alma 30
    21 And it came to pass that he caused that he should be carried out of the land. And he came over into the land of Gideon, and began to preach unto them also; and here he did not have much success, for he was taken and bound and carried before the high priest, and also the chief judge over the land.

  6. Alma 61:4-5,8 Alma 61
    4 And it is those who have sought to take away the judgment-seat from me that have been the cause of this great iniquity; for they have used great flattery, and they have led away the hearts of many people, which will be the cause of sore affliction among us; they have withheld our provisions, and have daunted our freemen that they have not come unto you.
    5 And behold, they have driven me out before them, and I have fled to the land of Gideon, with as many men as it were possible that I could get.
    ...
    8 They have got possession of the land, or the city, of Zarahemla; they have appointed a king over them, and he hath written unto the king of the Lamanites, in the which he hath joined an alliance with him; in the which alliance he hath agreed to maintain the city of Zarahemla, which maintenance he supposeth will enable the Lamanites to conquer the remainder of the land, and he shall be placed king over this people when they shall be conquered under the Lamanites.


  7. Alma 62:3-4,6 Alma 62
    3 And it came to pass that Moroni took a small number of men, according to the desire of Pahoran, and gave Lehi and Teancum command over the remainder of his army, and took his march towards the land of Gideon.
    4 And he did raise the standard of liberty in whatsoever place he did enter, and gained whatsoever force he could in all his march towards the land of Gideon.
    ...
    6 And thus, when Moroni had gathered together whatsoever men he could in all his march, he came to the land of Gideon; and uniting his forces with those of Pahoran they became exceedingly strong, even stronger than the men of Pachus, who was the king of those dissenters who had driven the freemen out of the land of Zarahemla and had taken possession of the land.

  8. Helaman 13:12-16 Helaman 13
    12 Yea, wo unto this great city of Zarahemla; for behold, it is because of those who are righteous that it is saved; yea, wo unto this great city, for I perceive, saith the Lord, that there are many, yea, even the more part of this great city, that will harden their hearts against me, saith the Lord.
    13 But blessed are they who will repent, for them will I spare. But behold, if it were not for the righteous who are in this great city, behold, I would cause that fire should come down out of heaven and destroy it.
    14 But behold, it is for the righteous' sake that it is spared. But behold, the time cometh, saith the Lord, that when ye shall cast out the righteous from among you, then shall ye be ripe for destruction; yea, wo be unto this great city, because of the wickedness and abominations which are in her.
    15 Yea, and wo be unto the city of Gideon, for the wickedness and abominations which are in her.
    16 Yea, and wo be unto all the cities which are in the land round about, which are possessed by the Nephites, because of the wickedness and abominations which are in them.

Icon
image
Aerial view of land, city, and valley of Gideon. Looking west.
Icon
image
Map showing land, city, and valley of Gideon.
Jaredite Era.[~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Gilgal +2
+[Gilgal] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {valley1} ≈ AR3
+[Gilgal]{valley} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Heshlon]{plains1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The valley of Gilgal is the gateway to Moron from the south and has what can be considered "plains" to the south. Any army approaching Moron from the south would have to go through this chosen location for Gilgal.

Modern Feature Location: Garden River, Ontario. Geolocation: N 46° 33' 16.6", W 84° 11' 03.4"
  1. Ether 14:28-31Ether 14
    28 And it came to pass that Shared fought against him for the space of three days. And it came to pass that Coriantumr beat him, and did pursue him until he came to the plains of Heshlon.
    29 And it came to pass that Shared gave him battle again upon the plains; and behold, he did beat Coriantumr, and drove him back again to the valley of Gilgal.
    30 And Coriantumr gave Shared battle again in the valley of Gilgal, in which he beat Shared and slew him.
    31 And Shared wounded Coriantumr in his thigh, that he did not go to battle again for the space of two years, in which time all the people upon the face of the land were shedding blood, and there was none to restrain them.

Icon
image
Showing the valley of Gilgal (not be confused with the Nephite city of Gilgal).
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gilgal2 +2
+[Gilgal2] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gilgal2]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {sunk into the earth1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
There is nothing in the text to identify the location of Gilgal except that it was destroyed by being "sunk". This leads to a reasonable supposition that it shares location and topography with the cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno which are placed along the Mississippi/Sidon in Wisconsin and Iowa. The most favorable location, not already taken, is chosen.

Modern City Location: Dubuque, Iowa. Geolocation: N 42° 30' 50.3", W 90° 40' 04.4"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:6 3 Nephi 9
    6 And behold, the city of Gilgal have I caused to be sunk, and the inhabitants thereof to be buried up in the depths of the earth;


Icon
image
The cities of Gilgal, Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk at the coming of Christ.
Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : GreatJarediteCity +8
+[GreatJarediteCity] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ AR1 AR3 IR2
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1+2+3+4} ≈ AR3
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Moron]{land3+4+5} ≈ AR3
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [JarediteLandSouthward]{land1+2+4} ≈ AR3
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage1+3} ≈ AR3
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land1,4} ≈ AR3
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WhereSeaDividesLand]{feature1,3+4} ≈ AR3
+[GreatJarediteCity]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [OreMines]{place1+4} ≈ AR3

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
"Where the sea divides the land" near the "narrow neck of land" are major clues for the location of this "great" (large) yet unnamed Jaredite city. Although the Book of Mormon says there were "many cities" for the Jaredites (Ether 10:4) only two are mentioned. The location of the "great city" is proposed to be near the water border (frequently referred to elsewhere in the Book of Mormon) between the Nephite lands of Bountiful and Desolation. In early Nephite times the most strategic spot for control of trade and military advantage was the prominent city of Bountiful which served as the gateway between Lake Superior (West Sea) and Lake Michigan/Huron (East Sea). Along this border route the same positional advantages would have applied to the Jaredites as well as the Nephites. Therefore, it is proposed that the great unnamed Jaredite city is in the Jaredite land of Moron and is the same or very close to the Nephite city of Bountiful.

Modern City Location: Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 29' 59.1", W 84° 20' 41.1"
  1. Alma 22:30-33 Alma 22
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Helaman 3:5-10 Helaman 3
    5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
    6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
    7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell.
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.
    9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings.
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.

  3. Ether 7:5,6,15-17Ether 7
    4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him.
    5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
    16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
    17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.
    18 And it came to pass as he was about to put him to death, the sons of Shule crept into the house of Noah by night and slew him, and broke down the door of the prison and brought out their father, and placed him upon his throne in his own kingdom.

  4. Ether 10:20-23 Ether 10
    20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
    22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain.
    23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.

  5. Ether 14:3-15Ether 14
    3 And now, after the space of two years, and after the death of Shared, behold, there arose the brother of Shared and he gave battle unto Coriantumr, in which Coriantumr did beat him and did pursue him to the wilderness of Akish.
    4 And it came to pass that the brother of Shared did give battle unto him in the wilderness of Akish; and the battle became exceedingly sore, and many thousands fell by the sword.
    5 And it came to pass that Coriantumr did lay siege to the wilderness; and the brother of Shared did march forth out of the wilderness by night, and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr, as they were drunken.
    6 And he came forth to the land of Moron, and placed himself upon the throne of Coriantumr.
    7 And it came to pass that Coriantumr dwelt with his army in the wilderness for the space of two years, in which he did receive great strength to his army.
    8 Now the brother of Shared, whose name was Gilead, also received great strength to his army, because of secret combinations. 9 And it came to pass that his high priest murdered him as he sat upon his throne.
    10 And it came to pass that one of the secret combinations murdered him in a secret pass, and obtained unto himself the kingdom; and his name was Lib; and Lib was a man of great stature, more than any other man among all the people.
    11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
    12 And it came to pass that he fought with Lib, in which Lib did smite upon his arm that he was wounded; nevertheless, the army of Coriantumr did press forward upon Lib, that he fled to the borders upon the seashore.
    13 And it came to pass that Coriantumr pursued him; and Lib gave battle unto him upon the seashore.
    14 And it came to pass that Lib did smite the army of Coriantumr, that they fled again to the wilderness of Akish.
    15 And it came to pass that Lib did pursue him until he came to the plains of Agosh. And Coriantumr had taken all the people with him as he fled before Lib in that quarter of the land whither he fled.


Icon
image
Showing the proposed location of the "great city" to be in the land of Moron.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gimgimno +3
+[Gimgimno] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Gimgimno]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {sunk into the earth2}
+[Gimgimno]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jacob]{city2} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR1 AR3

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen, Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross, Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha, Minnesota, and Gimgimno = Red Wing, Minnesota.



Modern City Location: Red Wing, Minnesota. Geolocation: N 44° 34' 06.7", W 92° 35' 05.4"
  1. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk at the coming of Christ.
Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Hagoth +5
+[Hagoth] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place1} ≈ AR1
+[Hagoth]{ships} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1}
+[Hagoth]{ships} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land1}
+[Hagoth]{ships} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1}
+[Hagoth]{ships} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1}
+[Hagoth]{ships} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1,2}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
Nephite technology included metal working, "machinery", monetary currency, writing, animal domestication, and ship building. Water craft must have been very important given the many rivers and proximity to the great lakes. Note that Hagoths ship was noteworthy not because he built it but because it was "exceedingly large". Five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children plus timber is a lot to convey on this and "other ships" mentioned. Based on the description, the launch point is into the west sea (not Ste. Marie's River), and on the border of Bountiful near to the land Desolation.

Modern Place Location: Cedar Point at Round Island Point Nature Preserve, Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 26' 45.1", W 84° 29' 54.3"
  1. Alma 63:4-9 Alma 63
    4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward.
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
    6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
    7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.
    8 And it came to pass that they were never heard of more. And we suppose that they were drowned in the depths of the sea. And it came to pass that one other ship also did sail forth; and whither she did go we know not.
    9 And it came to pass that in this year there were many people who went forth into the land northward. And thus ended the thirty and eighth year.

  2. Helaman 3:10,14 Helaman 3
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    ...
    14 But behold, a hundredth part of the proceedings of this people, yea, the account of the Lamanites and of the Nephites, and their wars, and contentions, and dissensions, and their preaching, and their prophecies, and their shipping and their building of ships, and their building of temples, and of synagogues and their sanctuaries, and their righteousness, and their wickedness, and their murders, and their robbings, and their plundering, and all manner of abominations and whoredoms, cannot be contained in this work.

Icon
image
Cedar Point at Round Island Point Nature Preserve, Michigan. Launch area for ships built by Hagoth for northern migration.
Icon
image
Overall map view of launch area for ships built by Hagoth for northern migration.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Helam +9
+[Helam] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ AR1 AR3 AR7 AR9 AR10
+[Helam] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3} ≈ AR1 AR7 AR9 AR10
+[Helam]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness1,3}
+[Helam]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {pure water1}
+[Helam]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Amulon]{land1}
+[Helam]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{land3}
+[Helam]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Midian]{land3}
+[Helam]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1,2}
+[Helam]{land}~[Alma]{valley} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {1 day3}
+[Helam]{land}~[WatersOfMormon]{fountain} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {8 days1}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
AR9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 5 mph.
AR10Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 5 mph.
Helam is where the converted people of Alma travel to after being baptized at the WatersOfMormon. It is 8 days travel north in the direction of the land of Nephi until they reach Helam. We know Helam in the same general region as the city of Jerusalem -- and it is because of this that we know it is also in the region of Middoni, Anti-Anti, and Amulon. See Sections 4.3.5 and 4.3.5 travel charts for a detailed analysis on how the distances work out. In summary, the 8 days travel can be accounted for by either a land or river journey.

Modern City Location: Chrystal City, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 13' 24.0", W 90° 22' 46.3"
  1. Mosiah 23:3-4,19-20,25-39 Mosiah 23
    3 And they fled eight days' journey into the wilderness.
    4 And they came to a land, yea, even a very beautiful and pleasant land, a land of pure water.
    ...
    19 And it came to pass that they began to prosper exceedingly in the land; and they called the land Helam.
    20 And it came to pass that they did multiply and prosper exceedingly in the land of Helam; and they built a city, which they called the city of Helam.
    ...
    25 For behold, it came to pass that while they were in the land of Helam, yea, in the city of Helam, while tilling the land round about, behold an army of the Lamanites was in the borders of the land.
    26 Now it came to pass that the brethren of Alma fled from their fields, and gathered themselves together in the city of Helam; and they were much frightened because of the appearance of the Lamanites.
    27 But Alma went forth and stood among them, and exhorted them that they should not be frightened, but that they should remember the Lord their God and he would deliver them.
    28 Therefore they hushed their fears, and began to cry unto the Lord that he would soften the hearts of the Lamanites, that they would spare them, and their wives, and their children.
    29 And it came to pass that the Lord did soften the hearts of the Lamanites. And Alma and his brethren went forth and delivered themselves up into their hands; and the Lamanites took possession of the land of Helam.
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
    31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
    32 Now the name of the leader of those priests was Amulon.
    33 And it came to pass that Amulon did plead with the Lamanites; and he also sent forth their wives, who were the daughters of the Lamanites, to plead with their brethren, that they should not destroy their husbands.
    34 And the Lamanites had compassion on Amulon and his brethren, and did not destroy them, because of their wives.
    35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

  2. Mosiah 27:16 Mosiah 27
    16 Now I say unto thee: Go, and remember the captivity of thy fathers in the land of Helam, and in the land of Nephi; and remember how great things he has done for them; for they were in bondage, and he has delivered them. And now I say unto thee, Alma, go thy way, and seek to destroy the church no more, that their prayers may be answered, and this even if thou wilt of thyself be cast off.

  3. Alma 24:1,20-23 Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amlicites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam, and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amlicites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.
    ...
    20 And Alma and his people departed into the wilderness; and when they had traveled all day they pitched their tents in a valley, and they called the valley Alma, because he led their way in the wilderness.
    21 Yea, and in the valley of Alma they poured out their thanks to God because he had been merciful unto them, and eased their burdens, and had delivered them out of bondage; for they were in bondage, and none could deliver them except it were the Lord their God.
    22 And they gave thanks to God, yea, all their men and all their women and all their children that could speak lifted their voices in the praises of their God.
    23 And now the Lord said unto Alma: Haste thee and get thou and this people out of this land, for the Lamanites have awakened and do pursue thee; therefore get thee out of this land, and I will stop the Lamanites in this valley that they come no further in pursuit of this people.

Icon
image
Waters of Mormon in relation to Helam and valley of Alma.
Icon
image
Aerial view of the valley of Alma, and in the background, the city of Helam.
Icon
image
Distance from Helam to the valley of Alma shown is 10.39 miles. See also Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Hermounts +7
+[Hermounts] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {wilderness1} ≈ IR1
+[Hermounts]{wilderness} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {wild beasts1}
+[Hermounts]{wilderness} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1} ≈ AR1
+[Hermounts]{wilderness} ⇒ <west of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1} ≈ AR1
+[Hermounts]{wilderness} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city1}
+[Hermounts]{wilderness} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city1}
+[Hermounts]{wilderness} ⇒ <west of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{city1}
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
Hermounts is explicitly stated as being immediately north and west and Zarahemla so it is not difficult to place. Of interest, all directions in the Book of Mormon are stated in only one of the four cardinal directions, with Hermounts being the only exception as being both north and west of Zarahemla. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation for explanation on the use of the term "wilderness" which is any place unfit for permanent habitation. It is most commonly used with river bottom land areas but in this case it is because of the wild beasts that inhabit the area. See also the Amlicite war and diagrams in Section 4.4.2. See also Section 3.4.4.

Modern City Location: greater area of Donnellson, Iowa. Geolocation: N 40° 38' 17.7", W 91° 33' 43.1"
  1. Alma 2:26-28,35-38Alma 2
    26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla.
    27 And behold, as they were crossing the river Sidon, the Lamanites and the Amlicites, being as numerous almost, as it were, as the sands of the sea, came upon them to destroy them.
    28 Nevertheless, the Nephites being strengthened by the hand of the Lord, having prayed mightily to him that he would deliver them out of the hands of their enemies, therefore the Lord did hear their cries, and did strengthen them, and the Lamanites and the Amlicites did fall before them.
    ...
    35 And it came to pass that when they had all crossed the river Sidon that the Lamanites and the Amlicites began to flee before them, notwithstanding they were so numerous that they could not be numbered.
    36 And they fled before the Nephites towards the wilderness which was west and north, away beyond the borders of the land; and the Nephites did pursue them with their might, and did slay them.
    37 Yea, they were met on every hand, and slain and driven, until they were scattered on the west, and on the north, until they had reached the wilderness, which was called Hermounts; and it was that part of the wilderness which was infested by wild and ravenous beasts.
    38 And it came to pass that many died in the wilderness of their wounds, and were devoured by those beasts and also the vultures of the air; and their bones have been found, and have been heaped up on the earth.


Icon
image
Aerial view of the region of Zarahemla. Looking west with Hermounts to the north and west of Zarahemla.
Icon
image
Map showing nearby regions of Zarahemla, including Hermounts.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Heth +3
+[Heth] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1} ≈ AR3
+[Heth]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moron]{land1+2} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

Regarding Heth, we know only that it is the location of a rival kingdom to the one in Moron. It appears that it was in close proximity also since the new king Jared was able to "flatter" many people from his fathers kingdom to join his. It makes some sense that the Heth would be in a close but strategic location, and easy to travel to. Topographically the most strategic location would be on the modern border between Upper Michigan and Ontario Canada, and the same place that the Mormon's Nephites chose as a strategic and defensible position (see Desolation2).

Modern Land Location: St Josephs Island, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 13' 06.6", W 83° 57' 26.6"
  1. Ether 7:5,6,15-17Ether 7
    5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
    16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
    17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.


  2. Ether 8:1,2Ether 8
    1 And it came to pass that he begat Omer, and Omer reigned in his stead. And Omer begat Jared; and Jared begat sons and daughters.
    2 And Jared rebelled against his father, and came and dwelt in the land of Heth. And it came to pass that he did flatter many people, because of his cunning words, until he had gained the half of the kingdom.

Icon
image
The land of Heth, same as the Nephite Desolation2.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Heshlon +2
+[Heshlon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {plains1} ≈ AR3
+[Heshlon]{plains} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gilgal]{valley1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The proposed location is the best place that is close to the plains of Gilgal, in my opinion.

Modern Feature Location: Somewhat east of Echo River (town name), Ontario. Geolocation: N 46° 30' 32.7", W 84° 02' 16.6"
  1. Ether 13:27-30Ether 13
    27 And it came to pass that Coriantumr was exceedingly angry with Shared, and he went against him with his armies to battle; and they did meet in great anger, and they did meet in the valley of Gilgal; and the battle became exceedingly sore.
    28 And it came to pass that Shared fought against him for the space of three days. And it came to pass that Coriantumr beat him, and did pursue him until he came to the plains of Heshlon.
    29 And it came to pass that Shared gave him battle again upon the plains; and behold, he did beat Coriantumr, and drove him back again to the valley of Gilgal.
    30 And Coriantumr gave Shared battle again in the valley of Gilgal, in which he beat Shared and slew him.
    31 And Shared wounded Coriantumr in his thigh, that he did not go to battle again for the space of two years, in which time all the people upon the face of the land were shedding blood, and there was none to restrain them.


Icon
image
Showing the proposed location for the plains of Heshlon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Hill_NS +4
+[Hill_NS] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1,2} ≈ AR3
+[Hill_NS]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{city1}
+[Hill_NS]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {wilderness1}
+[Hill_NS]{hill} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Shilom]{land1,2}

AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The Hill north of Shilom has no specific name so I designate it Hill_NS. It would be the highest spot with the best view and most immune to flooding where the original French settlers established St Louis.

Modern City Location: Old Frenchtown, St Louis, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 37' 00.1", W 90° 12' 06.1"
  1. Mosiah 7:3-7,16Mosiah 7
    3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
    4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
    5 And when they had wandered forty days they came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom, and there they pitched their tents.
    6 And Ammon took three of his brethren, and their names were Amaleki, Helem, and Hem, and they went down into the land of Nephi.
    7 And behold, they met the king of the people who were in the land of Nephi, and in the land of Shilom; and they were surrounded by the king's guard, and were taken, and were bound, and were committed to prison.
    ...
    16 And now, king Limhi commanded his guards that they should no more bind Ammon nor his brethren, but caused that they should go to hill which was north of Shilom, and bring their brethren into the city, that thereby they might eat, and drink, and rest themselves from the labors of their journey; for they had suffered many things; they had suffered hunger, thirst, and fatigue.

  2. Mosiah 11:8-13Mosiah 11
    8 And it came to pass that king Noah built many elegant and spacious buildings; and he ornamented them with fine work of wood, and of all manner of precious things, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of brass, and of ziff, and of copper;
    9 And he also built him a spacious palace, and a throne in the midst thereof, all of which was of fine wood and was ornamented with gold and silver and with precious things.
    10 And he also caused that his workmen should work all manner of fine work within the walls of the temple, of fine wood, and of copper, and of brass.
    11 And the seats which were set apart for the high priests, which were above all the other seats, he did ornament with pure gold; and he caused a breastwork to be built before them, that they might rest their bodies and their arms upon while they should speak lying and vain words to his people.
    12 And it came to pass that he built a tower near the temple; yea, a very high tower, even so high that he could stand upon the top thereof and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon, which was possessed by the Lamanites; and he could even look over all the land round about.
    13 And it came to pass that he caused many buildings to be built in the land Shilom; and he caused a great tower to be built on the hill north of the land Shilom, which had been a resort for the children of Nephi at the time they fled out of the land; and thus he did do with the riches which he obtained by the taxation of his people.


Icon
image
View of Shilom and the hill north of Shilom, looking north.
Icon
image
View of Shilom and the hill north of Shilom, looking west.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : HillManti +3
+[HillManti] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill2}
+[HillManti]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1,2}
+[HillManti]{hill} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {execution of Nehor1,2}
There is no indication that the hill Manti has any connection with the land/city of Manti. With Zarahemla being the capital city, it is assumed to be near the location of the judgement seat to which Nehor was brought (for example, see Helaman 7-9). Therefore the place of execution, the hill Manti, would likely also be nearby. The hill chosen is the most prominent at the approach to Zarahemla from the south.

Modern City Location: Bluff Park, Iowa. Geolocation: N 40° 31' 40.7", W 91° 24' 14.6"
  1. Helaman 7:1 8:26-27 9:1-2Helaman 7
    1 Behold, now it came to pass in the sixty and ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of the Nephites, that Nephi, the son of Helaman, returned to the land of Zarahemla from the land northward.
    ...
    Helaman 8
    26 Yea, even at this time ye are ripening, because of your murders and your fornication and wickedness, for everlasting destruction; yea, and except ye repent it will come unto you soon.
    27 Yea, behold it is now even at your doors; yea, go ye in unto the judgment-seat, and search; and behold, your judge is murdered, and he lieth in his blood; and he hath been murdered by his brother, who seeketh to sit in the judgment-seat.
    ...
    Helaman 9
    1 Behold, now it came to pass that when Nephi had spoken these words, certain men who were among them ran to the judgment-seat; yea, even there were five who went, and they said among themselves, as they went:
    2 Behold, now we will know of a surety whether this man be a prophet and God hath commanded him to prophesy such marvelous things unto us. Behold, we do not believe that he hath; yea, we do not believe that he is a prophet; nevertheless, if this thing which he has said concerning the chief judge be true, that he be dead, then will we believe that the other words which he has spoken are true.
  2. Alma 1:2,8-10,13-15Alma 1
    2 And it came to pass that in the first year of the reign of Alma in the judgment-seat, there was a man brought before him to be judged, a man who was large, and was noted for his much strength. ...
    8 Now the name of the man was Gideon; and it was he who was an instrument in the hands of God in delivering the people of Limhi out of bondage.
    9 Now, because Gideon withstood him with the words of God he was wroth with Gideon, and drew his sword and began to smite him. Now Gideon being stricken with many years, therefore he was not able to withstand his blows, therefore he was slain by the sword.
    10 And the man who slew him was taken by the people of the church, and was brought before Alma, to be judged according to the crimes which he had committed.
    ...
    13 And thou hast shed the blood of a righteous man, yea, a man who has done much good among this people; and were we to spare thee his blood would come upon us for vengeance.
    14 Therefore thou art condemned to die, according to the law which has been given us by Mosiah, our last king; and it has been acknowledged by this people; therefore this people must abide by the law.
    15 And it came to pass that they took him; and his name was Nehor; and they carried him upon the top of the hill Manti, and there he was caused, or rather did acknowledge, between the heavens and the earth, that what he had taught to the people was contrary to the word of God; and there he suffered an ignominious death.

Icon
image
Aerial view showing location of hill Manti just south of Zarahemla.
Icon
image
Topographical map showing hill Manti.
Icon
image
View from top of hill Manti. Brown river shading shows aproximate extent prior to Keokuk dam.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Ishmael +11
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6,7} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Sebus]{waters1}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {wilderness1}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lemuel]{city5}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Middoni]{land2,3,4,5}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Midian]{land6}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{city5}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1,4,7}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land5}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{land5}
+[Ishmael]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shimnilom]{city5}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Ishmael is in the heartland of Lamanite territory near the land of Nephi of about 76 BC and we know about Ishmael because of the missionary journeys of the sons of Mosiah. It was their first Lamanite city encountered in the trip from Zarahemla, where Ammon departed from his fellow misionaries.S ee Section 4.3.3.

Modern City Location: St Charles, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 46' 42.4", W 90° 28' 57.8"
  1. Alma 17:7-8,13,18-21,26,34Alma 17
    7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
    8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass when they had arrived in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, that they separated themselves and departed one from another, trusting in the Lord that they should meet again at the close of their harvest; for they supposed that great was the work which they had undertaken.
    ...
    17 Therefore they separated themselves one from another, and went forth among them, every man alone, according to the word and power of God which was given unto him.
    18 Now Ammon being the chief among them, or rather he did administer unto them, and he departed from them, after having blessed them according to their several stations, having imparted the word of God unto them, or administered unto them before his departure; and thus they took their several journeys throughout the land.
    19 And Ammon went to the land of Ishmael, the land being called after the sons of Ishmael, who also became Lamanites.
    20 And as Ammon entered the land of Ishmael, the Lamanites took him and bound him, as was their custom to bind all the Nephites who fell into their hands, and carry them before the king; and thus it was left to the pleasure of the king to slay them, or to retain them in captivity, or to cast them into prison, or to cast them out of his land, according to his will and pleasure.
    21 And thus Ammon was carried before the king who was over the land of Ishmael; and his name was Lamoni; and he was a descendant of Ishmael.
    26 And after he had been in the service of the king three days, as he was with the Lamanitish servants going forth with their flocks to the place of water, which was called the water of Sebus, and all the Lamanites drive their flocks hither, that they may have water-- ...
    34 Therefore, they did as Ammon commanded them, and he went forth and stood to contend with those who stood by the waters of Sebus; and they were in number not a few.

  2. Alma 20:14-15 Alma 20
    14 Now the father of Lamoni commanded him that he should slay Ammon with the sword. And he also commanded him that he should not go to the land of Middoni, but that he should return with him to the land of Ishmael.
    15 But Lamoni said unto him: I will not slay Ammon, neither will I return to the land of Ishmael, but I go to the land of Middoni that I may release the brethren of Ammon, for I know that they are just men and holy prophets of the true God.

  3. Alma 21:18-21 Alma 21
    18 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni returned from the land of Middoni to the land of Ishmael, which was the land of their inheritance.
    19 And king Lamoni would not suffer that Ammon should serve him, or be his servant.
    20 But he caused that there should be synagogues built in the land of Ishmael; and he caused that his people, or the people who were under his reign, should assemble themselves together.
    21 And he did rejoice over them, and he did teach them many things. And he did also declare unto them that they were a people who were under him, and that they were a free people, that they were free from the oppressions of the king, his father; for that his father had granted unto him that he might reign over the people who were in the land of Ishmael, and in all the land round about.

  4. Alma 22:1,4 Alma 22
    1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually, we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi, even to the house of the king which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
    ...
    4 And Aaron said unto the king: Behold, the Spirit of the Lord has called him another way; he has gone to the land of Ishmael, to teach the people of Lamoni.

  5. Alma 23:8-13 Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

  6. Alma 24:5 Alma 24
    24 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.

  7. Alma 25:13 Alma 25
    13 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that they could not overpower the Nephites they returned again to their own land; and many of them came over to dwell in the land of Ishmael and the land of Nephi, and did join themselves to the people of God, who were the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi.

Icon
image
View of Ishmael and nearby cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Ishmael and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jacob +4
+[Jacob] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Jacob]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {sunk and buried1,2} ≈ IR2
+[Jacob]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gimgimno]{city2}
+[Jacob]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gadiomnah]{city2}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen, Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross, Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha, Minnesota, and Gimgimno = Red Wing, Minnesota.



Modern City Location: Wabasha, Michigan. Geolocation: N 44° 22' 40.4", W 92° 01' 20.7"
  1. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof
    ; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk at the coming of Christ.
Icon
image
The cities of Gadiomnah, Gadiandi, Jacob, and Gimgimno in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jacobugath +3
+[Jacobugath] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2} ≈ IR2 AR1 AR3
+[Jacobugath]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {fire2}
+[Jacobugath]{city} ⇒ <northernmost> ⇒ {land1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The most northernmost part of the land is the Keweenaw peninsula, which is a key location due to the ore mines found there and thus a strategic location indeed. It could be as far north as Copper Harbor but an actual settlement makes more sense further inland but with good access to Lake Superior. See Section 3.5.2.

Modern City Location: Hancock, Michigan. Geolocation: N 47° 07' 34.7", W 88° 35' 15.7"
  1. 3 Nephi 7:9,12 3 Nephi 7
    9 Now this secret combination, which had brought so great iniquity upon the people, did gather themselves together, and did place at their head a man whom they did call Jacob;
    ...
    12 Therefore, Jacob seeing that their enemies were more numerous than they, he being the king of the band, therefore he commanded his people that they should take their flight into the northernmost part of the land, and there build up unto themselves a kingdom, until they were joined by dissenters, (for he flattered them that there would be many dissenters) and they become sufficiently strong to contend with the tribes of the people; and they did so.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    9 And behold, that great city Jacobugath, which was inhabited by the people of king Jacob, have I caused to be burned with fire because of their sins and their wickedness, which was above all the wickedness of the whole earth, because of their secret murders and combinations; for it was they that did destroy the peace of my people and the government of the land; therefore I did cause them to be burned, to destroy them from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up unto me any more against them.

Icon
image
Map with Jacobugath. This strategic location is the furthest north of all Nephite cities. See Section 3.5.2.
Icon
image
View of the Keweenaw peninsula that extends into Lake Superior. The Keweenaw Waterway flows north and the Portage river goes south.
Icon
image
Ancient copper mining on the Keweenaw peninsula.
Icon
image
Topography of Keweenaw peninsula.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Jashon +9
+[Jashon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Jashon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antum]{land1+2}
+[Jashon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Joshua]{land2}
+[Jashon]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Shem]{city2}
+[Jashon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Shem]{city2}
+[Jashon]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Shem]{land2}
+[Jashon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Shem]{land2}
+[Jashon]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Joshua]{land2}
+[Jashon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Joshua]{land2}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The city Jashon is mentioned as being near the hill Shim therefore Jashon must be near Antum since Shim is in Antum. Jashon is placed north of Shim and Antum at the most natural place available, which is where the Garden River flows and empties into the St Marys river.

Modern City Location: Garden River, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 31' 56.5", W 84° 09' 22.2"
  1. Mormon 1:1-5Mormon 1
    1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
    2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
    3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
    4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
    5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
  2. Mormon 2:16,17Mormon 2
    5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
    6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
    ...
    16 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and forty and fifth year the Nephites did begin to flee before the Lamanites; and they were pursued until they came even to the land of Jashon, before it was possible to stop them in their retreat.
    17 And now, the city of Jashon was near the land where Ammaron had deposited the records unto the Lord, that they might not be destroyed. And behold I had gone according to the word of Ammaron, and taken the plates of Nephi, and did make a record according to the words of Ammaron.
    ...
    20 And it came to pass that in this year the people of Nephi again were hunted and driven. And it came to pass that we were driven forth until we had come northward to the land which was called Shem.
    21 And it came to pass that we did fortify the city of Shem, and we did gather in our people as much as it were possible, that perhaps we might save them from destruction.
Icon
image
View of Jashon and surrounding areas of conflict circa 326-380 AD. Looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jershon +8
+[Jershon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city6} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Jershon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Antionum]{land4}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Melek]{land5}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Antionum]{land4}
+[Jershon]{land}~[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <separated by> ⇒ {wilderness1,2}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Jershon is a large land area in the center of Nephite territory. For map of the migrations of the People of Ammon, see Section 4.4.4. When the Nephites ceded this land to the People of Ammon, they gave up a vast but sparsely populated area in the center of their lands. Jershon extended far north and then to the East Sea (Lake Michigan). The location also provides buffer zones to for protection from Lamanite incursions. The city of Jershon is placed where the Iowa River meets the Rock Island river.

Modern City Location: Rock Island, Illinois. Geolocation: N 41° 29' 23.3", W 90° 35' 08.2"
  1. Alma 27:22-26 Alma 27
    22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.
    23 And behold, we will set our armies between the land Jershon and the land Nephi, that we may protect our brethren in the land Jershon; and this we do for our brethren, on account of their fear to take up arms against their brethren lest they should commit sin; and this their great fear came because of their sore repentance which they had, on account of their many murders and their awful wickedness.
    24 And now behold, this will we do unto our brethren, that they may inherit the land Jershon; and we will guard them from their enemies with our armies, on condition that they will give us a portion of their substance to assist us that we may maintain our armies.
    25 Now, it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he returned to the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, and also Alma with him, into the wilderness, where they had pitched their tents, and made known unto them all these things. And Alma also related unto them his conversion, with Ammon and Aaron, and his brethren.
    26 And it came to pass that it did cause great joy among them. And they went down into the land of Jershon, and took possession of the land of Jershon; and they were called by the Nephites the people of Ammon; therefore they were distinguished by that name ever after.

  2. Alma 28:1,8 Alma 28
    1 And now it came to pass that after the people of Ammon were established in the land of Jershon, and a church also established in the land of Jershon, and the armies of the Nephites were set round about the land of Jershon, yea, in all the borders round about the land of Zarahemla; behold the armies of the Lamanites had followed their brethren into the wilderness.
    ...
    8 And this is the account of Ammon and his brethren, their journeyings in the land of Nephi, their sufferings in the land, their sorrows, and their afflictions, and their incomprehensible joy, and the reception and safety of the brethren in the land of Jershon. And now may the Lord, the Redeemer of all men, bless their souls forever.

  3. Alma 30:1,6,19 Alma 30
    1 Behold, now it came to pass that after the people of Ammon were established in the land of Jershon, yea, and also after the Lamanites were driven out of the land, and their dead were buried by the people of the land--
    ...
    6 But it came to pass in the latter end of the seventeenth year, there came a man into the land of Zarahemla, and he was Anti-Christ, for he began to preach unto the people against the prophecies which had been spoken by the prophets, concerning the coming of Christ.
    ...
    19 Now this man went over to the land of Jershon also, to preach these things among the people of Ammon, who were once the people of the Lamanites.

  4. Alma 31:3 Alma 31
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.

  5. Alma 35:1,2,6,8,13,14 Alma 35
    1 Now it came to pass that after Amulek had made an end of these words, they withdrew themselves from the multitude and came over into the land of Jershon.
    2 Yea, and the rest of the brethren, after they had preached the word unto the Zoramites, also came over into the land of Jershon.
    ...
    6 And it came to pass that after they had found out the minds of all the people, those who were in favor of the words which had been spoken by Alma and his brethren were cast out of the land; and they were many; and they came over also into the land of Jershon.
    ...
    8 Now the people of the Zoramites were angry with the people of Ammon who were in Jershon, and the chief ruler of the Zoramites, being a very wicked man, sent over unto the people of Ammon desiring them that they should cast out of their land all those who came over from them into their land.
    ...
    13 And the people of Ammon departed out of the land of Jershon, and came over into the land of Melek, and gave place in the land of Jershon for the armies of the Nephites, that they might contend with the armies of the Lamanites and the armies of the Zoramites; and thus commenced a war betwixt the Lamanites and the Nephites, in the eighteenth year of the reign of the judges; and an account shall be given of their wars hereafter.
    14 And Alma, and Ammon, and their brethren, and also the two sons of Alma returned to the land of Zarahemla, after having been instruments in the hands of God of bringing many of the Zoramites to repentance; and as many as were brought to repentance were driven out of their land; but they have lands for their inheritance in the land of Jershon, and they have taken up arms to defend themselves, and their wives, and children, and their lands.

  6. Alma 43:4-5,15 Alma 43
    4 For behold, it came to pass that the Zoramites became Lamanites; therefore, in the commencement of the eighteenth year the people of the Nephites saw that the Lamanites were coming upon them; therefore they made preparations for war; yea, they gathered together their armies in the land of Jershon.
    5 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came with their thousands; and they came into the land of Antionum, which is the land of the Zoramites; and a man by the name of Zerahemnah was their leader.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass as the armies of the Lamanites had gathered together in the land of Antionum, behold, the armies of the Nephites were prepared to meet them in the land of Jershon.
    ...
    25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.

Icon
image
Map with Jershon and surrounding areas.
Icon
image
Aerial view of the city of Jershon and the land area outlined in orange. Looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jerusalem +12
+[Jerusalem] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2} ≈ IR2
+[Jerusalem] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,3} ≈ IR2 AR1 AR3
+[Jerusalem]{city}~[Ani-Anti]{village} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {<1 day1} ≈ IR6
+[Jerusalem]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Middoni]{land1}
+[Jerusalem]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Mocum]{city3}
+[Jerusalem]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Mormon]{land1}
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mormon]{land1}
+[Jerusalem]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {waters coming up3}
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Amulon]{land2}
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Helam]{land1}
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land2}
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Midian]{land2}
+[Jerusalem]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Onihah]{city3}
[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {Amulonites1,2}
[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {Lamanites1}
[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {Amlicites1,2}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Everywhere in the Book of Mormon where it says Amalekites, it should read Amlicites. See IR2 in Section 3.2 Rules of Interpretation. Amlicites built the city of Jerusalem and named it after the Jerusalem in the old world. See also Section 4.3.3 for the city of Jerusalem in the missionary journeys of the sons of Mosiah which helps to pin-point the location.

Modern City Location: Mississippi River Greenway, St Louis, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 31' 59.8", W 90° 15' 45.7"
  1. Alma 21:1-2,4,11-13,18,20 Alma 21
    1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city , which was called Jerusalem.
    ...
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors.
    ...
    11 Therefore, when he saw that they would not hear his words, he departed out of their synagogue, and came over to a village which was called Ani-Anti, and there he found Muloki preaching the word unto them; and also Ammah and his brethren. And they contended with many about the word.
    12 And it came to pass that they saw that the people would harden their hearts, therefore they departed and came over into the land of Middoni. And they did preach the word unto many, and few believed on the words which they taught.
    13 Nevertheless, Aaron and a certain number of his brethren were taken and cast into prison, and the remainder of them fled out of the land of Middoni unto the regions round about. ...
    ...
    18 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni returned from the land of Middoni to the land of Ishmael, which was the land of their inheritance.
    ...
    20 And it came to pass that their brethren, the Lamanites, made preparations for war, and came up to the land of Nephi for the purpose of destroying the king, and to place another in his stead, and also of destroying the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi out of the land.

  2. Alma 24:1 Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amlicites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam, and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amlicites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.

  3. 3 Nephi:9-7 3 Nephi
    7 Yea, and the city of Onihah and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Mocum and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof; and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
View of Jerusalem and nearby cities, looking north.
Icon
image
Jerusalem and nearby cities.
Icon
image
View of Jerusalem and nearby cities, looking west.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Jordan +7
+[Jordan] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city3} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Jordan]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Boaz]{city2,3}
+[Jordan]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{city2,3}
+[Jordan]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{land2,3}
+[Jordan]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Teancum]{city2,3}
+[Jordan]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shim]{hill2,3}
+[Jordan]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antum]{land1}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
After the tremendous and tide-turning defeat at Desolation, the Nephites Nephites who are with Mormon retreat first to Boaz and then to Jordan. Antum is included because Mormon travels there, probably by water, (the hill Shim is in the land of Antum) to retrieve the plates. See Section 4.8.2. By comparison to Desolation the sites of Boaz and Jordon are less defensible, but then a treaty deal is struck for the all the Nephites to gather, unimpeded, to Cumorah.

Modern City Location: Blind River, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 11' 07.2", W 82° 57 '17.6"
  1. Mormon 1:1-3Mormon 1
    1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
    2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
    3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
  2. Mormon 4:1-9,19-23 Mormon 4
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    4 And it was because the armies of the Nephites went up unto the Lamanites that they began to be smitten; for were it not for that, the Lamanites could have had no power over them.
    5 But, behold, the judgments of God will overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked that the wicked are punished; for it is the wicked that stir up the hearts of the children of men unto bloodshed.
    6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
    7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    9 And now all these things had been done, and there had been thousands slain on both sides, both the Nephites and the Lamanites.
    ...
    19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
    20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
    21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
    22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
    23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.
  3. Mormon 5:3-5 Mormon 5
    3 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come against us as we had fled to the city of Jordan; but behold, they were driven back that they did not take the city at that time.
    4 And it came to pass that they came against us again, and we did maintain the city. And there were also other cities which were maintained by the Nephites, which strongholds did cut them off that they could not get into the country which lay before us, to destroy the inhabitants of our land.
    5 And it came to pass that whatsoever lands we had passed by, and the inhabitants thereof were not gathered in, were destroyed by the Lamanites, and their towns, and villages, and cities were burned with fire; and thus three hundred and seventy and nine years passed away.
Icon
image
View of Jordan and surrounding areas of conflict circa 326-380 AD. Looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Josh +4
+[Josh] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR3
+[Josh]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Laman]{city1}
+[Josh]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gad]{city1}
+[Josh]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {fire1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in connection with being destroyed by fire in connection with the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following reasons:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There is only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson City MO, Josh = Kansas City MO, Gad = Omaha NB. In the case of Kishcumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishcumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers. So Kishcumen aligns best with Des Moines IO.


Modern City Location: Kansas City, Missouri. Geolocation: N 39° 06' 15.4", W 94° 35' 30.2"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishcumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

Icon
image
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen. These cities destroyed by fire.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Joshua +7
+[Joshua] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1} ≈ AR1 AR2 AR3
+[Joshua]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {the west seashore1}
+[Joshua]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jashon]{land1}
+[Joshua]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Angola]{city1}
+[Joshua]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [David]{land1}
+[Joshua]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Jashon]{city1}
+[Joshua]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Jashon]{land1}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The Book of Mormon history picks up again nearly 300 years after the coming of Christ. It is to be expected there are new lands and cities with some new names too, and the Book of Mormon narrative seems to indicate that. We do know that the final conflict begins in Zarahemla and that Mormon's army retreats, step by step, to the north countries and end up eventually at Jashon in the land of Desolation. We're not given any details but the logical model combined with the topograchy of the physical provides the most direct and logical routes from Zarahemla Angola to David to Joshua and finally to Jashon in the land of Desolation. The proposed route is to first head north from Zarahemla in the direction of the Mississippi (Sidon) and then north in the direction of the Rock River until reaching Janesville Wisconsin (David), then an overland trip Joshua (Marionette Wisconsin) and finally, the last part of the journey to the city of Jashon (Garden River, Ontario, Canada). This trek involves a lot of soldiers and people over a long distance. They are likely gathering in new people to their group as they go. The text indicates they "marched" to these locations so that rules out any significant travel on Lake Michigan for this large group. We're told that Joshua "is in the borders west by the seashore". Green Bay is the best candidate for this as one can see both the east and west side of Green Bay from either side. Marionette WI is on the center west side of Green Bay where the Menominee river empties into the Green Bay. The Menominee River forms a border between Upper Michigan and Wisconsin.

Modern City Location: Marionette, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 45° 05' 18.4", W 87° 37' 28.5"
  1. Mormon 2:1-6Mormon 2
    1 And it came to pass in that same year there began to be a war again between the Nephites and the Lamanites. And notwithstanding I being young, was large in stature; therefore the people of Nephi appointed me that I should be their leader, or the leader of their armies.
    2 Therefore it came to pass that in my sixteenth year I did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites, against the Lamanites; therefore three hundred and twenty and six years had passed away.
    3 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and twenty and seventh year the Lamanites did come upon us with exceedingly great power, insomuch that they did frighten my armies; therefore they would not fight, and they began to retreat towards the north countries.
    4 And it came to pass that we did come to the city of Angola, and we did take possession of the city, and make preparations to defend ourselves against the Lamanites. And it came to pass that we did fortify the city with our might; but notwithstanding all our fortifications the Lamanites did come upon us and did drive us out of the city.
    5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
    6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
Icon
image
View of Angola, David, Joshua. Nephite retreat path to Desolation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Judea +8
+[Judea] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2,3} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Manti]{city2} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city2} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Cumeni]{city2,4} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city2} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [CityBySeashore]{city3}
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city2,3}
+[Judea]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1}
  [Judea] ⇒ <supplied from> ⇒ [Zarahemla3,4}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The stripling soldiers campaign provides a wealth of information about Judea and the Land of Manti region and the cities in the neighborhood. See also Section 4.5.3. While Zarahemla is not in the neighborhood, it is a straight shot along the Sidon/Mississippi to travel between the two areas. The Lamanites invaded and held border cities along the Sidon. Therefore Judea, the home base for Helamans men and the stripling soldiers, is placed in the center of Manti along the Chippewa river which joins up with the Sidon.

Modern City Location: Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 44° 47' 02.8", W 91° 31' 52.3"
  1. Alma 53:8-9,22Alma 56
    8 And now it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites, on the west sea, south, while in the absence of Moroni on account of some intrigue amongst the Nephites, which caused dissensions amongst them, had gained some ground over the Nephites, yea, insomuch that they had obtained possession of a number of their cities in that part of the land.
    9 And thus because of iniquity amongst themselves, yea, because of dissensions and intrigue among themselves they were placed in the most dangerous circumstances.
    ...
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.
  2. Alma 56:9,14-15,18 Alma 56
    9 But behold, here is one thing in which we may have great joy. For behold, in the twenty and sixth year, I, Helaman, did march at the head of these two thousand young men to the city of Judea, to assist Antipus, whom ye had appointed a leader over the people of that part of the land.
    ...
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city.
  3. Alma 56:18,27-28,31-34,57 Alma 56
    ...
    18 And now it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that Antipus had received a greater strength to his army, they were compelled by the orders of Ammoron to not come against the city of Judea, or against us, to battle.
    ...
    27 And now it came to pass in the second month of this year, there was brought unto us many provisions from the fathers of those my two thousand sons.
    28 And also there were sent two thousand men unto us from the land of Zarahemla. And thus we were prepared with ten thousand men, and provisions for them, and also for their wives and their children.
    ...
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    57 And as we had no place for our prisoners, that we could guard them to keep them from the armies of the Lamanites, therefore we sent them to the land of Zarahemla, and a part of those men who were not slain of Antipus, with them; and the remainder I took and joined them to my stripling Ammonites, and took our march back to the city of Judea.

  4. Alma 57:11-12,23-24,30-34 Alma 57
    11 And notwithstanding the Lamanites being cut off from their support after this manner, they were still determined to maintain the city ; therefore it became expedient that we should take those provisions and send them to Judea, and our prisoners to the land of Zarahemla.
    12 And it came to pass that not many days had passed away before the Lamanites began to lose all hopes of succor; therefore they yielded up the city unto our hands; and thus we had accomplished our designs in obtaining the city Cumeni.
    23 And we retained our city Cumeni, and were not all destroyed by the sword; nevertheless, we had suffered great loss.
    ...
    24 And it came to pass that after the Lamanites had fled, I immediately gave orders that my men who had been wounded should be taken from among the dead, and caused that their wounds should be dressed.
    ...
    30 And now, these are the words which Gid said unto me: Behold, we did start to go down to the land of Zarahemla with our prisoners. And it came to pass that we did meet the spies of our armies, who had been sent out to watch the camp of the Lamanites.
    31 And they cried unto us, saying--Behold, the armies of the Lamanites are marching towards the city of Cumeni; and behold, they will fall upon them, yea, and will destroy our people.
    32 And it came to pass that our prisoners did hear their cries, which caused them to take courage; and they did rise up in rebellion against us.
    33 And it came to pass because of their rebellion we did cause that our swords should come upon them. And it came to pass that they did in a body run upon our swords, in the which, the greater number of them were slain; and the remainder of them broke through and fled from us.
    34 And behold, when they had fled and we could not overtake them, we took our march with speed towards the city Cumeni; and behold, we did arrive in time that we might assist our brethren in preserving the city.

Icon
image
Aerial view of cities in the land of Manti, showing Judea, south of the west sea. Looking north.
Icon
image
Aerial view of Judea and other cities in the land of Manti.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Kishcumen +5
+[Kishcumen] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Kishcumen]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {fire1}
+[Kishcumen]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gad]{city1}
+[Kishcumen]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {wilderness1,2}
+[Kishcumen]{city} ⇒ <not in> ⇒ {Nephite lands2}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in connection with being destroyed by fire in connection with the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following reasons:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There is only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using Rule 7 (listed order being bottom-to-top, left to right) as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NB. In the case of Kishcumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishcumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers.


Modern City Location: Des Moines, Iowa. Geolocation: N 41° 34' 49.1", W 93° 36' 58.8"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishcumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

  2. Helaman 2:11Helaman 2
    11 But behold, when Gadianton had found that Kishcumen did not return he feared lest that he should be destroyed; therefore he caused that his band should follow him. And they took their flight out of the land, by a secret way, into the wilderness; and thus when Helaman sent forth to take them they could nowhere be found.

Icon
image
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen. These cities destroyed by fire.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Laman +3
+[Laman] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR2 IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Laman]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {fire1}
+[Laman]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Josh]{city1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen are difficult to place because they are only mentioned in connection with being destroyed by fire in connection with the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following reasons:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There is only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NB. In the case of Kishcumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishcumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers.


Modern City Location: Jefferson City, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 33' 20.5", W 92° 02' 23.1"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishcumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

Icon
image
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishcumen. These cities destroyed by fire.
Icon
image
View of Laman (top), looking west.
Icon
image
Laman and nearby cities.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : JarediteLandSouthward +6
+[JarediteLandSouthward] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2} ≈ AR3
+[JarediteLandSouthward]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[JarediteLandSouthward]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage2}
+[JarediteLandSouthward]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land2}
+[JarediteLandSouthward]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [OreMines]{place2}
+[JarediteLandSouthward]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [GreatJarediteCity]{city2}
As far as we can tell from the Book of Mormon, the Jaredites did not migrate to the southern areas of the Nephites and Lamanites but rather reserved these areas as a game reserve. Early on they had some kind of issue with poisonous serpents in these regions also. However, knowing that Zarahemla was south of Jaredites a useful indicator that Jaredites dwelt in upper Michigan and Ontario.

Modern Feature Location: Wisconsin, Illinois, eastern Iowa. Geolocation: N 42° 14' 43.1", W 89° 05' 52.4"
  1. Ether 9:31-32Ether 9
    31 And there came forth poisonous serpents also upon the face of the land, and did poison many people. And it came to pass that their flocks began to flee before the poisonous serpents, towards the land southward, which was called by the Nephites Zarahemla.
    32 And it came to pass that there were many of them which did perish by the way; nevertheless, there were some which fled into the land southward.


  2. Ether 10:19-21Ether 8
    19 And it came to pass that Lib also did that which was good in the sight of the Lord. And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed. Wherefore they did go into the land southward, to hunt food for the people of the land, for the land was covered with animals of the forest. And Lib also himself became a great hunter. 20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.

Icon
image
Jaredite land southward. Reserved for game.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : LehiLand +2
+[LehiLand] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land area1}
+[LehiLand]{land area} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [MulekLand]{land area1}
From a more global perspective, the lands south and north (From the mouth of the Mississippi up to Canada and beyond) were named Lehi and Mulek although these designations were rarely used because most of the historical records focus on more limited areas. Going south to north, LehiLand extends from the mouth of the Mississippi to somewhat north of St Louis, inclusive.

Modern Land Location: 100 miles north of St Louis then south to the Gulf of Mexico. Geolocation: N 35° 07' 48.8", W 90° 02' 57.9"
  1. Helaman 6:6-10Helaman 6
    6 And it came to pass that many of the Lamanites did go into the land northward; and also Nephi and Lehi went into the land northward, to preach unto the people. And thus ended the sixty and third year.
    7 And behold, there was peace in all the land, insomuch that the Nephites did go into whatsoever part of the land they would, whether among the Nephites or the Lamanites.
    8 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did also go whithersoever they would, whether it were among the Lamanites or among the Nephites; and thus they did have free intercourse one with another, to buy and to sell, and to get gain, according to their desire.
    9 And it came to pass that they became exceedingly rich, both the Lamanites and the Nephites; and they did have an exceeding plenty of gold, and of silver, and of all manner of precious metals, both in the land south and in the land north.
    10 Now the land south was called Lehi and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south.

Icon
image
Master map showing the MulekLand/LehiLand border.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Lehi +11
+[Lehi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2,3} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Lehi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,4} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Lehi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Morionton]{city2,3}
+[Lehi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moroni]{city2,3}
+[Lehi]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Morionton]{city2,3}
+[Lehi]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Lehi]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Morionton]{land1,3}
+[Lehi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephihah]{city2,4}
+[Lehi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephihah]{land4}
+[Lehi]{land} ⇒ <sea journey to> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route1}
+[Lehi]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Morionton]{land1}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Lehi is one of the cities on the seashore of the East Sea or Lake Michigan and part of Jershon so probably populated by the people of Ammon. The "area of dispute" is at Marinette Wisconsin and Menominee Michigan. See the War of Amalickiah in Section 4.6.2.

Modern City Location: Green Bay, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 44° 32' 14.9", W 88° 00' 05.8"
  1. Alma 50:25-36 Alma 50
    25 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges, there would also have been peace among the people of Nephi had it not been for a contention which took place among them concerning the land of Lehi, and the land of Morionton, which joined upon the borders of Lehi; both of which were on the borders by the seashore.
    26 For behold, the people who possessed the land of Morionton did claim a part of the land of Lehi; therefore there began to be a warm contention between them, insomuch that the people of Morionton took up arms against their brethren, and they were determined by the sword to slay them.
    27 But behold, the people who possessed the land of Lehi fled to the camp of Moroni, and appealed unto him for assistance; for behold they were not in the wrong.
    28 And it came to pass that when the people of Morionton, who were led by a man whose name was Morionton, found that the people of Lehi had fled to the camp of Moroni, they were exceedingly fearful lest the army of Moroni should come upon them and destroy them.
    29 Therefore, Morionton put it into their hearts that they should flee to the land which was northward, which was covered with large bodies of water, and take possession of the land which was northward.
    30 And behold, they would have carried this plan into effect, (which would have been a cause to have been lamented) but behold, Morionton being a man of much passion, therefore he was angry with one of his maid servants, and he fell upon her and beat her much.
    31 And it came to pass that she fled, and came over to the camp of Moroni, and told Moroni all things concerning the matter, and also concerning their intentions to flee into the land northward.
    32 Now behold, the people who were in the land Bountiful, or rather Moroni, feared that they would hearken to the words of Morionton and unite with his people, and thus he would obtain possession of those parts of the land, which would lay a foundation for serious consequences among the people of Nephi, yea, which consequences would lead to the overthrow of their liberty.
    33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morionton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.
    35 And it came to pass that the army which was sent by Moroni, which was led by a man whose name was Teancum, did meet the people of Morionton; and so stubborn were the people of Morionton, (being inspired by his wickedness and his flattering words) that a battle commenced between them, in the which Teancum did slay Morionton and defeat his army, and took them prisoners, and returned to the camp of Moroni. And thus ended the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    36 And thus were the people of Morionton brought back. And upon their covenanting to keep the peace they were restored to the land of Morionton, and a union took place between them and the people of Lehi; and they were also restored to their lands.

  2. Alma 51:24-26 Alma 50
    24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  3. Alma 59:5 Alma 59
    5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morionton, were attacked by the Lamanites.

  4. Alma 62:30 Alma 62
    30 Now it came to pass that Moroni, after he had obtained possession of the city of Nephihah, having taken many prisoners, which did reduce the armies of the Lamanites exceedingly, and having regained many of the Nephites who had been taken prisoners, which did strengthen the army of Moroni exceedingly; therefore Moroni went forth from the land of Nephihah to the land of Lehi.

Icon
image
Map showing Lehi and nearby cities. Lehi towards the bottom.
Icon
image
Tilted view of Lehi, Morionton, and Omner. Note that Lehi is in the land of Jershon and Moriantion is in the land of Bountiful.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Lehi-Nephi +5
+[Lehi-Nephi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2} ≈ IR2 AR1 AR3
+[Lehi-Nephi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2}
+[Lehi-Nephi]{city} ⇒ <same as> ⇒ [Nephi]{city2}
+[Lehi-Nephi]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shilom]{land1,2}
+[Lehi-Nephi]{land} ⇒ <same as> ⇒ [Nephi]{land2}
  [Lehi-Nephi]{city} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {walls2}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The city of Nephi, abandoned by the Nephites about 280 BC, is later repopulated by Nephites in the 280 BC - 171 BC timeframe and it's walls were rebuilt. Originally called Nephi, it is referred to as Lehi-Nephi and then back to just Nephi again. Later, during the Reign of the Judges, Nephi becomes the capital city of the Lamanites. See also, Nephi.

Modern City Location: Old Frenchtown, St Louis, Missouri. N 38° 37' 00.1", W 90° 12' 06.1"
  1. Mosiah 7:1-4,21Mosiah 7
    1 And now, it came to pass that after king Mosiah had had continual peace for the space of three years, he was desirous to know concerning the people who went up to dwell in the land of Lehi-Nephi, or in the city of Lehi-Nephi; for his people had heard nothing from them from the time they left the land of Zarahemla; therefore, they wearied him with their teasings.
    2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted that sixteen of their strong men might go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi, to inquire concerning their brethren.
    3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
    4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
    ...
    21 And ye all are witnesses this day, that Zeniff, who was made king over this people, he being over-zealous to inherit the land of his fathers, therefore being deceived by the cunning and craftiness of king Laman, who having entered into a treaty with king Zeniff, and having yielded up into his hands the possessions of a part of the land, or even the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom; and the land round about--

  2. Mosiah 9:6-15Mosiah 9
    6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
    7 And he also commanded that his people should depart out of the land, and I and my people went into the land that we might possess it.
    8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.
    9 And we began to till the ground, yea, even with all manner of seeds, with seeds of corn, and of wheat, and of barley, and with neas, and with sheum, and with seeds of all manner of fruits; and we did begin to multiply and prosper in the land.
    10 Now it was the cunning and the craftiness of king Laman, to bring my people into bondage, that he yielded up the land that we might possess it.
    11 Therefore it came to pass, that after we had dwelt in the land for the space of twelve years that king Laman began to grow uneasy, lest by any means my people should wax strong in the land, and that they could not overpower them and bring them into bondage.
    12 Now they were a lazy and an idolatrous people; therefore they were desirous to bring us into bondage, that they might glut themselves with the labors of our hands; yea, that they might feast themselves upon the flocks of our fields.
    13 Therefore it came to pass that king Laman began to stir up his people that they should contend with my people; therefore there began to be wars and contentions in the land.
    14 For, in the thirteenth year of my reign in the land of Nephi, away on the south of the land of Shilom, when my people were watering and feeding their flocks, and tilling their lands, a numerous host of Lamanites came upon them and began to slay them, and to take off their flocks, and the corn of their fields.
    15 Yea, and it came to pass that they fled, all that were not overtaken, even into the city of Nephi, and did call upon me for protection.

Icon
image
Aerial view of Nephi (Lehi-Nephi) and surrounding cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Land of Nephi and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Lemuel +9
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {fire1} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1}
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ishmael]{land1}
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lemuel]{city1}
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Middoni]{land1}
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{city1}
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land1} ≈ IR7
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{land1}
+[Lemuel]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shimnilom]{city1}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Lemuel is placed on the perimeter of the former path of the Sidon river (Horseshoe Lake) that once existed west of the city of Nephi. Lemuel is so placed because it is mentioned with the other cities that are around the circle. Lemuel was once bordering on the Sidon and and is put at about one o-clock because that is the only place left after Shemlon, Shimnilom, and Shilom are placed. See Section 4.3.4 East of Nephi.

Modern City Location: Granite City/Pontoon Beach, Illinois. Geolocation: N 38° 42' 47.1", W 90° 06' 23.7"
  1. Alma 23:8-13 Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

Icon
image
View of Lemuel north of Horseshoe Lake, looking north.
Icon
image
Aerial view of Nephi (Lehi-Nephi) and surrounding cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Lemuel and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : LineBountifulDesolation +12
+[LineBountifulDesolation] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {passage3} ≈ AR9 AR10
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {fortified line3}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <is> ⇒ [WhereSeaDividesLand]{feature1+6}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{fortified line}⇒ <distance> ⇒ {1 day journey2}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [GreatJarediteCity]{city5}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land1}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route4}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {fortified line2}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [NarrowPass]{sea route2}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {1.5 days1}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {militarily strategic1,2}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [JarediteLandSouthward]{land5}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <route to> ⇒ {land northward1,2}
+[LineBountifulDesolation]{passage} ⇒ <route to> ⇒ {land southward1,3,4}

AR9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 5 mph.
AR10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 3 mph.
The Line Bountiful Desolation is the route between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan/Huron and the border between Bountiful and Desolation (todays Upper Michigan and Ontario). The Book of Mormon says it is 1.5 days travel. This border/passage fits so well with the Book of Morman narrative that it is a major factor in favor on the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model. This area was considered critically important for military reasons as well as for controlling trade and migration northward. The precise distance from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan/Huron is 63.2 miles. According to Section 3.3 Principles of Navigation, a day and a half journey with the current should be 72 miles and a day and a half journey against the current should be 48 miles for an average of 60 miles, so that is a pretty good match to the actual distance. See also, "NarrowPassage".

Modern Feature Location: St Marys river ≈ border of Upper Michigan and Ontario Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 17' 18.0", W 84° 06' 58.5"
  1. Alma 22:32-33 Alma 22
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Helaman 4:6-7Helaman 4
    6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
    7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.

  3. Mormon 2:29Mormon 2
    29 And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites all the land southward.

  4. Mormon 3:4-5Mormon 3
    4 And it came to pass that after this tenth year had passed away, making, in the whole, three hundred and sixty years from the coming of Christ, the king of the Lamanites sent an epistle unto me, which gave unto me to know that they were preparing to come again to battle against us.
    5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.
  5. Ether 10:19-21Ether 8
    19 And it came to pass that Lib also did that which was good in the sight of the Lord. And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed. Wherefore they did go into the land southward, to hunt food for the people of the land, for the land was covered with animals of the forest. And Lib also himself became a great hunter. 20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land. 21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.

  6. Ether 10:19-23Ether 10
    19 And it came to pass that Lib also did that which was good in the sight of the Lord. And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed. Wherefore they did go into the land southward, to hunt food for the people of the land, for the land was covered with animals of the forest. And Lib also himself became a great hunter. 20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land. 21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants. 22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain. 23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.



Icon
image
The Line Bountiful|Desolation is a water border between Upper Michigan and Ontario.
Icon
image
The Line Bountiful|Desolation is a water route from Lake Michigan/Huron to Lake Superior.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Manti +20
+[Manti] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city6,7,8} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Manti] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,4,6,8} ≈ IR2
+[Manti]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city6}
+[Manti]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [CityBySeashore]{city6}
+[Manti]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Cumeni]{city6,7}
+[Manti]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Judea]{city6}
+[Manti]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city6}
+[Manti]{city} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Antiparah]{city6}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1,3,4} ≈ AR1
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [SidonHead]{place3,4}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [SidonHead]{place3}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Riplah]{hill4}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [SidonHead]{place3,4}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidon]{river3} ≈ AR1
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {South Wilderness1}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Gideon]{land2}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ {South Wilderness1}
+[Manti]{land}~[Antionum]{land}
⇒ <separated by> ⇒ {wilderness4}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Riplah]{hill4}
+[Manti]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea3,5}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Most Book of Mormon maps place Manti as south of Zarahemla, which is incorrect. In fairness, the description of Alma's journey in Alma 17:1 can be read two ways: A) Alma is journeying south towards Manti starting at the land of Gideon (making Manti south of Gideon); or 2) Alma is journeying starting from Gideon located to the south then towards Manti (making Gideon south of Manti). So with Alma 17:1 being indeterminate, it is necessary to consider other factors, as follows:
  1. If the traditional reading were correct (Alma is traveling south) I would expect it to read instead "And now it came to pass that as Alma was journeying southward from the land of Gideon". However, throughout the entire text of the Book of Mormon one never travels in a "direction" but rather to/from a place, so for that reason, to be consistent with the rest of the Book of Mormon and IR2 (Section 3.3) -- Alma cannot be stated as traveling in the direction of south.
  2. One case for Manti being north of Zarahemla is because Alma meets up with the sons of Mosiah who are traveling to Zarahemla from Jershon, and Jershon is north of Zarahemla.
  3. To put Manti south of Gideon would require the Sidon/Mississippi to flow from south to north but that would be a violation of IR1 and the location of Zarahemla. Since the Sidon flows north to south, that makes Manti north. See also "SidonHead".
  4. The stripling soldiers campaigned in the land of Manti (Alma 53:22) with is just south of the west sea (lake Superior). That makes Manti quite north of both Gideon and Zarahemla. See Section 4.5.3.
The actual city of Manti is placed due to its order (bottom to top, left to right) when named in relation to the other nearby cities in Alma 56, and also because of it's strategic position at the junction of the Mississippi and St Croix rivers. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.

Modern City Location: Prescott, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 44° 44' 54.6", W 92° 48' 07.9"
Modern Land Location: western Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 45° 28' 27.2", W 91° 47' 43.4"
  1. Alma 16:6-7Alma 16
    6 And it came to pass that Alma inquired of the Lord concerning the matter. And Alma returned and said unto them: Behold, the Lamanites will cross the river Sidon in the south wilderness, away up beyond the borders of the land of Manti. And behold there shall ye meet them, on the east of the river Sidon, and there the Lord will deliver unto thee thy brethren who have been taken captive by the Lamanites.
    7 And it came to pass that Zoram and his sons crossed over the river Sidon, with their armies, and marched away beyond the borders of Manti into the south wilderness, which was on the east side of the river Sidon.

  2. Alma 17:1Alma 17
    1 And now it came to pass that as Alma was journeying from the land of Gideon southward, away to the land of Manti, behold, to his astonishment, he met with the sons of Mosiah journeying towards the land of Zarahemla.

  3. Alma 22:27Alma 22 (see Section 4.2 commentary)
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

  4. Alma 43:22-32,42Alma 43
    22 Behold, now it came to pass that they durst not come against the Nephites in the borders of Jershon; therefore they departed out of the land of Antionum into the wilderness, and took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti and take possession of the land; for they did not suppose that the armies of Moroni would know whither they had gone.
    23 But it came to pass, as soon as they had departed into the wilderness Moroni sent spies into the wilderness to watch their camp; and Moroni, also, knowing of the prophecies of Alma, sent certain men unto him, desiring him that he should inquire of the Lord whither the armies of the Nephites should go to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
    24 And it came to pass that the word of the Lord came unto Alma, and Alma informed the messengers of Moroni, that the armies of the Lamanites were marching round about in the wilderness, that they might come over into the land of Manti, that they might commence an attack upon the weaker part of the people. And those messengers went and delivered the message unto Moroni.
    25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.
    26 And he caused that all the people in that quarter of the land should gather themselves together to battle against the Lamanites, to defend their lands and their country, their rights and their liberties; therefore they were prepared against the time of the coming of the Lamanites.
    27 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his army should be secreted in the valley which was near the bank of the river Sidon, which was on the west of the river Sidon in the wilderness.
    28 And Moroni placed spies round about, that he might know when the camp of the Lamanites should come.
    29 And now, as Moroni knew the intention of the Lamanites, that it was their intention to destroy their brethren, or to subject them and bring them into bondage that they might establish a kingdom unto themselves over all the land;
    30 And he also knowing that it was the only desire of the Nephites to preserve their lands, and their liberty, and their church, therefore he thought it no sin that he should defend them by stratagem; therefore, he found by his spies which course the Lamanites were to take.
    31 Therefore, he divided his army and brought a part over into the valley, and concealed them on the east, and on the south of the hill Riplah;
    32 And the remainder he concealed in the west valley, on the west of the river Sidon, and so down into the borders of the land Manti.
    33 And thus having placed his army according to his desire, he was prepared to meet them.
    42 And the Lamanites did flee again before them, towards the land of Manti; and they were met again by the armies of Moroni.

  5. Alma 53:8-9,22Alma 53
    8 And now it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites, on the west sea, south, while in the absence of Moroni on account of some intrigue amongst the Nephites, which caused dissensions amongst them, had gained some ground over the Nephites, yea, insomuch that they had obtained possession of a number of their cities in that part of the land.
    9 And thus because of iniquity amongst themselves, yea, because of dissensions and intrigue among themselves they were placed in the most dangerous circumstances.
    ...
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.

  6. Alma 56:13-15Alma 56
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city.

  7. Alma 57:22-23 Alma 57
    22 And now behold, it was these my sons, and those men who had been selected to convey the prisoners, to whom we owe this great victory; for it was they who did beat the Lamanites; therefore they were driven back to the city of Manti.
    23 And we retained our city Cumeni, and were not all destroyed by the sword; nevertheless, we had suffered great loss.

  8. Alma 58:1,13-14,25-28,38-39Alma 58
    1 And behold, now it came to pass that our next object was to obtain the city of Manti; but behold, there was no way that we could lead them out of the city by our small bands. For behold, they remembered that which we had hitherto done; therefore we could not decoy them away from their strongholds.
    ...
    13 And thus we did go forth with all our might against the Lamanites, who were in the city of Manti; and we did pitch our tents by the wilderness side, which was near to the city.
    14 And it came to pass that on the morrow, that when the Lamanites saw that we were in the borders by the wilderness which was near the city, that they sent out their spies round about us that they might discover the number and the strength of our army.
    ...
    25 And behold, it was night and they did pitch their tents, for the chief captains of the Lamanites had supposed that the Nephites were weary because of their march; and supposing that they had driven their whole army therefore they took no thought concerning the city of Manti.
    26 Now it came to pass that when it was night, I caused that my men should not sleep, but that they should march forward by another way towards the land of Manti.
    27 And because of this our march in the night-time, behold, on the morrow we were beyond the Lamanites, insomuch that we did arrive before them at the city of Manti.
    28 And thus it came to pass, that by this stratagem we did take possession of the city of Manti without the shedding of blood.
    ...
    38 Behold, this is the twenty and ninth year, in the latter end, and we are in the possession of our lands; and the Lamanites have fled to the land of Nephi.
    39 And those sons of the people of Ammon, of whom I have so highly spoken, are with me in the city of Manti; and the Lord had supported them, yea, and kept them from falling by the sword, insomuch that even one soul has not been slain.

Icon
image
Aerial view of cities in the land of Manti, south of the west sea. Looking north.
Icon
image
Map showing Manti and other cities in the land of Manti.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Melek +8
+[Melek] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,3,4} ≈ IR2 AR4 AR5 AR10
+[Melek]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jershon]{land3}
+[Melek]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1,2,3}
+[Melek]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Ammonihah]{city1}
+[Melek]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Ammonihah]{land1}
+[Melek]{land} ⇒ <west of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1} ≈ AR1
+[Melek]{land} ⇒ <west of> ⇒ {the borders of wilderness1}
+[Melek]{land}~[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {3 days1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
AR5The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
AR10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 3 mph.
Some care is taken in the Book of Mormon to describe the land of Melek so it can be placed with some confidence. However, there is no mention of a city of Melek even though the junction of the Iowa and Mississippi rivers would be a strategic area for a city. Because of the terrain there is no modern city (of any size) on the west side of the river at this junction, so maybe the same was also true in Book of Mormon times.
The distance from Melek to Ammonihah is stated as 3 days journey. From AR10 the Iowa River journey upstream from Toolsboro Iowa (start of Melek) to Coralville Iowa (Ammonihah) should be calculated as 8 hrs X 3 mph X 3 days = 72 miles. The actual (google map trace) distance on the Book of Mormon map, following the river, is precisely 75.5 miles so that is an excellent fit.

Modern Land Location: region enclosed by the Iowa, Cedar, Wapsipinicon and Mississippi rivers in eastern Iowa. Geolocation: N 41° 28' 43.3", W 91° 05' 36.4"
  1. Alma 8:1-8Alma 8
    1 And now it came to pass that Alma returned from the land of Gideon, after having taught the people of Gideon many things which cannot be written, having established the order of the church, according as he had before done in the land of Zarahemla, yea, he returned to his own house at Zarahemla to rest himself from the labors which he had performed.
    2 And thus ended the ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    3 And it came to pass in the commencement of the tenth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, that Alma departed from thence and took his journey over into the land of Melek, on the west of the river Sidon, on the west by the borders of the wilderness.
    4 And he began to teach the people in the land of Melek according to the holy order of God, by which he had been called; and he began to teach the people throughout all the land of Melek.
    5 And it came to pass that the people came to him throughout all the borders of the land which was by the wilderness side. And they were baptized throughout all the land;
    6 So that when he had finished his work at Melek he departed thence, and traveled three days' journey on the north of the land of Melek; and he came to a city which was called Ammonihah.
    7 Now it was the custom of the people of Nephi to call their lands, and their cities, and their villages, yea, even all their small villages, after the name of him who first possessed them; and thus it was with the land of Ammonihah.
    8 And it came to pass that when Alma had come to the city of Ammonihah he began to preach the word of God unto them.

  2. Alma 31:6-7Alma 31
    6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons.
    7 Now the eldest of his sons he took not with him, and his name was Helaman; but the names of those whom he took with him were Shiblon and Corianton; and these are the names of those who went with him among the Zoramites, to preach unto them the word.

  3. Alma 35:13Alma 35
    13 And the people of Ammon departed out of the land of Jershon, and came over into the land of Melek, and gave place in the land of Jershon for the armies of the Nephites, that they might contend with the armies of the Lamanites and the armies of the Zoramites; and thus commenced a war betwixt the Lamanites and the Nephites, in the eighteenth year of the reign of the judges; and an account shall be given of their wars hereafter.

  4. Alma 45:18Alma 45
    18 And when Alma had done this he departed out of the land of Zarahemla, as if to go into the land of Melek. And it came to pass that he was never heard of more; as to his death or burial we know not of.

Icon
image
Melek and nearby lands and cities.
Icon
image
Melek and nearby lands and cities, looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Middoni +9
+[Middoni] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3} ≈ IR2 AR4 AR5
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ani-Anti]{village2}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ishmael]{land1,2,3,4}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{city2}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lemuel]{city4}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1,3,4}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land4}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{land4}
+[Middoni]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shimnilom]{city4}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
AR5The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
Middoni is mentioned in relation to the missionary journeys of the sons of Mosiah. Aaron, Muloki and Ammah are imprisoned there and thus there are many references to Middoni. By the descriptions and by process of elimination Middoni is placed on the west of the Sidon and south of the city of Nephi. Note that Middoni is only a land (with a prison) but not designated as a city. I have placed it directly across the river from Ani-Anti (Dupo, Missouri) due to the phrase "came over". See 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.

Modern Land Location: Bella Villa/Lemay Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 31' 40.9", W 90° 15' 56.4"
  1. Alma 20: 1-7,14-15,28,30Alma 20
    1 And it came to pass that when they had established a church in that land, that king Lamoni desired that Ammon should go with him to the land of Nephi, that he might show him unto his father.
    2 And the voice of the Lord came to Ammon, saying: Thou shalt not go up to the land of Nephi, for behold, the king will seek thy life; but thou shalt go to the land of Middoni; for behold, thy brother Aaron, and also Muloki and Ammah are in prison.
    3 Now it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he said unto Lamoni: Behold, my brother and brethren are in prison at Middoni, and I go that I may deliver them.
    4 Now Lamoni said unto Ammon: I know, in the strength of the Lord thou canst do all things. But behold, I will go with thee to the land of Middoni; for the king of the land of Middoni, whose name is Antiomno, is a friend unto me; therefore I go to the land of Middoni, that I may flatter the king of the land, and he will cast thy brethren out of prison. Now Lamoni said unto him: Who told thee that thy brethren were in prison?
    5 And Ammon said unto him: No one hath told me, save it be God; and he said unto me--Go and deliver thy brethren, for they are in prison in the land of Middoni.
    6 Now when Lamoni had heard this he caused that his servants should make ready his horses and his chariots.
    7 And he said unto Ammon: Come, I will go with thee down to the land of Middoni, and there I will plead with the king that he will cast thy brethren out of prison.
    ...
    14 Now the father of Lamoni commanded him that he should slay Ammon with the sword. And he also commanded him that he should not go to the land of Middoni, but that he should return with him to the land of Ishmael.
    15 But Lamoni said unto him: I will not slay Ammon, neither will I return to the land of Ishmael, but I go to the land of Middoni that I may release the brethren of Ammon, for I know that they are just men and holy prophets of the true God. ...
    ...
    28 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni proceeded on their journey towards the land of Middoni. And Lamoni found favor in the eyes of the king of the land; therefore the brethren of Ammon were brought forth out of prison.
    ...
    30 And, as it happened, it was their lot to have fallen into the hands of a more hardened and a more stiffnecked people; therefore they would not hearken unto their words, and they had cast them out, and had smitten them, and had driven them from house to house, and from place to place, even until they had arrived in the land of Middoni; and there they were taken and cast into prison, and bound with strong cords, and kept in prison for many days, and were delivered by Lamoni and Ammon.

  2. Alma 21:3-4,11-13,18Alma 21
    3 Now the Lamanites of themselves were sufficiently hardened, but the Amlicites and the Amulonites were still harder; therefore they did cause the Lamanites that they should harden their hearts, that they should wax strong in wickedness and their abominations.
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors.
    ...
    11 Therefore, when he saw that they would not hear his words, he departed out of their synagogue, and came over to a village which was called Ani-Anti, and there he found Muloki preaching the word unto them; and also Ammah and his brethren. And they contended with many about the word.
    12 And it came to pass that they saw that the people would harden their hearts, therefore they departed and came over into the land of Middoni. And they did preach the word unto many, and few believed on the words which they taught.
    13 Nevertheless, Aaron and a certain number of his brethren were taken and cast into prison, and the remainder of them fled out of the land of Middoni unto the regions round about. ...
    ...
    18 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni returned from the land of Middoni to the land of Ishmael, which was the land of their inheritance.

  3. Alma 22:1-4Alma 22
    1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually, we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi, even to the house of the king which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
    2 And it came to pass that he went in unto him into the king's palace, with his brethren, and bowed himself before the king, and said unto him: Behold, O king, we are the brethren of Ammon, whom thou hast delivered out of prison.
    3 And now, O king, if thou wilt spare our lives, we will be thy servants. And the king said unto them: Arise, for I will grant unto you your lives, and I will not suffer that ye shall be my servants; but I will insist that ye shall administer unto me; for I have been somewhat troubled in mind because of the generosity and the greatness of the words of thy brother Ammon; and I desire to know the cause why he has not come up out of Middoni with thee.
    4 And Aaron said unto the king: Behold, the Spirit of the Lord has called him another way; he has gone to the land of Ishmael, to teach the people of Lamoni.
  4. Alma 23:8-13 Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

Icon
image
View of Middoni and nearby cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Land of Middoni and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Midian +6
+[Midian] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1>}
+[Midian]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ishmael]{land1} ≈ AR5
+[Midian]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1}
+[Midian]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Amulon]{land1}
+[Midian]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Helam]{land1}
+[Midian]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{land1}

AR5The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
Midian is placed north up the river from where the most hostile Amlicites and Amulonites were located (in Amulon and Jerusalem etc south), a more safe place to for a rendezvous. Also, from there they would have an easy water route traveling west to Ishmael for their council mentioned. The location of Midian is also chosen because it only place of major population left to consider in the crowded St Louis region. Unless there are other prominent factors major population centers of modern times are assumed to mirror the major population centers of ancient times. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.

Modern Land Location: Alton, Illinois. Geolocation: N 38° 51' 40.9", W 90° 07' 34.0"
  1. Alma 24:1,5,20Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amalekites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam, and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amalekites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.
    ...
    5 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
    ...
    20 And it came to pass that their brethren, the Lamanites, made preparations for war, and came up to the land of Nephi for the purpose of destroying the king, and to place another in his stead, and also of destroying the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi out of the land.

Icon
image
View of land of Midian and nearby cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Midan and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Minon +5
+[Minon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1}
+[Minon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[Minon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gideon]{valley1} ≈ AR4
+[Minon]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}

AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
The Land of Minon is described during the Amlicite war. The Lamanites go right through Minon as they come up to join with the Amlicites battling at Zarahemla. The land of Minon was apparently used for farming as there is mention of the crops being trodden down by the advancing armies. See Section 4.4.2 Amlicite War - Battle of Zarahemla.

Modern Land Location: Between Keokuk and Montrose, Iowa and between the Mississippi and Des Moines rivers. Geolocation: N 40° 27' 52.3", W 91° 26' 48.3"
  1. Alma 2:15-27Alma 2
    15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites. ...
    17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites. ...
    20 And it came to pass that when Alma could pursue the Amlicites no longer he caused that his people should pitch their tents in the valley of Gideon, the valley being called after that Gideon who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword; and in this valley the Nephites did pitch their tents for the night.
    21 And Alma sent spies to follow the remnant of the Amlicites, that he might know of their plans and their plots, whereby he might guard himself against them, that he might preserve his people from being destroyed.
    22 Now those whom he had sent out to watch the camp of the Amlicites were called Zeram, and Amnor, and Manti, and Limher; these were they who went out with their men to watch the camp of the Amlicites.
    23 And it came to pass that on the morrow they returned into the camp of the Nephites in great haste, being greatly astonished, and struck with much fear, saying:
    24 Behold, we followed the camp of the Amlicites, and to our great astonishment, in the land of Minon, above [EME before] the land of Zarahemla, in the course of the land of Nephi, we saw a numerous host of the Lamanites; and behold, the Amlicites have joined them;
    25 And they are upon our brethren in that land; and they are fleeing before them with their flocks, and their wives, and their children, towards our city; and except we make haste they obtain possession of our city, and our fathers, and our wives, and our children be slain.
    26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla.
    27 And behold, as they were crossing the river Sidon, the Lamanites and the Amlicites, being as numerous almost, as it were, as the sands of the sea, came upon them to destroy them.


Icon
image
Aerial view of land of Minon. Looking west.
Icon
image
Map showing the land of Minon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Mocum +4
+[Mocum] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Mocum]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {waters coming up1}
+[Mocum]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{city1}
+[Mocum]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Onihah]{city1}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Onihah, Mocum, and Jerusalem are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by flooding (waters that "come up") prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. This is an instance of river flooding and another indication that these cities bordered the waters of the Sidon. Note that, by contrast, the destroyed cities bordering the east sea were "sunk in the depths of the sea". The three cities mentioned with Mocum are placed according to the following:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major populations today.
  3. From step 2, we get the following result: Onihah = Ste. Genevieve Missouri, Mocum = Oakville Missouri, Jerusalem = St Louis, Missouri, near River City Casino.
It is useful that we also have additional information on city of Jerusalem to use as an anchor point. Onihah could be placed at Peverly Missiouri or Ste. Genevieve Missouri. The reason the latter case was chosen is because the topography of Ste. Genevieve appears much more conducive to past and future flooding.

Modern City Location: Oakville, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 24' 06.4", W 90° 20' 10.4"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:73 Nephi 9
    7 Yea, and the city of Onihah and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Mocum and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof; and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
View of Mocum (to the left) and nearby cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Mocum and nearby cities.
Late History [314 AD to 420 AD] : Moriantum +3
+[Moriantum] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place1} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Moriantum]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sherrizah]{tower1}
+[Moriantum]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{city1+2}

AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Mention of the war atrocities at Sherrizah and Moriantum is in a letter from Mormon to Moroni that Moroni later shares with us later, outside the chronological narrative of Mormon. However it fits best with the situation described in Mormon 4 and therefore the near locale would be the city of Desolation (located on St Joseph Island). The most important location by far near to the city of Desolation is the "narrow pass" "leading by the sea" to the land northward. Such an strategic location would demand a city or military outpost and so this is what I propose for Moriantum.

Modern Place Location: De Tour Village, Michigan. Geolocation: N 45° 59' 31.8", W 83° 53' 56.3"
  1. Moroni 9:7-9,16-17Mormon 9
    7 And now I write somewhat concerning the sufferings of this people. For according to the knowledge which I have received from Amoron, behold, the Lamanites have many prisoners, which they took from the tower of Sherrizah; and there were men, women, and children.
    8 And the husbands and fathers of those women and children they have slain; and they feed the women upon the flesh of their husbands, and the children upon the flesh of their fathers; and no water, save a little, do they give unto them.
    9 And notwithstanding this great abomination of the Lamanites, it doth not exceed that of our people in Moriantum. For behold, many of the daughters of the Lamanites have they taken prisoners; and after depriving them of that which was most dear and precious above all things, which is chastity and virtue--
    ...
    16 And again, my son, there are many widows and their daughters who remain in Sherrizah; and that part of the provisions which the Lamanites did not carry away, behold, the army of Zenephi has carried away, and left them to wander whithersoever they can for food; and many old women do faint by the way and die.
    17 And the army which is with me is weak; and the armies of the Lamanites are betwixt Sherrizah and me; and as many as have fled to the army of Aaron have fallen victims to their awful brutality.
  2. Mormon 4:1-4Mormon 4
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    4 And it was because the armies of the Nephites went up unto the Lamanites that they began to be smitten; for were it not for that, the Lamanites could have had no power over them.
    5 But, behold, the judgments of God will overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked that the wicked are punished; for it is the wicked that stir up the hearts of the children of men unto bloodshed.
    6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
    7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    9 And now all these things had been done, and there had been thousands slain on both sides, both the Nephites and the Lamanites. 10 And it came to pass that the three hundred and sixty and sixth year had passed away, and the Lamanites came again upon the Nephites to battle; and yet the Nephites repented not of the evil they had done, but persisted in their wickedness continually.
    11 And it is impossible for the tongue to describe, or for man to write a perfect description of the horrible scene of the blood and carnage which was among the people, both of the Nephites and of the Lamanites; and every heart was hardened, so that they delighted in the shedding of blood continually.
    12 And there never had been so great wickedness among all the children of Lehi, nor even among all the house of Israel, according to the words of the Lord, as was among this people.
    13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
    14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.

Icon
image
View of location of the tower of Sherrizah and surrounding areas of conflict circa 326-380 AD. Looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Morionton +12
+[Morionton] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city2,3,4} ≈ AR3
+[Morionton] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea2}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gid]{city2}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lehi]{city2,4}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lehi]{land2,3}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moroni]{city2}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephihah]{city2}
+[Morionton]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Omner]{city2}
+[Morionton]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Morionton]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Lehi]{land1,4}
+[Morionton]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Lehi]{city2,4}
+[Morionton]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Lehi]{land1}
+[Morionton]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1}

AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Morionton (updated spelling is from BOMET) was the instigator of an internal dispute among the Nephites. The city of Morionton has his name. It should be noted that the city of Lehi was in the land of Jershon and therefore a city of the people of Ammon (Ammonites) who were previously Lamanites who had converted and joined with the Nephites, and the account says they "were not in the wrong" when it came to the dispute with the people of Morionton. The area of dispute is not difficult to surmise. Halfway between Morionton and Lehi is the Menominee River that empties into Lake Michigan. The river separates Bountiful from Jershon with the same border that separates today Upper Michigan from Wisconsin. One would think the people of Morionton would just take the north side of the Menominee River and let the Ammonites take the south side but apparently no such agreement was reached. Perhaps the south side was more desirable and the people of Morionton just wanted all it.

Modern City Location: Escanaba, Michigan. Geolocation: N 45° 44' 40.4", W 87° 02' 57.6"
Modern Land Location: Menominee Michigan (north of river) and Marinette Wisconsin (south of river). Geolocation: N 45° 34' 33.1", W 87° 28' 05.9"
  1. Alma 50:25-36Alma 50
    25 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges, there would also have been peace among the people of Nephi had it not been for a contention which took place among them concerning the land of Lehi, and the land of Morionton, which joined upon the borders of Lehi; both of which were on the borders by the seashore.
    26 For behold, the people who possessed the land of Morionton did claim a part of the land of Lehi; therefore there began to be a warm contention between them, insomuch that the people of Morionton took up arms against their brethren, and they were determined by the sword to slay them.
    27 But behold, the people who possessed the land of Lehi fled to the camp of Moroni, and appealed unto him for assistance; for behold they were not in the wrong.
    28 And it came to pass that when the people of Morionton, who were led by a man whose name was Morionton, found that the people of Lehi had fled to the camp of Moroni, they were exceedingly fearful lest the army of Moroni should come upon them and destroy them.
    29 Therefore, Morionton put it into their hearts that they should flee to the land which was northward, which was covered with large bodies of water, and take possession of the land which was northward.
    30 And behold, they would have carried this plan into effect, (which would have been a cause to have been lamented) but behold, Morionton being a man of much passion, therefore he was angry with one of his maid servants, and he fell upon her and beat her much.
    31 And it came to pass that she fled, and came over to the camp of Moroni, and told Moroni all things concerning the matter, and also concerning their intentions to flee into the land northward.
    32 Now behold, the people who were in the land Bountiful, or rather Moroni, feared that they would hearken to the words of Morionton and unite with his people, and thus he would obtain possession of those parts of the land, which would lay a foundation for serious consequences among the people of Nephi, yea, which consequences would lead to the overthrow of their liberty.
    33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morionton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.
    35 And it came to pass that the army which was sent by Moroni, which was led by a man whose name was Teancum, did meet the people of Morionton; and so stubborn were the people of Morionton, (being inspired by his wickedness and his flattering words) that a battle commenced between them, in the which Teancum did slay Morionton and defeat his army, and took them prisoners, and returned to the camp of Moroni. And thus ended the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    36 And thus were the people of Morionton brought back. And upon their covenanting to keep the peace they were restored to the land of Morionton, and a union took place between them and the people of Lehi; and they were also restored to their lands.

  2. Alma 51:1,24-26Alma 51
    1 And now it came to pass in the commencement of the twenty and fifth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, they having established peace between the people of Lehi and the people of Morionton concerning their lands, and having commenced the twenty and fifth year in peace;
    ...
    22 Behold, it came to pass that while Moroni was thus breaking down the wars and contentions among his own people, and subjecting them to peace and civilization, and making regulations to prepare for war against the Lamanites, behold, the Lamanites had come into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
    23 And it came to pass that the Nephites were not sufficiently strong in the city of Moroni; therefore Amalickiah did drive them, slaying many. And it came to pass that Amalickiah took possession of the city, yea, possession of all their fortifications.
    24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  3. Alma 55:7,33Alma 55
    7 Now the Nephites were guarded in the city of Gid; therefore Moroni appointed Laman and caused that a small number of men should go with him. ...
    33 And now it came to pass that it was expedient for Moroni to make preparations to attack the city Morionton; for behold, the Lamanites had, by their labors, fortified the city Morionton until it had become an exceeding stronghold.

  4. Alma 59:5Alma 59
    5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morionton, were attacked by the Lamanites.


Icon
image
Tilted view of Lehi, Morionton, and Omner. Note that Lehi is in the land of Jershon and Moriantion is in the land of Bountiful.
Icon
image
Tilted view of Morionton, looking west.
Icon
image
Closeup of Marinette and Menominee, the area of dispute between the peoples of Lehi and the peoples of Morionton.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Mormon +9
+[Mormon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {forest1}
+[Mormon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place1}
+[Mormon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {waters1,2,3}
+[Mormon] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {fountain1}
+[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{land4}
+[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephi]{land3}
+[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{city4}
+[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [WatersOfMormon]{fountain1,2,3}
+[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Amulon]{land4}

The land of Mormon is a large area of land covering most of western Missouri and contains the "waters of Mormon" in the southeastern region.

Modern Land Location: Ozarks plateau.

Modern Feature Location: Big Springs, Missouri. Geolocation: N 36° 57' 07.9", W 90° 59' 39.6"
  1. Mosiah 18:4-8,16,30Mosiah 18
    4 And it came to pass that as many as did believe him did go forth to a place which was called Mormon, having received its name from the king, being in the borders of the land having been infested, by times or at seasons, by wild beasts.
    5 Now, there was in Mormon a fountain of pure water, and Alma resorted thither, there being near the water a thicket of small trees, where he did hide himself in the daytime from the searches of the king.
    6 And it came to pass that as many as believed him went thither to hear his words.
    7 And it came to pass after many days there were a goodly number gathered together at the place of Mormon, to hear the words of Alma. Yea, all were gathered together that believed on his word, to hear him. And he did teach them, and did preach unto them repentance, and redemption, and faith on the Lord.
    8 And it came to pass that he said unto them: Behold, here are the waters of Mormon (for thus were they called) and now, as ye are desirous to come into the fold of God, and to be called his people, and are willing to bear one another's burdens, that they may be light; ...
    ...
    16 And after this manner he did baptize every one that went forth to the place of Mormon; and they were in number about two hundred and four souls; yea, and they were baptized in the waters of Mormon, and were filled with the grace of God. ...
    ...
    30 And now it came to pass that all this was done in Mormon, yea, by the waters of Mormon, in the forest that was near the waters of Mormon; yea, the place of Mormon, the waters of Mormon, the forest of Mormon, how beautiful are they to the eyes of them who there came to the knowledge of their Redeemer; yea, and how blessed are they, for they shall sing to his praise forever.
  2. Mosiah 25:18Mosiah 25
    18 Therefore, Alma did go forth into the water and did baptize them; yea, he did baptize them after the manner he did his brethren in the waters of Mormon; yea, and as many as he did baptize did belong to the church of God; and this because of their belief on the words of Alma.

  3. Alma 5:3Alma 5
    3 I, Alma, having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest over the church of God, he having power and authority from God to do these things, behold, I say unto you that he began to establish a church in the land which was in the borders of Nephi; yea, the land which was called the land of Mormon; yea, and he did baptize his brethren in the waters of Mormon.

  4. Alma 21:1-2Alma 21
    1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem.

  5. 3 Nephi 5:123 Nephi 5
    12 And behold, I am called Mormon, being called after the land of Mormon, the land in which Alma did establish the church among the people, yea, the first church which was established among them after their transgression.

Icon
The land of Mormon
The Ozarks, designated as the land of Mormon, is a highland region of the central United States. N=Nephi, M=Mormon, W= WatersOfMormon.
Icon
The land of Mormon
Map showing the land of Mormon.
Icon
The waters of Mormon
Topography of area surrounding the waters of Mormon.
Icon
The waters of Mormon
Vertical view of the waters of Mormon.
Icon
The waters of Mormon
Ground view of the waters of Mormon.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Moron +10
+[Moron] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,5}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {first inheritance3}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [GreatJarediteCity]{city1+2+3+8} ≈ AR1
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1+2+3}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nehor]{land3}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {throne1,3,4,5}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <desolate of> ⇒ {timber1+2}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Desolation2]{land3}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Akish]{wilderness7}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Heth]{land3+4}
+[Moron]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {seashore7}
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

image

Throughout the Book of Ether the Jaredite Kings were based in Moron. That's where the throne was. There were a few times when the kingdom was split between two kings but this was rare and always short-lived (see "Jaredites Reign of Kings" graphic). The Jaredite land of Moron is the same as the Nephite land of Desolation. It's where the first Nephite explorers found massive amounts of destruction after the final wars of the Jaredite nation. The Nephites called it "Desolation" and the place of the Jaredites "first landing". The Jaredites called it the land of "first inheritance". Even more than the Nephites, the Jaredites were a nation rooted in the Great Lakes region. To get to the Great Lakes they had to either: A) come from the south up the Mississippi like the Nephites; or B) come from the east to the interior of the land via the St Lawrence seaway and then on to the interconnected Great Lakes (Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior). The answer is obviously option B based the very limited interaction between the two cultures described in the Book of Mormon. However rather than just setting up where ever they happened to land on the beach, it appears Jaredites scouted the entire Great Lakes region and then chose the most strategic spot for trade and commerce as their capital or "land of first inheritance." That location is obviously where the three largest lakes meet which is at the St Marys river or the border between Upper Michigan and Ontario Canada. The most desirable specific location for a city in along that border is where Lake Superior drains into Lake Michigan/Huran at Sault Ste Marie. That is proposed as the land of Moron, home-base for the Jaredites.

Modern Feature Location: Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 46° 30' 55.1", W 84° 20' 39.6"
  1. Alma 22:30-33 Alma 22
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Helaman 3:5-10 Helaman 3
    5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
    6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
    7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell.
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.
    9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings.
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.

  3. Ether 7:5,6,15-17Ether 7
    4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him.
    5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
    16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
    17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.
    18 And it came to pass as he was about to put him to death, the sons of Shule crept into the house of Noah by night and slew him, and broke down the door of the prison and brought out their father, and placed him upon his throne in his own kingdom.

  4. Ether 8:1,2Ether 8
    1 And it came to pass that he begat Omer, and Omer reigned in his stead. And Omer begat Jared; and Jared begat sons and daughters.
    2 And Jared rebelled against his father, and came and dwelt in the land of Heth. And it came to pass that he did flatter many people, because of his cunning words, until he had gained the half of the kingdom.

  5. Ether 9:5,6Ether 9
    5 And it came to pass that Akish sought the life of his father-in-law; and he applied unto those whom he had sworn by the oath of the ancients, and they obtained the head of his father-in-law, as he sat upon his throne, giving audience to his people.
    6 For so great had been the spreading of this wicked and secret society that it had corrupted the hearts of all the people; therefore Jared was murdered upon his throne, and Akish reigned in his stead.

  6. Ether 10:5-6Ether 10
    5 And it came to pass that Riplakish did not do that which was right in the sight of the Lord, for he did have many wives and concubines, and did lay that upon men's shoulders which was grievous to be borne; yea, he did tax them with heavy taxes; and with the taxes he did build many spacious buildings.
    6 And he did erect him an exceedingly beautiful throne; and he did build many prisons, and whoso would not be subject unto taxes he did cast into prison; and whoso was not able to pay taxes he did cast into prison; and he did cause that they should labor continually for their support; and whoso refused to labor he did cause to be put to death.

  7. Ether 14:3-15Ether 14
    3 And now, after the space of two years, and after the death of Shared, behold, there arose the brother of Shared and he gave battle unto Coriantumr, in which Coriantumr did beat him and did pursue him to the wilderness of Akish.
    4 And it came to pass that the brother of Shared did give battle unto him in the wilderness of Akish; and the battle became exceedingly sore, and many thousands fell by the sword.
    5 And it came to pass that Coriantumr did lay siege to the wilderness; and the brother of Shared did march forth out of the wilderness by night, and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr, as they were drunken.
    6 And he came forth to the land of Moron, and placed himself upon the throne of Coriantumr.
    7 And it came to pass that Coriantumr dwelt with his army in the wilderness for the space of two years, in which he did receive great strength to his army.
    8 Now the brother of Shared, whose name was Gilead, also received great strength to his army, because of secret combinations. 9 And it came to pass that his high priest murdered him as he sat upon his throne.
    10 And it came to pass that one of the secret combinations murdered him in a secret pass, and obtained unto himself the kingdom; and his name was Lib; and Lib was a man of great stature, more than any other man among all the people.
    11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
    12 And it came to pass that he fought with Lib, in which Lib did smite upon his arm that he was wounded; nevertheless, the army of Coriantumr did press forward upon Lib, that he fled to the borders upon the seashore.
    13 And it came to pass that Coriantumr pursued him; and Lib gave battle unto him upon the seashore.
    14 And it came to pass that Lib did smite the army of Coriantumr, that they fled again to the wilderness of Akish.
    15 And it came to pass that Lib did pursue him until he came to the plains of Agosh. And Coriantumr had taken all the people with him as he fled before Lib in that quarter of the land whither he fled.

  8. Ether 10:20-23 Ether 10
    20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
    22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain.
    23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.

Icon
image
Jaredite reign of kings.
Icon
image
Land of MORON.
Icon
image
Jaredite lands mentioned in the Book of Mormon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Moroni +13
+[Moroni] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2,3} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Moroni] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land2,3}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Lamanite/Nephite border1,4}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {seashore2,4}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {sinking into the sea5}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Aaron]{city1}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lehi]{city2,3}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lehi]{land4}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Morionton]{city3}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephihah]{city1,2,3,4}
+[Moroni]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {people of Ammon4}
+[Moroni]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Aaron]{land1}
+[Moroni]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah]{land1}
+[Moroni]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness east1,4}
+[Moroni]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness south1,4}

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Moroni is a city founded on the southwest corner of Lake Michigan at the entrance of the Chicago river. Being close to the Lamanite borders, Moroni was the location of a lot of military activity. Moroni is south of all the locations listed as being "near". "Near" is a relative term in that these cities by the sea are not that near by land but have easy access to each via the east sea (Lake Michigan). Therefore in the Book of Mormon narrative there is a lot of migration mentioned between these coastal cities for safety and military reasons.

Modern City Location: Chicago, Illinois. Geolocation: N 41° 53' 14.9", W 87° 37' 06.7"
Modern Land Location: Near Chicago, Illinois. Geolocation: N 41° 49' 40.9", W 87° 45' 02.7"
  1. Alma 50:10-14Alma 50
    10 And he also placed armies on the south, in the borders of their possessions, and caused them to erect fortifications that they might secure their armies and their people from the hands of their enemies.
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.
    12 Thus Moroni, with his armies, which did increase daily because of the assurance of protection which his works did bring forth unto them, did seek to cut off the strength and the power of the Lamanites from off the lands of their possessions, that they should have no power upon the lands of their possession.
    13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
    14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.

  2. Alma 51:22-24Alma 51
    22 Behold, it came to pass that while Moroni was thus breaking down the wars and contentions among his own people, and subjecting them to peace and civilization, and making regulations to prepare for war against the Lamanites, behold, the Lamanites had come into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
    23 And it came to pass that the Nephites were not sufficiently strong in the city of Moroni; therefore Amalickiah did drive them, slaying many. And it came to pass that Amalickiah took possession of the city, yea, possession of all their fortifications.
    24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.

  3. Alma 59:5Alma 59
    5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morionton, were attacked by the Lamanites.

  4. Alma 62:25-34Alma 62
    25 And now when Moroni saw that they were fleeing before him, he did cause that his men should march forth against them, and slew many, and surrounded many others, and took them prisoners; and the remainder of them fled into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
    26 Thus had Moroni and Pahoran obtained the possession of the city of Nephihah without the loss of one soul; and there were many of the Lamanites who were slain.
    27 Now it came to pass that many of the Lamanites that were prisoners were desirous to join the people of Ammon and become a free people.
    28 And it came to pass that as many as were desirous, unto them it was granted according to their desires.
    29 Therefore, all the prisoners of the Lamanites did join the people of Ammon, and did begin to labor exceedingly, tilling the ground, raising all manner of grain, and flocks and herds of every kind; and thus were the Nephites relieved from a great burden; yea, insomuch that they were relieved from all the prisoners of the Lamanites.
    30 Now it came to pass that Moroni, after he had obtained possession of the city of Nephihah, having taken many prisoners, which did reduce the armies of the Lamanites exceedingly, and having regained many of the Nephites who had been taken prisoners, which did strengthen the army of Moroni exceedingly; therefore Moroni went forth from the land of Nephihah to the land of Lehi.
    31 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that Moroni was coming against them, they were again frightened and fled before the army of Moroni.
    32 And it came to pass that Moroni and his army did pursue them from city to city, until they were met by Lehi and Teancum; and the Lamanites fled from Lehi and Teancum, even down upon the borders by the seashore, until they came to the land of Moroni.
    33 And the armies of the Lamanites were all gathered together, insomuch that they were all in one body in the land of Moroni. Now Ammoron, the king of the Lamanites, was also with them.
    34 And it came to pass that Moroni and Lehi and Teancum did encamp with their armies round about in the borders of the land of Moroni, insomuch that the Lamanites were encircled about in the borders by the wilderness on the south, and in the borders by the wilderness on the east.

  5. 3 Nephi 3:83 Nephi 3
    9 And the city of Moroni did sink into the depths of the sea, and the inhabitants thereof were drowned.

Icon
image
Aerial view of Moroni and other Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
Icon
image
Chicago Illinois about 1870 where the Chicago River empties into Lake Michigan, near to the location of the city of Moroni.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Moronihah +1
+[Moronihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Moronihah]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {covered with earth1,2}
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
For the city of Moronihah, the name indicates the Nephite general, the son of Moroni, so it would be somewhere in Nephite territory. We also know the city was destroyed by being buried under a mountain. So I have placed it in hilly region near to other cities covered with earth, and in a prime and elevated location not yet claiming a Nephite cities nearby - at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers.

Modern City Location: Wyalusing State Park, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 42° 59' 37.1", W 91° 06' 16.8"
  1. 3 Nephi 8:10,253 Nephi 8
    10 And the earth was carried up upon the city of Moronihah, that in the place of the city there became a great mountain.
    ...
    25 And in another place they were heard to cry and mourn, saying: O that we had repented before this great and terrible day, and had not killed and stoned the prophets, and cast them out; then would our mothers and our fair daughters, and our children have been spared, and not have been buried up in that great city Moronihah. And thus were the howlings of the people great and terrible.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:53 Nephi 9
    5 And behold, that great city Moronihah have I covered with earth, and the inhabitants thereof, to hide their iniquities and their abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
Map location of Moronihah at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers.
Icon
image
Topographical map showing the Moronihah at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : MulekLand +2
+[MulekLand] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land area1}
+[MulekLand]{land area} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [LehiLand]{land area1}
From a more global perspective, the lands south and north (From the mouth of the Mississippi up to Canada and beyond) were named Lehi and Mulek although these designations were rarely used because most of the historical records focus on more limited areas. Going south to north, LehiLand extends from the mouth of the Mississippi to somewhat north of St Louis, inclusive.

Modern Land Location: Starting 100 miles north of St Louis and extending to Lake Superior. Geolocation: N 44° 10' 24.7", W 89° 35' 09.1"
  1. Helaman 6:6-10Helaman 6
    6 And it came to pass that many of the Lamanites did go into the land northward; and also Nephi and Lehi went into the land northward, to preach unto the people. And thus ended the sixty and third year.
    7 And behold, there was peace in all the land, insomuch that the Nephites did go into whatsoever part of the land they would, whether among the Nephites or the Lamanites.
    8 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did also go whithersoever they would, whether it were among the Lamanites or among the Nephites; and thus they did have free intercourse one with another, to buy and to sell, and to get gain, according to their desire.
    9 And it came to pass that they became exceedingly rich, both the Lamanites and the Nephites; and they did have an exceeding plenty of gold, and of silver, and of all manner of precious metals, both in the land south and in the land north.
    10 Now the land south was called Lehi and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south.

Icon
image
Master map showing the MulekLand/LehiLand border.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Mulek +4
+[Mulek] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2,3,4} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Mulek]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Bountiful]{city2,3,4}
+[Mulek]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Mulek]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gid]{city1,4}
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Mulek is an important city mentioned during the war of Amalickiah. It is in the land of Bountiful and separated from the city of Bountiful by "plains". Mulek is thus placed in St Ignace which qualifies by being separated from the city of Bountiful by plains and by being strategically situated near the Straits of Mackinac. In this location, Mulek would be the first city the Lamanites would encounter coming up, either by land or sea, from the south on the way to the Bountiful/Desolation border (St Marys river) and on the way to Bountiful.

Modern City Location: St Ignace, Michigan. Geolocation: N 45° 51' 08.5", W 84° 42' 16.7"
  1. Alma 51:25-26Alma 51
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  2. Alma 52:2,16-34Alma 52
    2 And now, when the Lamanites saw this they were affrighted; and they abandoned their design in marching into the land northward, and retreated with all their army into the city of Mulek, and sought protection in their fortifications.
    ...
    16 And it came to pass that Teancum had received orders to make an attack upon the city of Mulek, and retake it if it were possible.
    17 And it came to pass that Teancum made preparations to make an attack upon the city of Mulek, and march forth with his army against the Lamanites; but he saw that it was impossible that he could overpower them while they were in their fortifications; therefore he abandoned his designs and returned again to the city Bountiful, to wait for the coming of Moroni, that he might receive strength to his army.
    18 And it came to pass that Moroni did arrive with his army at the land of Bountiful, in the latter end of the twenty and seventh year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    19 And in the commencement of the twenty and eighth year, Moroni and Teancum and many of the chief captains held a council of war--what they should do to cause the Lamanites to come out against them to battle; or that they might by some means flatter them out of their strongholds, that they might gain advantage over them and take again the city of Mulek.
    20 And it came to pass they sent embassies to the army of the Lamanites, which protected the city of Mulek, to their leader, whose name was Jacob, desiring him that he would come out with his armies to meet them upon the plains between the two cities. But behold, Jacob, who was a Zoramite, would not come out with his army to meet them upon the plains.
    21 And it came to pass that Moroni, having no hopes of meeting them upon fair grounds, therefore, he resolved upon a plan that he might decoy the Lamanites out of their strongholds.
    22 Therefore he caused that Teancum should take a small number of men and march down near the seashore; and Moroni and his army, by night, marched in the wilderness, on the west of the city Mulek; and thus, on the morrow, when the guards of the Lamanites had discovered Teancum, they ran and told it unto Jacob, their leader.
    23 And it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites did march forth against Teancum, supposing by their numbers to overpower Teancum because of the smallness of his numbers. And as Teancum saw the armies of the Lamanites coming out against him he began to retreat down by the seashore, northward.
    24 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that he began to flee, they took courage and pursued them with vigor. And while Teancum was thus leading away the Lamanites who were pursuing them in vain, behold, Moroni commanded that a part of his army who were with him should march forth into the city, and take possession of it.
    25 And thus they did, and slew all those who had been left to protect the city, yea, all those who would not yield up their weapons of war.
    26 And thus Moroni had obtained possession of the city Mulek with a part of his army, while he marched with the remainder to meet the Lamanites when they should return from the pursuit of Teancum.
    27 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did pursue Teancum until they came near the city Bountiful, and then they were met by Lehi and a small army, which had been left to protect the city Bountiful.
    28 And now behold, when the chief captains of the Lamanites had beheld Lehi with his army coming against them, they fled in much confusion, lest perhaps they should not obtain the city Mulek before Lehi should overtake them; for they were wearied because of their march, and the men of Lehi were fresh.
    29 Now the Lamanites did not know that Moroni had been in their rear with his army; and all they feared was Lehi and his men.
    30 Now Lehi was not desirous to overtake them till they should meet Moroni and his army.
    31 And it came to pass that before the Lamanites had retreated far they were surrounded by the Nephites, by the men of Moroni on one hand, and the men of Lehi on the other, all of whom were fresh and full of strength; but the Lamanites were wearied because of their long march.
    32 And Moroni commanded his men that they should fall upon them until they had given up their weapons of war.
    33 And it came to pass that Jacob, being their leader, being also a Zoramite, and having an unconquerable spirit, he led the Lamanites forth to battle with exceeding fury against Moroni.
    34 Moroni being in their course of march, therefore Jacob was determined to slay them and cut his way through to the city of Mulek. But behold, Moroni and his men were more powerful; therefore they did not give way before the Lamanites.

  3. Alma 53:2-6Alma 53
    2 And Moroni went to the city of Mulek with Lehi, and took command of the city and gave it unto Lehi. Now behold, this Lehi was a man who had been with Moroni in the more part of all his battles; and he was a man like unto Moroni, and they rejoiced in each other's safety; yea, they were beloved by each other, and also beloved by all the people of Nephi.
    3 And it came to pass that after the Lamanites had finished burying their dead and also the dead of the Nephites, they were marched back into the land Bountiful; and Teancum, by the orders of Moroni, caused that they should commence laboring in digging a ditch round about the land, or the city, Bountiful.
    4 And he caused that they should build a breastwork of timbers upon the inner bank of the ditch; and they cast up dirt out of the ditch against the breastwork of timbers; and thus they did cause the Lamanites to labor until they had encircled the city of Bountiful round about with a strong wall of timbers and earth, to an exceeding height.
    5 And this city became an exceeding stronghold ever after; and in this city they did guard the prisoners of the Lamanites; yea, even within a wall which they had caused them to build with their own hands. Now Moroni was compelled to cause the Lamanites to labor, because it was easy to guard them while at their labor; and he desired all his forces when he should make an attack upon the Lamanites.
    6 And it came to pass that Moroni had thus gained a victory over one of the greatest of the armies of the Lamanites, and had obtained possession of the city of Mulek, which was one of the strongest holds of the Lamanites in the land of the Nephites; and thus he had also built a stronghold to retain his prisoners.

  4. Helaman 5:14,15Helaman 5
    14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful; And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;

Icon
image
Map showing Mulek at the Straits of Mackinac.
Icon
image
View of Mulek and nearby cities, with lands of Bountiful and Desolation in the background.
Icon
image
Closeup of Mulek, near Mackinaw Island iew of Mulek and nearby cities, with lands of Bountiful and Desolation in the background.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : NarrowPass +10
+[NarrowPass] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {sea route1} ≈ IR2 AR3
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land2}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation2]{land3}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage1}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {militarily strategic2}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ {land northward1,2}
+[NarrowPass]{sea route} ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ {land southward1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The "narrow pass" is the entrance to the "narrow passage" (see also the entity "LineBountifulDesolation") which is the route between the east and west seas that forms the border between the lands Bountiful and Desolation. As a militarily strategic place the narrow pass, narrow passage, line Bountiful/Desolation, narrow neck of land, Bountiful, and Desolation are all in the same area and well described in the Book of Mormon narrative. No other place on earth fits the description like the present day border areas between upper Michigan and Ontario Canada.

Modern Feature Location: De Tour Passage, Michigan. Geolocation: N 45° 59' 30.6", W 83° 53' 20.4"
  1. Alma 50:33-34Alma 50
    33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morionton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

  2. Alma 52:9Alma 52
    9 And he also sent orders unto him that he should fortify the land Bountiful, and secure the narrow pass which led into the land northward, lest the Lamanites should obtain that point and should have power to harass them on every side.

  3. Mormon 3:4-5Mormon 3
    4 And it came to pass that after this tenth year had passed away, making, in the whole, three hundred and sixty years from the coming of Christ, the king of the Lamanites sent an epistle unto me, which gave unto me to know that they were preparing to come again to battle against us.
    5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.

Icon
image
The narrow pass is the southern entrance to the water border of Upper Michigan and Ontario.
Icon
image
The narrow pass is the southern entrance to the water border of Upper Michigan and Ontario.
Icon
image
The narrow pass is the southern entrance to the water border of Upper Michigan and Ontario.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : NarrowPassage +3
+[NarrowPassage] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {border1} ≈ IR2 AR3
+[NarrowPassage]{border} ⇒ <same as> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage2}
+[NarrowPassage]{border} ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ {land southward1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The "narrow passage" is a border between the land south and the land north (see also the entity "LineBountifulDesolation") which forms the border between the lands Bountiful and Desolation. As a militarily strategic place the narrow passage, narrow pass, line Bountiful/Desolation, narrow neck of land, Bountiful, and Desolation are all in the same area and well described in the Book of Mormon narrative. No other place on earth fits the description like the present day border areas between upper Michigan and Ontario Canada.

Modern City Location: Du Tour Passage, Michigan. Geolocation: N 45° 59 '30.0", W 83° 53' 21.2"
  1. Mormon 2:29Alma 50
    29 And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites all the land southward.
  2. Helaman 4:6-7Helaman 4
    6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
    7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.


Icon
image
Map showing narrow neck of land between the east and west seas.
Icon
image
View of Mulek and nearby cities, with lands of Bountiful and Desolation in the background.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : NeckofLand +12
+[NeckOfLand] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3} ≈ AR9 AR10
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation]{land1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Hagoth]{ships2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [LineBountifulDesolation]{passage1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WestSea]{sea1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [GreatJarediteCity]{city3}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [WhereSeaDividesLand]{feature3}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {land northward1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {land southward1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Bountiful]{land1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [OreMines]{place3}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [JarediteLandSouthward]{land1,2}
+[NeckOfLand]{land} ⇒ <separates> ⇒ {lands south from north1,2,3}
AR9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 5 mph.
AR10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 3 mph.
The "narrow neck of land" is part of the land of Bountiful and is included in the geographical description of the most important, strategical area of Nephite territory. Upper Michigan and the St Marys river border, between Michigan and Ontario, is by far the most extensively described area in all of the Book of Mormon. The fact that Upper Michigan fits so well with the Book of Morman narrative is a major factor in favor on the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model map. This area was considered critically important for military reasons as well as for controlling trade and migration northward. The precise distance from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan/Huron is 63.2 miles. According to Section 3.3 Principles of Navigation, a day and a half journey with the current should be 72 miles and a day and a half journey against the current should be 48 miles for an average of 60 miles, so that is a pretty good match to the actual distance.

Modern Feature Location: Upper Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 18' 44.8", W 85° 45' 51.8"
  1. Alma 22:32-33Alma 22
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Alma 63:4-10Alma 63
    4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward.
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
    6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
    7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.
    8 And it came to pass that they were never heard of more. And we suppose that they were drowned in the depths of the sea. And it came to pass that one other ship also did sail forth; and whither she did go we know not.
    9 And it came to pass that in this year there were many people who went forth into the land northward. And thus ended the thirty and eighth year.
    10 And it came to pass in the thirty and ninth year of the reign of the judges, Shiblon died also, and Corianton had gone forth to the land northward in a ship, to carry forth provisions unto the people who had gone forth into that land.

  3. Ether 10:20-23Ether 10
    20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
    22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain. 23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.


Icon
image
Entire land of Bountiful extends "from the east unto the west sea" and includes the narrow neck of land.
Icon
image
Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
Icon
image
Map showing border of Bountiful/Desolation with travel route of 63.2 miles.
Icon
image
Jaredite land southward. Reserved for game.
Jaredite Era.[~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Nehor +4
+[Nehor] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1} ≈ AR3
+[Nehor] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ AR3
+[Nehor]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ephraim]{hill1} ≈ AR3
+[Nehor]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Moron]{land1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

It is proposed that the land of Nehor is essentially the same as the Nephite land of Bountiful, or upper Michigan. It is another touchstone location that is shared by both Nephite and Jaredite cultures.

Modern Land Location: Upper Michigan. Geolocation: N 46° 10' 46.0" W 87° 34' 13.8"
  1. Ether 7:4-9Ether 7


    4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him. 5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
    6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    7 And it came to pass that Kib dwelt in captivity, and his people under Corihor his son, until he became exceedingly old; nevertheless Kib begat Shule in his old age, while he was yet in captivity.
    8 And it came to pass that Shule was angry with his brother; and Shule waxed strong, and became mighty as to the strength of a man; and he was also mighty in judgment.
    9 Wherefore, he came to the hill Ephraim, and he did molten out of the hill, and made swords out of steel for those whom he had drawn away with him; and after he had armed them with swords he returned to the city Nehor and gave battle unto his brother Corihor, by which means he obtained the kingdom and restored it unto his father Kib.

  2. Ether 10:20-23 Ether 10
    20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
    22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain.
    23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.

Icon
image
The land of Nehor, called by the Nephites: Bountiful.
Icon
image
Jaredite land southward. Reserved for game.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : NarrowStripWilderness +6
+[NarrowStrip] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {wilderness1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11}
+[NarrowStrip]{wilderness} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {12 days6} ≈ AR7
+[NarrowStrip]{wilderness} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {many days5}
+[NarrowStrip]{wilderness} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {travel route2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11}
+[NarrowStrip]{wilderness} ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ [Nephi]{land2,7,8,9}
+[NarrowStrip]{wilderness} ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11}

AR7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
This important feature defines an homogeneous piece of land separating Nephi from Zarahemla (see 3.3 Rules of Interpretation IR4). It is the alluvial plain of the Mississippi river north of St Louis Missouri and is called a "wilderness" and a "narrow strip of wilderness" in the Book of Mormon. We know it was frequently traveled and it was a twelve days journey for Limhi's people to walk/flee with their flocks and herds, starting two days south of the city of Nephi. So the estimated 10 days distance based on 3.3 Rules of Interpretation is 200 miles with Rule 7 (IR7). The google map distance between the city of Nephi (St. Louis Missouri) and Zarahemla is 188 miles when following the modern highway route. The "narrow strip of wilderness" part is 188 miles (travel is not in a straight line) with the last 12 miles being overland (land of Minon) away from the river because of the Des Moines rapids.

Modern Feature Location: Mississippi river valley between St Louis Missouri and Keokuk Iowa. Geolocation: N 39° 31' 52.4", W 91° 03' 52.2"
  1. Alma 22:27Alma 22 (see Section 4.2 commentary)
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

  2. Omni 1:12-13,28Omni 1
    12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness--
    13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness, as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla.
    28 Wherefore, they went up into the wilderness. And their leader being a strong and mighty man, and a stiffnecked man, wherefore he caused a contention among them; and they were all slain, save fifty, in the wilderness, and they returned again to the land of Zarahemla.

  3. Mosiah 8:7Mosiah 8
    7 And the king said unto him: Being grieved for the afflictions of my people, I caused that forty and three of my people should take a journey into the wilderness, that thereby they might find the land of Zarahemla, that we might appeal unto our brethren to deliver us out of bondage.

  4. Mosiah 21:25Mosiah 21
    25 Now king Limhi had sent, previous to the coming of Ammon, a small number of men to search for the land of Zarahemla; but they could not find it, and they were lost in the wilderness.

  5. Mosiah 22:11,13Mosiah 22
    11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren.
    13 And after being many days in the wilderness they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah's people, and became his subjects.

  6. Mosiah 24:25Mosiah 24
    25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah did also receive them with joy.

  7. Mosiah 25:2Mosiah 25
    2 Now there were not so many of the children of Nephi, or so many of those who were descendants of Nephi, as there were of the people of Zarahemla, who was a descendant of Mulek, and those who came with him into the wilderness.

  8. Alma 17:7-8Alma 17
    7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
    8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.

  9. Alma 27:14Alma 27
    14 And they gathered together all their people, yea, all the people of the Lord, and did gather together all their flocks and herds, and departed out of the land, and came into the wilderness which divided the land of Nephi from the land of Zarahemla, and came over near the borders of the land.

  10. Alma 47:29Alma 47
    27 And it came to pass that Amalickiah commanded that his armies should march forth and see what had happened to the king; and when they had come to the spot, and found the king lying in his gore, Amalickiah pretended to be wroth, and said: Whosoever loved the king, let him go forth, and pursue his servants that they may be slain.
    28 And it came to pass that all they who loved the king, when they heard these words, came forth and pursued after the servants of the king.
    29 Now when the servants of the king saw an army pursuing after them, they were frightened again, and fled into the wilderness, and came over into the land of Zarahemla and joined the people of Ammon.

  11. Alma 48:5-6Alma 48
    5 And thus he did appoint chief captains of the Zoramites, they being the most acquainted with the strength of the Nephites, and their places of resort, and the weakest parts of their cities; therefore he appointed them to be chief captains over his armies.
    6 And it came to pass that they took their camp, and moved forth toward the land of Zarahemla in the wilderness.

Icon
image
Map showing narrow strip of wilderness between Nephi and Zarahemla.
Icon
image
Map showing "narrow strip" of wilderness on the left and "east wilderness" on the right.
Icon
image
Outline of "narrow strip" of wilderness in orange. This is all flatland Mississippi alluvial plain, easiest to travel and close to water.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Nephi +28
+[Nephi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city3,4,7,8,20,25,26} ≈ AR1 AR3 AR5 AR11
+[Nephi] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27} ≈ AR4
+[Nephi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Hill_NS]{hill3,5}
+[Nephi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lemuel]{city20}
+[Nephi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{land11}
+[Nephi]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shimnilom]{city20} ≈ AR11
+[Nephi]{city} ⇒ <same as> ⇒ [Lehi-Nephi]{city3+4+8+20+25}
+[Nephi]{city}~[Zarahemla]{city} ⇒ <distance> ⇒ {10 days8+9+10} ≈ IR6 AR2 AR6 AR7
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mormon]{land15}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shilom]{land3,4,20}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Antipas]{mount25} ≈ IR9
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Oneidah]{place of arms25}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <comes from> ⇒ [NarrowStrip]{wilderness1+16+19} ≈ IR2
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Amulon]{land10,11}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Helam]{land10,12,21}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ishmael]{land19,20,21,22}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{land21}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Middoni]{land18,19,19}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Midian]{land21}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sebus]{waters17}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land7,11,20}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Shilom]{city3,4}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {west wilderness19} ≈ IR4
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {wilderness1,3,4,6,7,8,10,16,19,24} ≈ IR4
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <same as> ⇒ [Lehi-Nephi]{land3+4}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [EastWilderness]{travel route26} ≈ IR4 AR2
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land26}
+[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ {wilderness26} ≈ IR4
+[Nephi]{land}~[Zarahemla]{land} ⇒ <separated by> ⇒ {wilderness1,3,4,8,16,24} ≈ IR6 AR2 AR6 AR7
  [Nephi]{city} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {walls4} ≈ AR5
  [Nephi]{land} ⇒ <is> ⇒ {Nephite first inheritance1,2,4}
IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
IR6The word "journey" indicates a trip of one day or more, otherwise the trip is less than one full day. For example, "came over to" means less than one day.
IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
AR5Sites with archaeological remains are preferred as likely Book of Mormon sites if they are compatible with the Logical Model.
AR6Average civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 1.5 mph.
AR7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
AR11Unless indicated or implied otherwise in scripture, the current scientific evidence is assumed to be pre-emininent in matters of dating and geology and climate.
After Zarahemla, Nephi is the second most mentioned city, with the most geographical references, in the Book of Mormon. It is the original settlement site of Nephi and during the reign of the Judges and later becomes a vast Lamanite centered metropolis and capital, with the most populated and concentrated cities of any location. In addition to the ER model entity relationships, there are many reasons to designate St Louis and nearby areas as Nephi. Also, because [Shilom] is established as south of the city of Nephi, we know Limhi's people went south when they fled the Lamanites and we're also informed by the Book of Mormon that the Lamanites followed them for two days before Limhi's people "bent their course" towards Zarahemla and the Lamanites lost their tracks. Then these same Lamanites found the people of Alma. Later, when the people of Alma flee the Lamanites and go to Zarahemla, it takes them 12 days. Thus, at most, the distance from the city of Nephi to Zarahemla is 12 minus 2 or 10 days travel. See Section 4.3.

Modern City Location: Downtown St Louis Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 37' 37.2", W 90° 11' 12.3"
Modern Land Location: St Louis Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 40' 27.5", W 90° 20' 42.0"
  1. Omni 1:12-13,27Omni 1
    12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness--
    13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness, as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla.
    ...
    27 And now I would speak somewhat concerning a certain number who went up into the wilderness to return to the land of Nephi; for there was a large number who were desirous to possess the land of their inheritance.

  2. Words of Mormon 1:12-14Words of Mormon 1
    12 And now, concerning this king Benjamin--he had somewhat of contentions among his own people.
    13 And it came to pass also that the armies of the Lamanites came down out of the land of Nephi, to battle against his people. But behold, king Benjamin gathered together his armies, and he did stand against them; and he did fight with the strength of his own arm, with the sword of Laban.
    14 And in the strength of the Lord they did contend against their enemies, until they had slain many thousands of the Lamanites. And it came to pass that they did contend against the Lamanites until they had driven them out of all the lands of their inheritance.
  3. Mosiah 7:1-7,21Mosiah 7
    1 And now, it came to pass that after king Mosiah had had continual peace for the space of three years, he was desirous to know concerning the people who went up to dwell in the land of Lehi-Nephi, or in the city of Lehi-Nephi; for his people had heard nothing from them from the time they left the land of Zarahemla; therefore, they wearied him with their teasings.
    2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted that sixteen of their strong men might go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi, to inquire concerning their brethren.
    3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
    4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
    5 And when they had wandered forty days they came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom, and there they pitched their tents.
    6 And Ammon took three of his brethren, and their names were Amaleki, Helem, and Hem, and they went down into the land of Nephi.
    7 And behold, they met the king of the people who were in the land of Nephi, and in the land of Shilom; and they were surrounded by the king's guard, and were taken, and were bound, and were committed to prison.
    ...
    21 And ye all are witnesses this day, that Zeniff, who was made king over this people, he being over-zealous to inherit the land of his fathers, therefore being deceived by the cunning and craftiness of king Laman, who having entered into a treaty with king Zeniff, and having yielded up into his hands the possessions of a part of the land, or even the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom; and the land round about--
  4. Mosiah 9:1-8,14-15Mosiah 9
    1 I, Zeniff, having been taught in all the language of the Nephites, and having had a knowledge of the land of Nephi, or of the land of our fathers' first inheritance, and having been sent as a spy among the Lamanites that I might spy out their forces, that our army might come upon them and destroy them--but when I saw that which was good among them I was desirous that they should not be destroyed.
    2 Therefore, I contended with my brethren in the wilderness, for I would that our ruler should make a treaty with them; but he being an austere and a blood-thirsty man commanded that I should be slain; but I was rescued by the shedding of much blood; for father fought against father, and brother against brother, until the greater number of our army was destroyed in the wilderness; and we returned, those of us that were spared, to the land of Zarahemla, to relate that tale to their wives and their children.
    3 And yet, I being over-zealous to inherit the land of our fathers, collected as many as were desirous to go up to possess the land, and started again on our journey into the wilderness to go up to the land; but we were smitten with famine and sore afflictions; for we were slow to remember the Lord our God.
    4 Nevertheless, after many days' wandering in the wilderness we pitched our tents in the place where our brethren were slain, which was near to the land of our fathers.
    5 And it came to pass that I went again with four of my men into the city, in unto the king, that I might know of the disposition of the king, and that I might know if I might go in with my people and possess the land in peace.
    6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
    7 And he also commanded that his people should depart out of the land, and I and my people went into the land that we might possess it.
    8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.
    ...
    14 For, in the thirteenth year of my reign in the land of Nephi, away on the south of the land of Shilom, when my people were watering and feeding their flocks, and tilling their lands, a numerous host of Lamanites came upon them and began to slay them, and to take off their flocks, and the corn of their fields.
    15 Yea, and it came to pass that they fled, all that were not overtaken, even into the city of Nephi, and did call upon me for protection.
  5. Mosiah 11:8-13Mosiah 11
    8 And it came to pass that king Noah built many elegant and spacious buildings; and he ornamented them with fine work of wood, and of all manner of precious things, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of brass, and of ziff, and of copper;
    9 And he also built him a spacious palace, and a throne in the midst thereof, all of which was of fine wood and was ornamented with gold and silver and with precious things.
    10 And he also caused that his workmen should work all manner of fine work within the walls of the temple, of fine wood, and of copper, and of brass.
    11 And the seats which were set apart for the high priests, which were above all the other seats, he did ornament with pure gold; and he caused a breastwork to be built before them, that they might rest their bodies and their arms upon while they should speak lying and vain words to his people.
    12 And it came to pass that he built a tower near the temple; yea, a very high tower, even so high that he could stand upon the top thereof and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon, which was possessed by the Lamanites; and he could even look over all the land round about.
    13 And it came to pass that he caused many buildings to be built in the land Shilom; and he caused a great tower to be built on the hill north of the land Shilom, which had been a resort for the children of Nephi at the time they fled out of the land; and thus he did do with the riches which he obtained by the taxation of his people.

  6. Mosiah 19:15-24Mosiah 19
    15 Therefore the Lamanites did spare their lives, and took them captives and carried them back to the land of Nephi, and granted unto them that they might possess the land, under the conditions that they would deliver up king Noah into the hands of the Lamanites, and deliver up their property, even one half of all they possessed, one half of their gold, and their silver, and all their precious things, and thus they should pay tribute to the king of the Lamanites from year to year.
    16 And now there was one of the sons of the king among those that were taken captive, whose name was Limhi.
    17 And now Limhi was desirous that his father should not be destroyed; nevertheless, Limhi was not ignorant of the iniquities of his father, he himself being a just man.
    18 And it came to pass that Gideon sent men into the wilderness secretly, to search for the king and those that were with him. And it came to pass that they met the people in the wilderness, all save the king and his priests.
    19 Now they had sworn in their hearts that they would return to the land of Nephi, and if their wives and their children were slain, and also those that had tarried with them, that they would seek revenge, and also perish with them.
    20 And the king commanded them that they should not return; and they were angry with the king, and caused that he should suffer, even unto death by fire.
    21 And they were about to take the priests also and put them to death, and they fled before them.
    22 And it came to pass that they were about to return to the land of Nephi, and they met the men of Gideon. And the men of Gideon told them of all that had happened to their wives and their children; and that the Lamanites had granted unto them that they might possess the land by paying a tribute to the Lamanites of one half of all they possessed.
    23 And the people told the men of Gideon that they had slain the king, and his priests had fled from them farther into the wilderness.
    24 And it came to pass that after they had ended the ceremony, that they returned to the land of Nephi, rejoicing, because their wives and their children were not slain; and they told Gideon what they had done to the king.
  7. Mosiah 20:1-7Mosiah 20
    1 Now there was a place in Shemlon where the daughters of the Lamanites did gather themselves together to sing, and to dance, and to make themselves merry.
    2 And it came to pass that there was one day a small number of them gathered together to sing and to dance.
    3 And now the priests of king Noah, being ashamed to return to the city of Nephi, yea, and also fearing that the people would slay them, therefore they durst not return to their wives and their children.
    4 And having tarried in the wilderness, and having discovered the daughters of the Lamanites, they laid and watched them;
    5 And when there were but few of them gathered together to dance, they came forth out of their secret places and took them and carried them into the wilderness; yea, twenty and four of the daughters of the Lamanites they carried into the wilderness.
    6 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites found that their daughters had been missing, they were angry with the people of Limhi, for they thought it was the people of Limhi.
    7 Therefore they sent their armies forth; yea, even the king himself went before his people; and they went up to the land of Nephi to destroy the people of Limhi.
  8. Mosiah 21:1,24-27Mosiah 21
    1 And it came to pass that Limhi and his people returned to the city of Nephi, and began to dwell in the land again in peace.
    ...
    24 But when he found that they were not, but that they were his brethren, and had come from the land of Zarahemla, he was filled with exceedingly great joy.
    25 Now king Limhi had sent, previous to the coming of Ammon, a small number of men to search for the land of Zarahemla; but they could not find it, and they were lost in the wilderness.
    26 Nevertheless, they did find a land which had been peopled; yea, a land which was covered with dry bones; yea, a land which had been peopled and which had been destroyed; and they, having supposed it to be the land of Zarahemla, returned to the land of Nephi, having arrived in the borders of the land not many days before the coming of Ammon.
    27 And they brought a record with them, even a record of the people whose bones they had found; and it was engraven on plates of ore.
  9. Mosiah 22:11-16 Mosiah 22
    11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren.
    12 And they had taken all their gold, and silver, and their precious things, which they could carry, and also their provisions with them, into the wilderness; and they pursued their journey.
    13 And after being many days in the wilderness they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah's people, and became his subjects.
    14 And it came to pass that Mosiah received them with joy; and he also received their records, and also the records which had been found by the people of Limhi.
    15 And now it came to pass when the Lamanites had found that the people of Limhi had departed out of the land by night, that they sent an army into the wilderness to pursue them;
    16 And after they had pursued them two days, they could no longer follow their tracks; therefore they were lost in the wilderness.
  10. Mosiah 23:29-38Mosiah 23
    18 Now it came to pass that Alma and his people in the night-time gathered their flocks together, and also of their grain; yea, even all the night-time were they gathering the flocks together.
    ...
    24 And it came to pass that they departed out of the valley, and took their journey into the wilderness.
    25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah II did also receive them with joy.

    29 And it came to pass that the Lord did soften the hearts of the Lamanites. And Alma and his brethren went forth and delivered themselves up into their hands; and the Lamanites took possession of the land of Helam.
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
    31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
    ...
    35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.

  11. Mosiah 24:2-4Mosiah 24
    1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
    2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
    3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
    4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.

  12. Mosiah 27:16Mosiah 27
    16 Now I say unto thee: Go, and remember the captivity of thy fathers in the land of Helam, and in the land of Nephi; and remember how great things he has done for them; for they were in bondage, and he has delivered them. And now I say unto thee, Alma, go thy way, and seek to destroy the church no more, that their prayers may be answered, and this even if thou wilt of thyself be cast off.

  13. Mosiah 28:1,5Mosiah 28
    1 Now it came to pass that after the sons of Mosiah had done all these things, they took a small number with them and returned to their father, the king, and desired of him that he would grant unto them that they might, with these whom they had selected, go up to the land of Nephi that they might preach the things which they had heard, and that they might impart the word of God to their brethren, the Lamanites--
    ...
    5 And it came to pass that they did plead with their father many days that they might go up to the land of Nephi.

  14. Mosiah 29:3Mosiah 29
    3 Now Aaron had gone up to the land of Nephi, therefore the king could not confer the kingdom upon him; neither would Aaron take upon him the kingdom; neither were any of the sons of Mosiah willing to take upon them the kingdom.

  15. Alma 5:3Alma 5
    3 I, Alma, having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest over the church of God, he having power and authority from God to do these things, behold, I say unto you that he began to establish a church in the land which was in the borders of Nephi; yea, the land which was called the land of Mormon; yea, and he did baptize his brethren in the waters of Mormon.

  16. Alma 17:7-9Alma 17
    7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
    8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.
    9 And it came to pass that they journeyed many days in the wilderness, and they fasted much and prayed much that the Lord would grant unto them a portion of his Spirit to go with them, and abide with them, that they might be an instrument in the hands of God to bring, if it were possible, their brethren, the Lamanites, to the knowledge of the truth, to the knowledge of the baseness of the traditions of their fathers, which were not correct.

  17. Alma 18:6-9Alma 18
    6 For he had slain many of them because their brethren had scattered their flocks at the place of water; and thus, because they had had their flocks scattered they were slain.
    7 Now it was the practice of these Lamanites to stand by the waters of Sebus to scatter the flocks of the people, that thereby they might drive away many that were scattered unto their own land, it being a practice of plunder among them.
    8 And it came to pass that king Lamoni inquired of his servants, saying: Where is this man that has such great power?
    9 And they said unto him: Behold, he is feeding thy horses. Now the king had commanded his servants, previous to the time of the watering of their flocks, that they should prepare his horses and chariots, and conduct him forth to the land of Nephi; for there had been a great feast appointed at the land of Nephi, by the father of Lamoni, who was king over all the land.

  18. Alma 20:1-3Alma 20
    1 And it came to pass that when they had established a church in that land, that king Lamoni desired that Ammon should go with him to the land of Nephi, that he might show him unto his father.
    2 And the voice of the Lord came to Ammon, saying: Thou shalt not go up to the land of Nephi, for behold, the king will seek thy life; but thou shalt go to the land of Middoni; for behold, thy brother Aaron, and also Muloki and Ammah are in prison.
    3 Now it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he said unto Lamoni: Behold, my brother and brethren are in prison at Middoni, and I go that I may deliver them.

  19. Alma 22:1,27-34Alma 22 (see Section 4.2 commentary)
    1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually, we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi, even to the house of the king which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
    ...
    [for the following verses, see Section 4.2 for detailed analysis]
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore; and also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.

  20. Alma 23:8-13Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

  21. Alma 24:1,5,20Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amlicites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amlicites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.
    5 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
    ...
    20 And it came to pass that their brethren, the Lamanites, made preparations for war, and came up to the land of Nephi for the purpose of destroying the king, and to place another in his stead, and also of destroying the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi out of the land.

  22. Alma 25:13Alma 25
    13 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that they could not overpower the Nephites they returned again to their own land; and many of them came over to dwell in the land of Ishmael and the land of Nephi, and did join themselves to the people of God, who were the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi.

  23. Alma 26:23Alma 26
    23 Now do ye remember, my brethren, that we said unto our brethren in the land of Zarahemla, we go up to the land of Nephi, to preach unto our brethren, the Lamanites, and they laughed us to scorn?

  24. Alma 27:14Alma 27
    14 And they gathered together all their people, yea, all the people of the Lord, and did gather together all their flocks and herds, and departed out of the land, and came into the wilderness which divided the land of Nephi from the land of Zarahemla, and came over near the borders of the land.

  25. Alma 47:1,5-10,20,31,35Alma 47:1,20,31,35
    1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites.
    ...
    5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
    6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
    7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle. ...
    9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas. ...
    10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him. ...
    20 And it came to pass that Amalickiah marched with his armies (for he had gained his desires) to the land of Nephi, to the city of Nephi, which was the chief city.
    ...
    31 And it came to pass on the morrow he entered the city Nephi with his armies, and took possession of the city.
    ...
    35 And it came to pass that Amalickiah sought the favor of the queen, and took her unto him to wife; and thus by his fraud, and by the assistance of his cunning servants, he obtained the kingdom; yea, he was acknowledged king throughout all the land, among all the people of the Lamanites, who were composed of the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites, and all the dissenters of the Nephites, from the reign of Nephi down to the present time.

  26. Alma 50:7-9,11Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.
  27. Helaman 5:19-21Helaman 5
    19 Therefore they did speak unto the great astonishment of the Lamanites, to the convincing them, insomuch that there were eight thousand of the Lamanites who were in the land of Zarahemla and round about baptized unto repentance, and were convinced of the wickedness of the traditions of their fathers.
    20 And it came to pass that Nephi and Lehi did proceed from thence to go to the land of Nephi.
    21 And it came to pass that they were taken by an army of the Lamanites and cast into prison; yea, even in that same prison in which Ammon and his brethren were cast by the servants of Limhi.

Icon
image
Ishmael and nearby cities.
Icon
image
View of Ishmael and nearby cities, looking west.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Nephihah +11
+[Nephihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1,2,3,4} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Nephihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land1,4}
+[Nephihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {plains4}
+[Nephihah]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Nephihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lehi]{city1,2} ≈ IR7
+[Nephihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Lehi]{land4}
+[Nephihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Morionton]{city2,3}
+[Nephihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Moroni]{city1,2,3,4} ≈ IR7
+[Nephihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Omner]{city2}
+[Nephihah]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Aaron]{land1} ≈ IR7
+[Nephihah]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Moroni]{land1} ≈ IR7
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Scriptures in Alma give much information on the coastal cities along the "east sea" or Lake Michigan, and indicates the relative order (bottom to top - see Section 3.3, item 5) of the cities which is (1) Moroni, (2) Nephihah, and (3) Aaron (Moronihah and Lehi come later). The final location of these cities is determined by assuming the most favorable topography of Book of Mormon times would still match that of today, which leads me to place Aaron in the location of present day Milwaulkie, Wisconsin. Milwaukie borders the east side of Lake Michigan and is the largest city in Wisconsin. A European trading post was first established there if 1785. The Milwaulkie area is where the Kinnickinnic, Menomonee, and Milwaulkie rivers join before empting into Lake Michigan. Note that the people of Moroni, Lehi, and Morionton were gathered to Nephihah for defense. If walking this is a long journey but is of course much easier by sea. In the entity relationship, the term "near" refers more to ease of travel rather than a proximity in miles. See also, Section 4.6.3 and the city entity Moroni.

Modern City Location: Milwaukie, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 43° 01' 37.4", W 87° 53' 49.8"
Modern land Location: Milwaukie, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 43° 01' 44.1", W 87° 57' 37.6"
  1. Alma 50:13-15Alma 50
    13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
    14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.
    15 And they also began in that same year to build many cities on the north, one in a particular manner which they called Lehi, which was in the north by the borders of the seashore.

  2. Alma 51:23-26Alma 51
    23 And it came to pass that the Nephites were not sufficiently strong in the city of Moroni; therefore Amalickiah did drive them, slaying many. And it came to pass that Amalickiah took possession of the city, yea, possession of all their fortifications.
    24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  3. Alma 59:5-11Alma 59
    5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morionton, were attacked by the Lamanites.
    6 Yea, even those who had been compelled to flee from the land of Manti, and from the land round about, had come over and joined the Lamanites in this part of the land.
    7 And thus being exceedingly numerous, yea, and receiving strength from day to day, by the command of Ammoron they came forth against the people of Nephihah, and they did begin to slay them with an exceedingly great slaughter.
    8 And their armies were so numerous that the remainder of the people of Nephihah were obliged to flee before them; and they came even and joined the army of Moroni.
    9 And now as Moroni had supposed that there should be men sent to the city of Nephihah, to the assistance of the people to maintain that city, and knowing that it was easier to keep the city from falling into the hands of the Lamanites than to retake it from them, he supposed that they would easily maintain that city.
    10 Therefore he retained all his force to maintain those places which he had recovered.
    11 And now, when Moroni saw that the city of Nephihah was lost he was exceedingly sorrowful, and began to doubt, because of the wickedness of the people, whether they should not fall into the hands of their brethren.

  4. Alma 62:19-30Alma 59
    18 And it came to pass that when they had sent them away they pursued their march towards the land of Nephihah. And it came to pass that when they had come to the city of Nephihah, they did pitch their tents in the plains of Nephihah, which is near the city of Nephihah.
    19 Now Moroni was desirous that the Lamanites should come out to battle against them, upon the plains; but the Lamanites, knowing of their exceedingly great courage, and beholding the greatness of their numbers, therefore they durst not come out against them; therefore they did not come to battle in that day.
    20 And when the night came, Moroni went forth in the darkness of the night, and came upon the top of the wall to spy out in what part of the city the Lamanites did camp with their army.
    21 And it came to pass that they were on the east, by the entrance; and they were all asleep. And now Moroni returned to his army, and caused that they should prepare in haste strong cords and ladders, to be let down from the top of the wall into the inner part of the wall.
    22 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his men should march forth and come upon the top of the wall, and let themselves down into that part of the city, yea, even on the west, where the Lamanites did not camp with their armies.
    23 And it came to pass that they were all let down into the city by night, by the means of their strong cords and their ladders; thus when the morning came they were all within the walls of the city.
    24 And now, when the Lamanites awoke and saw that the armies of Moroni were within the walls, they were affrighted exceedingly, insomuch that they did flee out by the pass.
    25 And now when Moroni saw that they were fleeing before him, he did cause that his men should march forth against them, and slew many, and surrounded many others, and took them prisoners; and the remainder of them fled into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
    26 Thus had Moroni and Pahoran obtained the possession of the city of Nephihah without the loss of one soul; and there were many of the Lamanites who were slain.
    27 Now it came to pass that many of the Lamanites that were prisoners were desirous to join the people of Ammon and become a free people.
    28 And it came to pass that as many as were desirous, unto them it was granted according to their desires.
    29 Therefore, all the prisoners of the Lamanites did join the people of Ammon, and did begin to labor exceedingly, tilling the ground, raising all manner of grain, and flocks and herds of every kind; and thus were the Nephites relieved from a great burden; yea, insomuch that they were relieved from all the prisoners of the Lamanites.
    30 Now it came to pass that Moroni, after he had obtained possession of the city of Nephihah, having taken many prisoners, which did reduce the armies of the Lamanites exceedingly, and having regained many of the Nephites who had been taken prisoners, which did strengthen the army of Moroni exceedingly; therefore Moroni went forth from the land of Nephihah to the land of Lehi.

Icon
image
Aerial view of Nephihah and other Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
Icon
image
Nephihah bordering the east sea and located between Moroni and Aaron.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Noah +6
+[Noah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city3} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Noah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {land2,3}
+[Noah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ammonihah]{city3}
+[Noah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ammonihah]{city2,3}
+[Noah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ammonihah]{land1}
+[Noah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidom]{land1}
+[Noah]{land} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {wilderness2,3} ≈ AR4
  [Noah] ⇒ <fortified by> ⇒ {Moroni3}

IR4"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Both Noah and Ammonihah are mentioned twice in separate Lamanite military campaigns and these lands apparently border each other. Each time the Lamanites come in from the west and attack first Ammonihah and then Noah. See also, Section 4.4.7.

Modern City Location: Iowa City, Iowa. Geolocation: N 41° 30' 02.6", W 91° 22' 18.3"

Modern Land Location: Area between the Cedar and Iowa rivers, Iowa. Geolocation: N 41° 39' 21.6", W 91° 32' 16.0"
  1. Alma 15:1-4,11-17Alma 15
    1 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek were commanded to depart out of that city ; and they departed, and came out even into the land of Sidom; and behold, there they found all the people who had departed out of the land of Ammonihah, who had been cast out and stoned, because they believed in the words of Alma.
    2 And they related unto them all that had happened unto their wives and children, and also concerning themselves, and of their power of deliverance.
    3 And also Zeezrom lay sick at Sidom, with a burning fever, which was caused by the great tribulations of his mind on account of his wickedness, for he supposed that Alma and Amulek were no more; and he supposed that they had been slain because of his iniquity. And this great sin, and his many other sins, did harrow up his mind until it did become exceedingly sore, having no deliverance; therefore he began to be scorched with a burning heat.
    4 Now, when he heard that Alma and Amulek were in the land of Sidom, his heart began to take courage; and he sent a message immediately unto them, desiring them to come unto him.
    ...
    11 And when Alma had said these words, Zeezrom leaped upon his feet, and began to walk; and this was done to the great astonishment of all the people; and the knowledge of this went forth throughout all the land of Sidom.
    12 And Alma baptized Zeezrom unto the Lord; and he began from that time forth to preach unto the people.
    13 And Alma established a church in the land of Sidom, and consecrated priests and teachers in the land, to baptize unto the Lord whosoever were desirous to be baptized.
    14 And it came to pass that they were many; for they did flock in from all the region round about Sidom, and were baptized.
    15 But as to the people that were in the land of Ammonihah, they yet remained a hard-hearted and a stiffnecked people; and they repented not of their sins, ascribing all the power of Alma and Amulek to the devil; for they were of the profession of Nehor, and did not believe in the repentance of their sins.
    16 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek, Amulek having forsaken all his gold, and silver, and his precious things, which were in the land of Ammonihah, for the word of God, he being rejected by those who were once his friends and also by his father and his kindred;
    17 Therefore, after Alma having established the church at Sidom, seeing a great check, yea, seeing that the people were checked as to the pride of their hearts, and began to humble themselves before God, and began to assemble themselves together at their sanctuaries to worship God before the altar, watching and praying continually, that they might be delivered from Satan, and from death, and from destruction--
  2. Alma 16:2-3Alma 16
    2 For behold, the armies of the Lamanites had come in upon the wilderness side, into the borders of the land, even into the city of Ammonihah, and began to slay the people and destroy the city.
    3 And now it came to pass, before the Nephites could raise a sufficient army to drive them out of the land, they had destroyed the people who were in the city of Ammonihah, and also some around the borders of Noah, and taken others captive into the wilderness.

  3. Alma 49:10-15Alma 49
    10 Now, if king Amalickiah had come down out of the land of Nephi, at the head of his army, perhaps he would have caused the Lamanites to have attacked the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah; for behold, he did care not for the blood of his people.
    11 But behold, Amalickiah did not come down himself to battle. And behold, his chief captains durst not attack the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah, for Moroni had altered the management of affairs among the Nephites, insomuch that the Lamanites were disappointed in their places of retreat and they could not come upon them.
    12 Therefore they retreated into the wilderness, and took their camp and marched towards the land of Noah, supposing that to be the next best place for them to come against the Nephites.
    13 For they knew not that Moroni had fortified, or had built forts of security, for every city in all the land round about; therefore, they marched forward to the land of Noah with a firm determination; yea, their chief captains came forward and took an oath that they would destroy the people of that city.
    14 But behold, to their astonishment, the city of Noah, which had hitherto been a weak place, had now, by the means of Moroni, become strong, yea, even to exceed the strength of the city Ammonihah.
    15 And now, behold, this was wisdom in Moroni; for he had supposed that they would be frightened at the city Ammonihah; and as the city of Noah had hitherto been the weakest part of the land, therefore they would march thither to battle; and thus it was according to his desires.

Icon
image
Map of Noah and surrounding regions.
Icon
image
Noah with Ammonihah and Lamanite line of attack via wilderness.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Ogath +4
+[Ogath] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place1} ≈ AR3
+[Ogath]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ramah]{hill1+2} ≈ AR3
+[Ogath]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Cumorah]{hill1+2} ≈ AR3
+[Ogath]{place} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Ripliancum]{waters2} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

In the land of Corihor, Coriantumr loses a series of battles and he realizes he is not going to regain the kingdom. He considers the two million dead, begins to repent and offers surrender. However Shiz responds with unreasonable terms which stirs up anger on both sides. So they fight again and Coriantumr loses again. Shiz did not or could not follow up immediately on his victory so Coriantumr flees from the land of Corihor and "it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum" which indicates a journey of some distance. By water it would be about three weeks travel distance. Shiz follows and another battle is fought at or near Rochester, New York. This time Shiz loses and flees south and it is Shiz who arrives at Ogath.

Modern Place Location: vicinity of Manchester, New York. Geolocation: N 42° 58' 25.4", W 77° 13' 33.9"
  1. Mormon 6:2-6Mormon 6
    2 And I, Mormon, wrote an epistle unto the king of the Lamanites, and desired of him that he would grant unto us that we might gather together our people unto the land of Cumorah, by a hill which was called Cumorah, and there we could give them battle.
    3 And it came to pass that the king of the Lamanites did grant unto me the thing which I desired.
    4 And it came to pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, and we did pitch our tents around about the hill Cumorah; and it was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains; and here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites.
    5 And when three hundred and eighty and four years had passed away, we had gathered in all the remainder of our people unto the land of Cumorah.
    6 And it came to pass that when we had gathered in all our people in one to the land of Cumorah, behold I, Mormon, began to be old; and knowing it to be the last struggle of my people, and having been commanded of the Lord that I should not suffer the records which had been handed down by our fathers, which were sacred, to fall into the hands of the Lamanites, (for the Lamanites would destroy them) therefore I made this record out of the plates of Nephi, and hid up in the hill Cumorah all the records which had been entrusted to me by the hand of the Lord, save it were these few plates which I gave unto my son Moroni.
  2. Ether 15:1-15Ether 15
    1 And it came to pass when Coriantumr had recovered of his wounds, he began to remember the words which Ether had spoken unto him.
    2 He saw that there had been slain by the sword already nearly two millions of his people, and he began to sorrow in his heart; yea, there had been slain two millions of mighty men, and also their wives and their children.
    3 He began to repent of the evil which he had done; he began to remember the words which had been spoken by the mouth of all the prophets, and he saw them that they were fulfilled thus far, every whit; and his soul mourned and refused to be comforted.
    4 And it came to pass that he wrote an epistle unto Shiz, desiring him that he would spare the people, and he would give up the kingdom for the sake of the lives of the people.
    5 And it came to pass that when Shiz had received his epistle he wrote an epistle unto Coriantumr, that if he would give himself up, that he might slay him with his own sword, that he would spare the lives of the people.
    6 And it came to pass that the people repented not of their iniquity; and the people of Coriantumr were stirred up to anger against the people of Shiz; and the people of Shiz were stirred up to anger against the people of Coriantumr; wherefore, the people of Shiz did give battle unto the people of Coriantumr.
    7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
    8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
    9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
    10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
    11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.
    12 And it came to pass that they did gather together all the people upon all the face of the land, who had not been slain, save it was Ether.
    13 And it came to pass that Ether did behold all the doings of the people; and he beheld that the people who were for Coriantumr were gathered together to the army of Coriantumr; and the people who were for Shiz were gathered together to the army of Shiz.
    14 Wherefore, they were for the space of four years gathering together the people, that they might get all who were upon the face of the land, and that they might receive all the strength which it was possible that they could receive.
    15 And it came to pass that when they were all gathered together, every one to the army which he would, with their wives and their children--both men, women and children being armed with weapons of war, having shields, and breastplates, and head-plates, and being clothed after the manner of war--they did march forth one against another to battle; and they fought all that day, and conquered not.

Icon
image
The Jaredite place of Ogath, near Manchester New York.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Omner +5
+[Omner] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ IR7 AR1 AR3
+[Omner]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [EastSea]{sea1}
+[Omner]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Gid]{city1} ≈ IR7
+[Omner]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Morionton]{city1} ≈ IR7
+[Omner]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephihah]{city1}
IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Major cities on the eastern seashore taken by the Lamanite king Amalickiah are listed and Omner is one of them. This is all we know of the city.

Modern City Location: Manistique, Michigan. Geolocation: N 45° 57' 04.4", W 86° 14' 20.9"
  1. Alma 51:25-26Alma 51
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Moroni, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morionton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

Icon
image
Showing cities along the east seashore attacked by Amalickiah.
Icon
image
City of Omner and further regions, looking to the north and east.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Oneidah +4
+[Oneidah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place of arms1} ≈ IR2 AR3 AR5
+[Oneidah]{place of arms} ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Antipas]{mount1} ≈ IR2 AR5 AR9
+[Oneidah]{place of arms} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1} ≈ AR3 AR5

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR5Sites with archaeological remains are preferred as likely Book of Mormon sites if they are compatible with the Logical Model.
IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
The spelling of Oneidah as "Onidah" (in the standard text) for this location is an copy error. It should read "Oneidah". See Royal Skousen, The Book of Mormon, The Earliest Text (BOMET), Alma 47:5. The commonly accepted Hebraic root meaning for the name "Antipas" is "for all, or against all" which ties in well for a gathering place in "Oneidah" the "place of arms" (where troops gather). Antipas is therefore clearly a fortified location and not a "mountain" per se. As to the location of the fortified Antipas mount know it to be in the land of Nephi and probably not far from the king in the capital city of Nephi. The ancient mounds once near East St Louis (destroyed in late 1800's) is a logical location for Antipas and Oneidah, the place-of-arms.

Modern Feature Location: near East St Louis. Geolocation: N 38° 38' 09.0", W 90° 11' 23.6"
  1. Alma 47:1,5-12 Alma 47
    1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites. ...
    ...
    5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
    6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
    7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle.
    8 Now it was not Amalickiah's intention to give them battle according to the commandments of the king; but behold, it was his intention to gain favor with the armies of the Lamanites, that he might place himself at their head and dethrone the king and take possession of the kingdom.
    9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas.
    10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him.
    11 And it came to pass that when Lehonti received the message he durst not go down to the foot of the mount. And it came to pass that Amalickiah sent again the second time, desiring him to come down. And it came to pass that Lehonti would not; and he sent again the third time.
    12 And it came to pass that when Amalickiah found that he could not get Lehonti to come down off from the mount, he went up into the mount, nearly to Lehonti's camp; and he sent again the fourth time his message unto Lehonti, desiring that he would come down, and that he would bring his guards with him.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Onidah +2
+[Onidah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1} ≈ IR9 AR3
+[Onidah]{hill} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Antionum]{land1}

IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
There is apparently a city, village or gathering place in Antionum where the hill Onidah and the Rameumptom were located but it is never mentioned by name. We only know that Alma and his sons were preaching to the Zoramites there. On the master map in Section 1.1 it is only referred to as "Zoramite City". Onidah is either in or near this gathering place.

Modern Feature Location: Peoria, Illinois. Geolocation: N 40° 42' 49.7" W 89° 34' 09.7"
  1. Alma 31:2-11 Alma 31
    2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites. ...
    5 And now, as the preaching of the word had a great tendency to lead the people to do that which was just--yea, it had had more powerful effect upon the minds of the people than the sword, or anything else, which had happened unto them--therefore Alma thought it was expedient that they should try the virtue of the word of God.
    6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons. ...
    8 Now the Zoramites were dissenters from the Nephites; therefore they had had the word of God preached unto them.
    9 But they had fallen into great errors, for they would not observe to keep the commandments of God, and his statutes, according to the law of Moses.
    10 Neither would they observe the performances of the church, to continue in prayer and supplication to God daily, that they might not enter into temptation.
    11 Yea, in fine, they did pervert the ways of the Lord in very many instances; therefore, for this cause, Alma and his brethren went into the land to preach the word unto them.
    Alma 32:4-5Alma 32
    4 Now, as Alma was teaching and speaking unto the people upon the hill Onidah, there came a great multitude unto him, who were those of whom we have been speaking, of whom were poor in heart, because of their poverty as to the things of the world.
    5 And they came unto Alma; and the one who was the foremost among them said unto him: Behold, what shall these my brethren do, for they are despised of all men because of their poverty, yea, and more especially by our priests; for they have cast us out of our synagogues which we have labored abundantly to build with our own hands; and they have cast us out because of our exceeding poverty; and we have no place to worship our God; and behold, what shall we do?

Icon
image
Map of Zoramite city/place near to the hill Onitah
Icon
image
Tilt view of Zoramite city/place on the Illinois river, looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Onihah +3
+[Onihah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {city1} ≈ AR1 AR3
+[Onihah]{city} ⇒ <destroyed> ⇒ {waters coming up1}
+[Onihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{city1} ≈ IR7
+[Onihah]{city} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Mocum]{city1} ≈ IR7

IR7When cities are listed, order is clockwise bottom to top (6 to 12) and left to right (12 to 3).
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Onihah, Mocum, and Jerusalem are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by flooding (waters that "come up") prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. This is an instance of river flooding and another indication that these cities bordered the waters of the Sidon. Note that, by contrast, the destroyed cities bordering the east sea were "sunk in the depths of the sea". The three cities mentioned with Mocum are placed according to the following:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major populations today.
  3. From step 2, we get the following result: Onihah = Ste. Genevieve Missouri, Mocum = Oakville Missouri, Jerusalem = St Louis, Missouri, near River City Casino.
It is useful that we also have additional information on city of Jerusalem to use as an anchor point. Onihah could be placed at Peverly Missiouri or Ste. Genevieve Missouri. The reason the latter case was chosen is because the topography of Ste. Genevieve appears much more conducive to past and future flooding.

Modern City Location: St Genevieve, Missouri. Geolocation: N 37° 58'58.5", W 90° 02' 31.8"
  1. 3 Nephi 9:73 Nephi 9
    7 Yea, and the city of Onihah and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Mocum and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof; and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come up any more unto me against them.

Icon
image
Onihah and nearby cities.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : OreMines +4
+[OreMines] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {place1} ≈ AR3
+[OreMines]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [GreatJarediteCity]{city1} ≈ AR3
+[OreMines]{place} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [NeckOfLand]{land1} ≈ AR3
+[OreMines]{place} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [JarediteLandSouthward]{land1} ≈ AR3
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The famous copper and silver mines on the The Keweenaw peninsula of upper Michigan is the obvious location for the mining operations described in the Book of Ether. Mining operations have been going on here for thousands of years on a major scale. This area is especially abundant in float copper which is not an ore but ready to go 97% pure copper that can just be picked up or chiseled out of rock. The Keewenaw peninsula is also near the narrow neck of land and is only 210 miles or 7 days (see Section 3.4 - AR8) journey to the capital land of Moron by sea. Even closer by sea and by land is the Marquette Iron Range (see also Hill Ephraim).

Modern Feature Location: Keewenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Geolocation: N 47° 07' 19.2", W 88° 34' 20.8"
  1. Ether 10:19-23Ether 10


    19 And it came to pass that Lib also did that which was good in the sight of the Lord. And in the days of Lib the poisonous serpents were destroyed. Wherefore they did go into the land southward, to hunt food for the people of the land, for the land was covered with animals of the forest. And Lib also himself became a great hunter. 20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land. 21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants. 22 And they were exceedingly industrious, and they did buy and sell and traffic one with another, that they might get gain. 23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.


Icon
image
Jaredite copper, silver, iron mining.
Icon
image
Pure copper from the Keewanaw Peninsula.
Icon
image
Keewanaw peninsula geology.
Icon
image
Iron ranges in upper Michigan including the Marquette Iron Range.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Ramah +3
+[Ramah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1} ≈ AR2 AR3 AR5 IR9
+[Ramah]{hill} ⇒ <is> ⇒ [Cumorah]{hill1} ≈ AR3 IR1
+[Ramah]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Ogath]{place1} ≈ AR3
+[Ramah]{hill} ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Ripliancum]{waters1} ≈ AR3 AR8
IR1When a

Modern Place-name is associated with an ancient place-name in scripture or the writings of the prophets then that association is always honored.
IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

AR5Sites with archaeological remains are preferred as likely Book of Mormon sites if they are compatible with the Logical Model.
AR8Water travel with no current, as in the Great Lakes, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 4 mph.
The Jaredite hill Ramah is directly stated as being the same as the Nephite hill Cumorah. Why did both civilizations choose Cumorah as a gathering place for a final conflict? It's because topographically it is the only logical, feasible place to gather from the North, South, East, and West. See also "Cumorah".

Modern Feature Location: The Hill Cumorah, New York. Geolocation: N 43° 00' 22.3", W 77° 13' 27.1"
  1. Ether 15:7-11Ether 15
    7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
    8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
    9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
    10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
    11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.

Icon
image
The Jaredite hill Ramah is the same as the Nephite hill Cumorah.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Riplah +6
+[Riplah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {hill1} ≈ IR2 AR3
+[Riplah]{hill} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1}
+[Riplah]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Manti]{land1} ≈ AR3
+[Riplah]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1} ≈ AR1
+[Riplah]{hill} ⇒ <near> ⇒ {valley1}
+[Riplah]{hill} ⇒ <north of> of> ⇒ [Manti]{land1} ≈ AR3

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
AR1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities and features are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea or where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The hill Riplah has a prominent mention in the Battle of Manti and Moroni vs Zarahemnah. See Section 4.5.2.

Modern Feature Location: Hill north of Prescott, Wisconsin. Geolocation: N 44° 46' 51.1", W 92° 45' 36.8"
  1. Alma 43:23-35Alma 43
    23 But it came to pass, as soon as they had departed into the wilderness Moroni sent spies into the wilderness to watch their camp; and Moroni, also, knowing of the prophecies of Alma, sent certain men unto him, desiring him that he should inquire of the Lord whither the armies of the Nephites should go to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
    24 And it came to pass that the word of the Lord came unto Alma, and Alma informed the messengers of Moroni, that the armies of the Lamanites were marching round about in the wilderness, that they might come over into the land of Manti, that they might commence an attack upon the weaker part of the people. And those messengers went and delivered the message unto Moroni.
    25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.
    26 And he caused that all the people in that quarter of the land should gather themselves together to battle against the Lamanites, to defend their lands and their country, their rights and their liberties; therefore they were prepared against the time of the coming of the Lamanites.
    27 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his army should be secreted in the valley which was near the bank of the river Sidon, which was on the west of the river Sidon in the wilderness.
    28 And Moroni placed spies round about, that he might know when the camp of the Lamanites should come.
    29 And now, as Moroni knew the intention of the Lamanites, that it was their intention to destroy their brethren, or to subject them and bring them into bondage that they might establish a kingdom unto themselves over all the land;
    30 And he also knowing that it was the only desire of the Nephites to preserve their lands, and their liberty, and their church, therefore he thought it no sin that he should defend them by stratagem; therefore, he found by his spies which course the Lamanites were to take.
    31 Therefore, he divided his army and brought a part over into the valley, and concealed them on the east, and on the south of the hill Riplah;
    32 And the remainder he concealed in the west valley, on the west of the river Sidon, and so down into the borders of the land Manti.
    33 And thus having placed his army according to his desire, he was prepared to meet them.
    34 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came up on the north of the hill, where a part of the army of Moroni was concealed.
    35 And as the Lamanites had passed the hill Riplah, and came into the valley, and began to cross the river Sidon, the army which was concealed on the south of the hill, which was led by a man whose name was Lehi, and he led his army forth and encircled the Lamanites about on the east in their rear.

Icon
image
Map showing Manti and hill Riplah, north of the city of Manti.
Icon
image
Diagram of the Battle of Manti. See Section 4.5.2.
Icon
image
Close-up of proposed hill Riplah.
Jaredite Era [~2170 BC to ~550 BC] : Ripliancum +5
+[Ripliancum] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {waters1} ≈ AR2 AR3 AR8
+[Ripliancum]{waters} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Cumorah]{land1+2} ≈ AR3
+[Ripliancum]{waters} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Ogath]{place2} ≈ AR3
+[Ripliancum]{waters} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Ramah]{hill2} ≈ AR3 IR9
+[Ripliancum]{waters} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [Cumorah]{hill2} ≈ AR3 IR9
IR9The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summit or as part of a fortified location.
AR2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
AR3Present day cities, towns, features and topography serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
AR8Water travel with no current, as in the Great Lakes, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 4 mph.
Ripliancum is a Jaredite word meaning "large" or "to exceed all". Being near a "land of many waters, rivers, and fountains" it is the largest body of water by far.

Modern Feature Location: Lake Ontario, New York. Geolocation: N 43° 37' 58.8", W 77° 46' 45.1"
  1. Mormon 6:2-6Mormon 6


    2 And I, Mormon, wrote an epistle unto the king of the Lamanites, and desired of him that he would grant unto us that we might gather together our people unto the land of Cumorah, by a hill which was called Cumorah, and there we could give them battle.
    3 And it came to pass that the king of the Lamanites did grant unto me the thing which I desired.
    4 And it came to pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, and we did pitch our tents around about the hill Cumorah; and it was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains; and here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites.
    5 And when three hundred and eighty and four years had passed away, we had gathered in all the remainder of our people unto the land of Cumorah.
    6 And it came to pass that when we had gathered in all our people in one to the land of Cumorah, behold I, Mormon, began to be old; and knowing it to be the last struggle of my people, and having been commanded of the Lord that I should not suffer the records which had been handed down by our fathers, which were sacred, to fall into the hands of the Lamanites, (for the Lamanites would destroy them) therefore I made this record out of the plates of Nephi, and hid up in the hill Cumorah all the records which had been entrusted to me by the hand of the Lord, save it were these few plates which I gave unto my son Moroni.

  2. Ether 15:7-11Ether 15


    7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
    8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
    9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
    10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
    11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.

Icon
image
The waters of Ripliancum or lake Ontario.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Sebus +3
+[Sebus] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {waters1,2,3} ≈ IR3
+[Sebus]{waters} ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Ishmael]{land1}
+[Sebus]{waters} ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1,3}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
There are two candidates for the waters of Sebus that are near to the land of Ishmael (in the region of St Charles Missouri). There minor small lakes scattered about in the Mississippi bottom lands to the north, about 2-3 miles away, and two lakes to the west and in the highlands that are adjacent to each other and within 10 miles of St Charles. These two regions are the most likely candidates for the waters (plural) of Sebus. Most likely, in my opinion, are the bottom land lakes as a flat fertile area to feed, tend, and water livestock.

Modern Feature Location: Lakeside and/or Fountain Lakes, Missouri. Geolocation: N 38° 49' 37.0", W 90° 34' 43.0"
  1. Alma 17:19-26,34Alma 17
    19 And Ammon went to the land of Ishmael, the land being called after the sons of Ishmael, who also became Lamanites.
    20 And as Ammon entered the land of Ishmael, the Lamanites took him and bound him, as was their custom to bind all the Nephites who fell into their hands, and carry them before the king; and thus it was left to the pleasure of the king to slay them, or to retain them in captivity, or to cast them into prison, or to cast them out of his land, according to his will and pleasure.
    21 And thus Ammon was carried before the king who was over the land of Ishmael; and his name was Lamoni; and he was a descendant of Ishmael.
    22 And the king inquired of Ammon if it were his desire to dwell in the land among the Lamanites, or among his people.
    23 And Ammon said unto him: Yea, I desire to dwell among this people for a time; yea, and perhaps until the day I die.
    24 And it came to pass that king Lamoni was much pleased with Ammon, and caused that his bands should be loosed; and he would that Ammon should take one of his daughters to wife.
    25 But Ammon said unto him: Nay, but I will be thy servant. Therefore Ammon became a servant to king Lamoni. And it came to pass that he was set among other servants to watch the flocks of Lamoni, according to the custom of the Lamanites.
    26 And after he had been in the service of the king three days, as he was with the Lamanitish servants going forth with their flocks to the place of water, which was called the water of Sebus, and all the Lamanites drive their flocks hither, that they may have water-- ...
    34 Therefore, they did as Ammon commanded them, and he went forth and stood to contend with those who stood by the waters of Sebus; and they were in number not a few.

  2. Alma 18:6-9Alma 18
    6 For he had slain many of them because their brethren had scattered their flocks at the place of water; and thus, because they had had their flocks scattered they were slain.
    7 Now it was the practice of these Lamanites to stand by the waters of Sebus to scatter the flocks of the people, that thereby they might drive away many that were scattered unto their own land, it being a practice of plunder among them.
    8 And it came to pass that king Lamoni inquired of his servants, saying: Where is this man that has such great power? 9 And they said unto him: Behold, he is feeding thy horses. Now the king had commanded his servants, previous to the time of the watering of their flocks, that they should prepare his horses and chariots, and conduct him forth to the land of Nephi; for there had been a great feast appointed at the land of Nephi, by the father of Lamoni, who was king over all the land.

  3. Alma 19:19-21Alma 19
    19 And now the people began to murmur among themselves; some saying that it was a great evil that had come upon them, or upon the king and his house, because he had suffered that the Nephite should remain in the land.
    20 But others rebuked them, saying: The king hath brought this evil upon his house, because he slew his servants who had had their flocks scattered at the waters of Sebus.
    21 And they were also rebuked by those men who had stood at the waters of Sebus and scattered the flocks which belonged to the king, for they were angry with Ammon because of the number which he had slain of their brethren at the waters of Sebus, while defending the flocks of the king.

Icon
image
View of Ishmael and nearby cities, looking west.
Icon
image
Ishmael and nearby cities.
Icon
image
Candidates for the waters of Sebus.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : SeaEast +4
+[SeaEast] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {ocean1,2,3} ≈ IR2
+[SeaEast]{ocean} ⇒ <is extent of> ⇒ {Lamanite lands1}
+[SeaEast]{ocean} ⇒ <is extent of> ⇒ {Nephite migrations2,3}
+[SeaEast]{ocean} ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [SeaWest]{ocean2,3}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
There is a distinction between the "east sea" and the "sea east". The "east sea" is a specific local sea and is always Lake Michigan/Huron. The "sea east" is a more general description used when describing the bigger picture of the Book of Mormon lands.

Modern Feature Location: Atlantic Ocean. Geolocation: N 40° 30' 30.2", W 74° 02' 24.1"
  1. Alma 22:27Alma 22
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about, which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west, and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness, which ran from the sea east even to the sea west, and round about on the borders of the seashore, and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla, through the borders of Manti, by the head of the river Sidon, running from the east towards the west--and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

  2. Helaman 3:8Helaman 3
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.

  3. Helaman 11:20Helaman 3
    20 And thus it did come to pass that the people of Nephi began to prosper again in the land, and began to build up their waste places, and began to multiply and spread, even until they did cover the whole face of the land, both on the northward and on the southward, from the sea west to the sea east.


Icon
image
The "big picture" as described in the Book of Mormon
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : SeaNorth +3
+[SeaNorth] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {ocean1}owi.541.568.2000@gmail.com
+[SeaNorth]{ocean} ⇒ <is extent of> ⇒ {Nephite migrations1}
+[SeaNorth]{ocean} ⇒ <north of> ⇒ [SeaSouth]{ocean1}

IR2Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
The sea north is globally all-inclusive in it's extent, when describing the Book of Mormon lands.

Modern Feature Location: Hudson Bay, Ontario, Canada. Geolocation: N 51° 36' 51.7", W 80° 02' 29.7"
  1. Helaman 3:3-4, 8Helaman 3
    3 And it came to pass in the forty and sixth, yea, there was much contention and many dissensions; in the which there were an exceedingly great many who departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and went forth unto the land northward to inherit the land.
    4 And they did travel to an exceedingly great distance, insomuch that they came to large bodies of water and many rivers.