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 1 Introduction
 1.1 Mapping The Book of Mormon

This website for those interested in exploring the history in the Book of Mormon, the special covenant of God upon the land of North America, and the locations of Book of Mormon lands. It presents North America as the Book of Mormon "land of promise" with the city of Zarahemla in the center and heart of the land. Overall I call this the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map for Book of Mormon geography. This Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map is based on a series of Entity Relationship definitions of geography (see the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2) that are taken from the Book of Mormon descriptive text and put into a condensed form using standard notation and then sorted by location. The Entity Relationship table is the foundation of the Logical Model which also includes a set of working Rules/theories regarding textual interpretation (see also Section 3.3). The Entity Relationships and the Rules of Interpretation together form the Logical Model. The Logical Model then serves as input to create the Physical Model, represented as a series of maps. These maps detail missionary journeys, military campaigns, and other activity. See Section 4.

In theory, one could take the Logical Model as presented here and come up with a different Physical Model or map, either in North, Central, South America or elsewhere. The Logical Model is where I hope that some consensus can be found. I encourage those with input and insights to share them in the Book of Mormon Covenant Lands forum. All Book of Mormon maps are based on a logical model of some sort, implicit or explicit. In ones head, written notes, internal map, spreadsheet, or something. Often it is informal and often not shared publicly. The goal of this project is to create a Logical Model that is the most rigorous, complete, formalized, open, and transparent - so that anyone can use it to create a physical map and to share new knowledge in the context of a common tool.

Before viewing the details of the Logical Model, I know you may just want to "skip to the end" to see the my overall map for the Nephite and Lamanite nations in the Book of Mormon. So here is the Zarahemla Centric Heartland "master map" that I have built from the Logical Model:

This is the "master map" for Nephite/Lamanite civilization in the Book of Mormon. The Nephite/Lamanite master map is built to be as compatible as possible (in my opinion, of course) with the Logical Model as described in Section 3. A master map for the Jaredite civilization is presented in Section 4.8 and is also based on the Entity Relationships. Enlarge to see more detail.
Master map for Nephite/Lamanites
 1.2 A Sacred Covenant Land

The ancient Nephites of the Book of Mormon, by divine means, "saw" our day. They saw the future.

Mormon 8
35 Behold, I speak unto you as if ye were present, and yet ye are not. But behold, Jesus Christ hath shown you unto me, and I know your doing.

They wanted us to know that their land was a special covenant land, preserved for a righteous people - a land of promise for both them and for us, if we would live worthy of it.

Ether 2
7 And the Lord would not suffer that they should stop beyond the sea in the wilderness, but he would that they should come forth even unto the land of promise, which was choice above all other lands, which the Lord God had preserved for a righteous people.
8 And he had sworn in his wrath unto the brother of Jared, that whoso should possess this land of promise, from that time henceforth and forever, should serve him, the true and only God, or they should be swept off when the fulness of his wrath should come upon them.
9 And now, we can behold the decrees of God concerning this land, that it is a land of promise; and whatsoever nation shall possess it shall serve God, or they shall be swept off when the fulness of his wrath shall come upon them. And the fulness of his wrath cometh upon them when they are ripened in iniquity.

The Nephites seemed to assume we would have some understanding of their lands and even have access to their historical records.

Jacob 1
2 And he [Nephi] gave me, Jacob, a commandment that I should write upon these plates a few of the things which I considered to be most precious; that I should not touch, save it were lightly, concerning the history of this people which are called the people of Nephi. For he said that the history of his people should be engraven upon his other plates ...

Unfortunately, we don't yet have access to those other plates with the history. However, the Book of Mormon has a wealth of geographical references that make it possible to construct maps after a few anchor points are known. To help with the specific locations we have guidance from scripture and also the writings of Joseph Smith. Archeology and land topography provide important additional clues and confirmation.

 1.3 Questions and Answers

Here are the questions I would anticipate and answers to each.

Q. Why have you done this Book of Mormon research?

A. I love the Book of Mormon and it's message of salvation. I contains the "fullness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ". I believe it is important to better understand the special purposes and destiny of North America in Gods plan for the latter days, and what that means for those who live there. About one third of the Book of Mormon contains some form of geographical information and I find it very satisfying to read the Book of Mormon with a mental picture of the land involved along with the important religious doctrines that apply to those lands. The Logical Model provides evidence of the Book of Mormon's internal consistency, and is therefore a testimony of the divine source of the text. This should be more widely known.

Q. A lot of maps for the Book of Mormon have been made. Why are you doing it again. What is different?

A. Yes, there have been many maps and theories for Book of Mormon geography published over the years. Unfortunately, they often contradict each other dramatically because little has been accomplished in the way of consensus or collaboration - but I have tried to learn from them. In fact, some of the key components of the Logical Model originates from the efforts of others. Collaboration and consensus is something I hope to encourage as part of this effort. I propose a more structured "methodology" for Book of Mormon geographical studies that emphasizes and formalizes the Logical Model. This is a separate effort from the Physical Model -- each to be studied and defined separately. I am attempting to create a logical model that is more complete, transparent, and accurate to the text -- and open to all to contribute to.

Q. How does someone contribute to the logical model?

A. One can contribute suggestions, improvements and ideas to the logical and physical model by participating in the Book of Mormon Covenant Lands Forum.

My goal is to discover truth with an open mind and apply the "scientific method" to arrive at the best possible answer. The process of experimentation is described in the Book of Mormon itself.

Alma 32
27 But behold, if ye will awake and arouse your faculties, even to an experiment upon my words, and exercise a particle of faith, yea, even if ye can no more than desire to believe, let this desire work in you, even until ye believe in a manner that ye can give place for a portion of my words.
28 Now, we will compare the word unto a seed. Now, if ye give place, that a seed may be planted in your heart, behold, if it be a true seed, or a good seed, if ye do not cast it out by your unbelief, that ye will resist the Spirit of the Lord, behold, it will begin to swell within your breasts; and when you feel these swelling motions, ye will begin to say within yourselves--It must needs be that this is a good seed, or that the word is good, for it beginneth to enlarge my soul; yea, it beginneth to enlighten my understanding, yea, it beginneth to be delicious to me.
29 Now behold, would not this increase your faith? I say unto you, Yea; nevertheless it hath not grown up to a perfect knowledge.
30 But behold, as the seed swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, then you must needs say that the seed is good; for behold it swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow. And now, behold, will not this strengthen your faith? Yea, it will strengthen your faith: for ye will say I know that this is a good seed; for behold it sprouteth and beginneth to grow.
31 And now, behold, are ye sure that this is a good seed? I say unto you, Yea; for every seed bringeth forth unto its own likeness.
32 Therefore, if a seed groweth it is good, but if it groweth not, behold it is not good, therefore it is cast away.
33 And now, behold, because ye have tried the experiment, and planted the seed, and it swelleth and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, ye must needs know that the seed is good.

Diagram illustrating the "Scientific Method". In my case, "Test with an Experiment" means to validate the Physical Model (the map) with the Logical Model. For "Procedure Working?", I read the Book of Mormon, with map in hand (or mind), to test if it fits well with the narrative of the Book of Mormon. Anyone can do this.
Flow chart for Scientific Method

Q. How is your research approach different?

A. I propose a formalized and structured methodology, as described in section 3.1.

Q. How are your conclusions specifically different?

My proposed physical model (the "master map" in section 1) is "Zarahemla Centric". Zarahemla is placed across the river (west side) from Nauvoo Illinois, the city of Nephi at St. Louis Missouri, the city of Manti a little east of Minneapolis Minnesota, and the city of Bountiful at Sault Ste. Marie on the border of Michigan and Ontario Canada.

Q. How are your conclusions the same as other Heartland models?

A. The events described in the Book of Mormon took place in North America. Zarahemla is in the center of the land. The Sidon River is the Mississippi river. There is only One Hill Cumorah and it is located at the traditional site in New York as described by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery.

 2 North America Setting
 2.1 Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map

In my opinion, the Book of Mormon peoples and events must be located in North America in order to be compatible with scripture and with the teachings of the prophet Joseph Smith. This basic premise is known as "Heartland Theory" and has rapidly gained acceptance as more people learn about ancient North American cultures, the content of the Book of Mormon, Gods covenant with this land, and the teachings of the prophet Joseph Smith. This has all been brought to the foreground of LDS thought thanks to Wayne May, Rod Meldrum, Ryan Fisher, Bruce Porter, Timothy Ballard, Jonathon Neville (here) and others who have highlighted the teachings of the prophets on this subject via youtube videos, books, magazines, and documentaries. These are all talented Latter-day Saints who believe the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith and I love and really appreciate the work they have done.

Starting in the 1920's a Central American location for the Book of Mormon started to be unofficially promoted by RLDS and LDS researchers, primarily I think because it was more attractive from a missionary presentation point of view. That is understandable - with its magnificent stone ruins, Central America seemed more interesting, especially when the science establishment said for over a hundred years that native North Americans never had any advanced civilization. Who could dare challenge it? Scholars no longer say that because it's now known to be totally incorrect, but it fit in well with the preferred narrative of 19th century "manifest destiny" ideology, and then it became codified. I think the whole idea of a Central American location is an unfortunate and detracts from the important doctrines of the Book of Mormon that apply uniquely to the promised land of North America.

This website presents a Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map. There are four main reasons for being "Zarahemla Centric":

  1. The Book of Mormon says that the city of Zarahemla was a "great" city (great means large/big) and the "capital city" in the "heart" and "center" of the land. (Helaman 1:14-33)
  2. Zarahemla is easily mentioned more times (139 verses, 424 occurrences) than any other place-name in the Book of Mormon, indicating its central role in the Book of Mormon narrative from 280 BC onward.
  3. Zarahemla is identified specifically in the Doctrine and Covenants as being across the river from Nauvoo so this initial placement, combined with reason #2, is the anchor point for the Logical Model. See "Zarahemla" in Section 2.2.3 regarding Doctrine & Covenants 125:1,3.
  4. In my opinion, placing Zarahemla in the center is the approach that is most compatible approach given the Logical Model as presented in Section 3..

 2.2 LDS Doctrinal Considerations
 2.2.1 Location of the Hill Cumorah

It is often said that the LDS Church has no "official" position on the location of places mentioned in the Book of Mormon. Truly, I am sure it's not something the Church wants to argue about. However, I have always assumed the intent of "no official position" pertained to the specific locations of Book of Mormon cities and lands — because modern day prophets have repeatedly and recently said that the United States is the promised land mentioned in the Book of Mormon. For example:

1 Nephi 2
20 And inasmuch as ye shall keep my commandments, ye shall prosper, and shall be led to a land of promise; yea, even a land which I have prepared for you; yea, a land which is choice above all other lands.

1 Nephi 22
7 And it meaneth that the time cometh that after all the house of Israel have been scattered and confounded, that the Lord God will raise up a mighty nation among the Gentiles, yea, even upon the face of this land; and by them shall our seed be scattered.

L. Tom Perry, "The Tradition of Light and Testimony", January 23, 2012
The United States is the promised land foretold in the Book of Mormon, a place where divine guidance directed inspired men to create the conditions necessary for the Restoration of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It was the birth of the United States of America that ushered out the Great Apostasy, when the earth was darkened by the absence of prophets and revealed light. It was no coincidence that the lovely morning of the First Vision occurred just a few decades after the establishment of the United States.

Even in the case of specific locations, there is one clear exception to "no official position". In my opinion it is the Hill Cumorah. The clearly stated position of modern Prophets, Seers, and Revelators has always been that the Hill Cumorah mentioned in the Book of Mormon is the same as the traditional site that Joseph Smith identified in northern New York State where he received the plates. Joseph Fielding Smith wrote extensively about this. James E. Talmadge, LeGrande Richards, B.H. Roberts, Bruce R McConkie, Marion G. Romney, George Albert Smith, Orson Pratt, and the Dedicatory Prayer of the Angel Moroni Monument have all indicated that the Book of Mormon events occurring at the "Hill Cumorah" is the site in upper New York where Joseph Smith received the plates. My faith is to believe in the words of the Prophets. Oliver Cowdery and Joseph Smith himself in their written histories referred to the locale of the final Nephite battles to be in the vicinity of the New York "Hill Cumorah" and also and where the plates were deposited by Moroni as the New York "Hill Cumorah".

Doctrine and Covenants 128
And again, what do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah! Moroni, an angel from heaven, declaring the fulfilment of the prophets--the book to be revealed. ...

 2.2.2 The Book of Mormon in North America

Of all the reasons supporting "Heartland Theory", the doctrinal and scriptural reasons are the more important. The Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map makes no compromise in the divinely revealed truths presented in the words and writings of the Prophet Joseph Smith (see Section 2.3 Joseph Smith). Here are all the references in the Doctrine and Covenants and Book of Mormon that refer to Lamanite lands. Semantically and historically, in each case, this fits best in the context of North America.

Doctrine and Covenants 10:45,49,50
45 Behold, there are many things engraven upon the plates of Nephi which do throw greater views upon my gospel; therefore, it is wisdom in me that you should translate this first part of the engravings of Nephi, and send forth in this work. ...
49 Now, this is not all--their faith in their prayers was that this gospel should be made known also, if it were possible that other nations should possess this land;
50 And thus they did leave a blessing upon this land in their prayers, that whosoever should believe in this gospel in this land might have eternal life;

Doctrine and Covenants 54:8
8 And thus you shall take your journey into the regions westward, unto the land of Missouri, unto the borders of the Lamanites.

Doctrine and Covenants 28:14
14 And thou shalt assist to settle all these things, according to the covenants of the church, before thou shalt take thy journey among the Lamanites.

Doctrine and Covenants 28:9
9 And now, behold, I say unto you that it is not revealed, and no man knoweth where the city Zion shall be built, but it shall be given hereafter. Behold, I say unto you that it shall be on the borders by the Lamanites.

Doctrine and Covenants 84
2 Yea, the word of the Lord concerning his church, established in the last days for the restoration of his people, as he has spoken by the mouth of his prophets, and for the gathering of his saints to stand upon Mount Zion, which shall be the city of New Jerusalem.
3 Which city shall be built, beginning at the temple lot, which is appointed by the finger of the Lord, in the western boundaries of the State of Missouri, and dedicated by the hand of Joseph Smith, Jun., and others with whom the Lord was well pleased.

Ether 13
2 For behold, they rejected all the words of Ether; for he truly told them of all things, from the beginning of man; and that after the waters had receded from off the face of this land it became choice land above all other lands, a chosen land of the Lord; wherefore the Lord would have that all men should serve him who dwell upon the face thereof;
3 And that it was the place of the New Jerusalem, which should come down out of heaven, and the holy sanctuary of the Lord.
4 Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning a New Jerusalem upon this land.

2 Nephi 1:5
5 But, said he, notwithstanding our afflictions, we have obtained a land of promise, a land which is choice above all other lands; a land which the Lord God hath covenanted with me should be a land for the inheritance of my seed. Yea, the Lord hath covenanted this land unto me, and to my children forever, and also all those who should be led out of other countries by the hand of the Lord.

 2.2.3 Zarahemla

The location of Zarahemla is the main anchor point that makes it possible to construct the ER Physical Model. The precise location of the city of Zarahemla is known thanks to Joseph Smith's writings and modern revelation. It starts with the understanding that Zarahemla is in Iowa across the river from Nauvoo, Illinois.

Doctrine and Covenants 125:1,3
1 What is the will of the Lord concerning the saints in the Territory of Iowa? ...
3 Let them build up a city unto my name upon the land opposite the city of Nauvoo, and let the name of Zarahemla be named upon it.

So, according to the word of the Lord, the land opposite from Nauvoo is Zarahemla. Some may argue that Section 125 doesn't mean it was the same Zarahemla as the Book of Mormon Zarahemla, but the Lord doesn't often designate names for places, and then certainly not without a reason. In this case, I would say that Occam's Razor certainly applies, which means that the simpler explanation is the one that should be taken. In fact, there is no other explanation for it. This interpretation is also compatible with a consistent scriptural pattern of Deity specifying proper names as a teaching device. For example, see Luke 1:11-14,57-64, Matthew 1:20-21, and DC 116:1. Another worthy argument for this interpretation is that the Lord does does not deceive or confuse. Therefore, if it was not the original Zarahemla he would have indicated that in scripture by calling it by some other name or by saying the "New" Zarahemla as He did with the "New" Jerusalem as consistently mentioned in the Doctrine And Covenants and Book of Mormon both.

DC 116
4 Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning a New Jerusalem upon this land.
5 And he spake also concerning the house of Israel, and the Jerusalem from whence Lehi should come--after it should be destroyed it should be built up again, a holy city unto the Lord; wherefore, it could not be a new Jerusalem for it had been in a time of old; but it should be built up again, and become a holy city of the Lord; and it should be built unto the house of Israel.
6 And that a New Jerusalem should be built up upon this land, unto the remnant of the seed of Joseph, for which things there has been a type.



The Church had a lot of land holdings in Zarahemla before the Nauvoo extermination order and the trek west.
Lands purchased in Zarahemla, 1839
 2.3 Joseph Smith

The Prophet Joseph knew all about the ancient lands of the Book of Mormon and Latter-day Saints should take the Prophet Joseph Smith at his word. He is not only a prophet, he is THE Prophet and Seer of the latter days. Indications are that Joseph Smith knew all about Book of Mormon civilization, their customs, and the location of their lands. In the famous Wentworth letter, written directly by Joseph Smith, he states:

Wentworth Letter

Joseph Smith, Wentworth Letter
I was also informed concerning the aboriginal inhabitants of this country, and shown who they were, and from whence they came; a brief sketch of their origin, progress, civilization, laws, governments, of their righteousness and iniquity, and the blessings of God being finally withdrawn from them as a people was made known unto me: I was also told where there was deposited some plates on which were engraven an abridgment of the records of the ancient prophets that had existed on this continent. The angel appeared to me three times the same night and unfolded the same things. ...

So here we have the angel Moroni himself informing Joseph about his people, "the aboriginal inhabitants of this country". Not once, but three times repeated in one night. That seems pretty clear. Note especially that Joseph was not just told about the ancient inhabitants of this land but also "shown".

A careful reading of the Joseph Smiths History account of what happened the next morning also reveals that Moroni did not just talk to the young Joseph at this time but also "unfolded" to him visions:

Joseph Smith History
I left the field, and went to the place where the messenger had told me the plates were deposited; and owing to the distinctness of the vision which I had had concerning it, I knew the place the instant that I arrived there.

Urim and Thummim

Doctrine and Covenants 130:6
The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth; But they reside in the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire, where all things for their glory are manifest, past, present, and future, and are continually before the Lord. The place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim. ...

Joseph Knight
"He (Joseph Smith) seemed to think more of the glasses or the Urim and Thummim than he did of the plates for says he, I can see anything. They are Marvelous."

Mosiah 8:13
Now Ammon said unto him: I can assuredly tell thee, O king, of a man that can translate the records; for he has wherewith that he can look, and translate all records that are of ancient date; and it is a gift from God. And the things are called interpreters, and no man can look in them except he be commanded, lest he should look for that he ought not and he should perish. And whosoever is commanded to look in them, the same is called seer.



Artist rendition of Urim and Thummim based on accounts of Lucy Mack and William Smith (Joseph's mother and brother)
Urim and Thummim

Joseph Smith had the Urim and Thummim that came with the gold plates, which literally allowed him to see into the past of the ancient Book of Mormon civilizations.

Lucy Mack Smith

According to Joseph's mother, Lucy Mack Smith, Joseph had a detailed knowledge of the ancient Americans that he wrote about in the Wentworth Letter.

Lucy Mack Smith
During our evening conversations, Joseph would occasionally give us some of the most amusing recitals that could be imagined. He would describe the ancient inhabitants of this continent, their dress, mode of travelings, and the animals upon which they rode; their cities, their buildings, with every particular; their mode of warfare; and also their religious worship. This he would do with as much ease, seemingly, as if he had spent his whole life among them.

Emma Smith

Joseph Smith wrote the following in a letter to Emma Smith, during the Zions Camp march to Missouri:

Joseph Smith
The whole of our journey, in the midst of so large a company of social, honest and sincere men, wandering over the plains of the Nephites, recounting occasionally the history of the Book of Mormon, roving over the mounds of that once beloved people of the Lord, picking up their skulls & their bones, as a proof of its divine authenticity, ...

Excerpt from June 4, 1834 letter to Emma Smith from Joseph Smith, written during the Zions Camp march (commencing May 4, 1834) to western Missouri. See Joseph Smith Papers
Excerpt of letter from Joseph Smith to Emma Smith

We have the statement above in Joseph's own handwriting. Also, there is no question that Joseph Smith was not the author of the Times and Seasons articles in 1842 that erroneously linked discoveries in Central America to the Book of Mormon. Joseph Smith was not confused. He did not change his mind. He did not contradicted himself as regards to the location of Book of Mormon lands. Joseph Smith's personal writings are very clear.

 2.4 Central and South America

From the perspective of archeology the narrative of the Book of Mormon does not match up at all, date-wise, except in North America. For example, Wikipedia says:

In archeology, the classic Maya collapse is the decline of Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period. Preclassic Maya experienced a similar collapse in the 2nd century.

Nevertheless, I believe there is a great history of the peoples of Central and South America and the islands of the Pacific, as yet untold. I believe they have the blood of the House of Israel in their ancestry. It's possible, maybe even probable, that descendants of Laman and Lemuel and sons of Ishmael migrated south to Mexico as well as north to eastern Missouri and beyond. The distance from the mouth of the Mississippi to Ontario Canada is the same as to Mexico City: 1400 miles. To get to Guatemala from Mexico City is only another 600 miles. Additionally, other descendants of Israel could have also been lead by the hand of God to Central and South America.

2 Nephi 29
11 For I command all men, both in the east and in the west, and in the north, and in the south, and in the islands of the sea, that they shall write the words which I speak unto them; for out of the books which shall be written I will judge the world, every man according to their works, according to that which is written.
12 For behold, I shall speak unto the Jews and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto the Nephites and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto the other tribes of the house of Israel, which I have led away, and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto all nations of the earth and they shall write it.
13 And it shall come to pass that the Jews shall have the words of the Nephites, and the Nephites shall have the words of the Jews; and the Nephites and the Jews shall have the words of the lost tribes of Israel; and the lost tribes of Israel shall have the words of the Nephites and the Jews.
14 And it shall come to pass that my people, which are of the house of Israel, shall be gathered home unto the lands of their possessions; and my word also shall be gathered in one. And I will show unto them that fight against my word and against my people, who are of the house of Israel, that I am God, and that I covenanted with Abraham that I would remember his seed forever.

It appears that these words are written as an indication that the peoples of Central America and of South America "in the south" are of the House of Israel also. Jesus specifically says "all nations" and I do not believe He is given to hyperbole. Therefore I believe their traditions of a bearded God who came to to their forefathers are true. We just don't have their sacred records, yet - but the records exist, or can be restored, and are promised to come forth.

Joseph Smith said of those in Central and South America:

...speaking of the Land of Zion, it consists of all North and South America but that any place where the Saints gather is Zion which every righteous man will build up for a place of safety for his children"  The redemption of Zion is the redemption of all North and South America.

Jesus said that with faith we can understand and accept these things and that it is only our unbelief that keeps us from the truth.

3 Nephi 15:14-20
14 And not at any time hath the Father given me commandment that I should tell it unto your brethren at Jerusalem.
15 Neither at any time hath the Father given me commandment that I should tell unto them concerning the other tribes of the house of Israel, whom the Father hath led away out of the land.
16 This much did the Father command me, that I should tell unto them:
17 That other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.
18 And now, because of stiffneckedness and unbelief they understood not my word; therefore I was commanded to say no more of the Father concerning this thing unto them.
19 But, verily, I say unto you that the Father hath commanded me, and I tell it unto you, that ye were separated from among them because of their iniquity; therefore it is because of their iniquity that they know not of you.
20 And verily, I say unto you again that the other tribes hath the Father separated from them; and it is because of their iniquity that they know not of them.

 3 The Logical Model

The Logical Model is a representation of all the geographical information contained in Book of Mormon, which is systemic, — and does not include a map. The purpose for having a Logical Model is to facilitate thoroughness, completeness, and to help compartmentalize information for the purpose of reducing bias. In it's final form, the Logical Model is also a quick reference and a working tool to create the Physical Model(s).

 3.1 The Methodology

The "Methodology" is the systematic application of procedures used to create the components of the Logical Model and the Physical Model. The methodology outlined below was used to construct a Logical Model of Book of Mormon geography AND the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map of the Book of Mormon. Yes, the Logical Model was actually created in it's entirety first, then the Physical Model was afterwards created. After the initial construction of a Physical Model, subsequent iterative improvements always start with the Logical Model and then "trickle down" to the Physical Model to keep it compatible.

Definitions:

  1. Entity: A named or described geographical reference of the Book of Mormon.
  2. Entity Relationships: How one entity relates to another. Examples relationships: "is near to", "borders", "is a", "is located".
  3. Entity Relationship Nomenclature: A set of terms and symbols that help describe the Entity Relationships (see section 3.2.1).
  4. Rule of Interpretation: A working theory on the meaning of Book of Mormon words or phraseology. Used when building the Logical Model. Example: The phrase "round about" indicates "circuitous or indirect, as a road, journey"
  5. Rule of Application: A guiding principle used when constructing the physical model. Example: When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
  6. Logical Model = Entities + Entity Relationships + Rules of Interpretation.
  7. Physical Model = Maps consistant with: Logical Model + Rules of Application.
  8. Entity Relationship Table: The working list of all the Entity Relationships and presented with the Entity Relationship Nomenclature. Includes a cross reference to relevent scripture text. Also for each Entity the table includes scripture citations, Entity-to-scripture cross references, Rules of Interpretation, Rules of Application, maps/graphics, and commentary on the Physical Model. The components relating to the Physical Model are for convenience in constructing the Physical Model and are added only after the all the Entity Relationships are first defined.

Methodology:

  1. Build the Entity Relationships (section 3.2) by examining the text of the Book of Mormon only. Focus on the text. Do not consider if an Entity Relationship conflicts with any current map and especially not with any archeological considerations. Don't even think about any aspect of the Physical Model. The Logical Model defines the Physical Model and never vice-versa. Totally compartmentalize the LOGICAL from the PHYSICAL and deal with the LOGICAL first. This helps reduce bias and simplifies the overall tasks.
  2. For the Logical Model, formalize a set of Rules of Interpretation. If a Rule conflicts with any Entity Relationships, then it must be changed or removed. "Rules" are working theories. A Rule of Interpretation is not made invalid simply because it is not "proven" or because it does not work with a given map - because a map is never source information for the Logical Model. In other words, Rules are working theories that guide research. A Rule of Interpretation may be replaced by a better Rule. A Rule of Interpretation is removed if it is found to be conflicting with an Entity Relationship.
  3. For the Logical Model, define every known geographical Entity in the Book of Mormon. Leave nothing out. Every scrap of information is useful, contributes towards the whole, and must not be overlooked. This also eliminates the bias of leaving things out "for convenience".
  4. For the Physical Model create a list of Rules of Application. Entities are first placed on the Physical Model map to be consistent with the Entity Relationships Table and, secondarily, according to the the Rules of Application. See section 4.1 Building the Physical Model.
  5. Test the result! This is done by reading the Book of Mormon in the normal way but with the physical model map "in hand". Each reference to Book of Mormon geography, while reading and comparing to the map, must be understandable, plausible and non-contridictory to the casual reader.

 3.1.2 Entity Relationship Nomenclature

There are several different varieties of Entity Relationship modeling, which was originally invented for modeling business processes. My version of ER modeling is adapted for the task of defining geographical entities for the Book of Mormon Logical Model. Here is the notation used:

  1. Square brackets [ ] specifies the Entity Name, which is a geographical proper noun or feature. The Entity Name may optionally include an Attribute in curly brackets. If the Entity Name is prefixed by a +, it means the entity relationship is used for map scoring.

    Example: [Zarahemla]
    Example: +[Zarahemla]{city}

  2. Each Entity Name is followed by a Relationship in angle brackets. Relationships are separated from Entities and Attributes by a connector. The connector is for readability.

    Example: [Zarahemla] <is a >

  3. The Relationship is then followed by an Attribute (adjective) in curly brackets { } or another Entity Name (in square brackets). The cardinality is normally 1 to 1 but if 1 to N then additional attributes or entities are simply listed separated by | as an "or" operator. An Attribute may optionally be prefixed by an operator which means "it is implied". Attributes may also have numeric subscripts which reference specific scripture citations.

    Example: [Zarahemla] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city|land}

    Examples:
      +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land|city}
      +[Zarahemla]{city1} ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Minon]
      +[Zarahemla]{city1,2} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Sidon]
      +[Lehi] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Aaron]{city2,4|⇒land4}

 3.2 Entity Relationships Table

Entity Relationships are a notational abbreviation (as defined in section 3.1.2) of the geographical references in the Book of Mormon. Unlike the text, the Entity Relationships are relatively unambiguous and do not rely on context, grammar, punctuation, or archaic word definitions. Changes to the Entity Relationships can come from the Book of Mormon text itself and from no other source. They are based on interpretation of the text according to the Rules of Interpretation (section 3.3). Each interpretation is decided on the basis of being "the most plausible".

Period : Entity
Relationships
Notes References
(Click to view)
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Aaron +4
+[Aaron] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2|⇒land2}
+[Aaron]{⇒land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah]{city2|land2}
+[Aaron]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea]2
+[Aaron]{city>|⇒land} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Moroni]{city2}

INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.

The key verse is Alma 50:13-14 which gives information on the coastal cities along the "east sea"2 or Lake Michigan, and indicates the relative order (bottom to top - see Section 3.3, item 5) of the cities which is (1) Moroni2, (2) Nephihah2, and (3) Aaron (Lehi comes later). Since both Moroni and Nephihah are specified as bordering the East Sea, then Aaron which borders both Moroni and Nephihah most likely also borders the East Sea. Note that these cities are founded and populated as part of a pre-determined plan by Moroni2. The final location of these cities is determined by assuming the most favorable topography of Book of Mormon times would still match that of today (i.e. where rivers empty into Lake Michigan, see Section 3.3, item 3), which results in the placement of Aaron in the location of present day location of Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Sheboygan borders the east side of Lake Michigan about half way up. See also, Section 4.6.3 and the city entity Moroni. Modern place-name: Sheboygan, Wisconsin.
  1. Alma 8:13 Alma 8
    13 Now when the people had said this, and withstood all his words, and reviled him, and spit upon him, and caused that he should be cast out of their city, he departed thence and took his journey towards the city which was called Aaron.

  2. Alma 50:7-9,13-14 Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
    14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.

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Aerial view of Aaron and other Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
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Up close view of the site for Aaron. Typically, the location for cities is where rivers and lakes meet. The Sheyboygan river is visible.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Alma +6
+[Alma] ⇒ <is > ⇒ {valley2}
+[Alma] ⇒ <is a days travel from> ⇒ [Helam]{land1}
+[Alma] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon]{land2}
+[Alma] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shilom]{land2}
+[Alma] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land2}
+[Alma] ⇒ <is twelve days travel from> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land2}

INT_RULE_3"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
INT_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
APP_RULE_6Average civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 1.5 mph.
APP_RULE_7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
The valley of Alma is stated to be a days travel from Helam. It is north of Helam because Amulon, Shilom and Shemlon which are on the east side of the Sidon/Mississippi are also mentioned as being in the vicinity. They "departed in the wilderness", meaning they followed the river bottom areas (see Section 3.3) from Helam. Distance from Helam to the valley of Alma shown is 10.39 miles. This distance is a little less than one days travel by land according to APP_RULE_6, but then a little time should be added for the river crossing too. After thus narrowing it down, the topography indicates a prospective location. Modern place-name: Valmeyer, Illinois. Valmeyer was named after a German immigrant named Val-Meyer who settled there, which means: "The valley of the Meyers". From the Valley of Alma to the land Zarahemla we have a distance given as 12 days, so this can help validate the location. Since they are fleeing the Lamanites, we utilize APP_RULE_7. This yields the following formula and distance: 12 days x 8 hrs/day x 2.5 mph = 240 miles. The actual distance to Zarahemla following todays Mississippi is 230 miles so that shows the placement for the Valley of Alma is generally at the right distance.
  1. Mosiah 23:35-39Mosiah 23
    35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

  2. Mosiah 24:1-10,19-25Mosiah 24
    1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
    2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
    3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
    4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.
    5 And they were a people friendly one with another; nevertheless they knew not God; neither did the brethren of Amulon teach them anything concerning the Lord their God, neither the law of Moses; nor did they teach them the words of Abinadi;
    6 But they taught them that they should keep their record, and that they might write one to another.
    7 And thus the Lamanites began to increase in riches, and began to trade one with another and wax great, and began to be a cunning and a wise people, as to the wisdom of the world, yea, a very cunning people, delighting in all manner of wickedness and plunder, except it were among their own brethren.
    8 And now it came to pass that Amulon began to exercise authority over Alma and his brethren, and began to persecute him, and cause that his children should persecute their children.
    9 For Amulon knew Alma, that he had been one of the king's priests, and that it was he that believed the words of Abinadi and was driven out before the king, and therefore he was wroth with him; for he was subject to king Laman, yet he exercised authority over them, and put tasks upon them, and put task-masters over them.
    10 And it came to pass that so great were their afflictions that they began to cry mightily to God.
    ...
    19 And in the morning the Lord caused a deep sleep to come upon the Lamanites, yea, and all their task-masters were in a profound sleep.
    20 And Alma and his people departed into the wilderness; and when they had traveled all day they pitched their tents in a valley, and they called the valley Alma, because he led their way in the wilderness.
    21 Yea, and in the valley of Alma they poured out their thanks to God because he had been merciful unto them, and eased their burdens, and had delivered them out of bondage; for they were in bondage, and none could deliver them except it were the Lord their God.
    22 And they gave thanks to God, yea, all their men and all their women and all their children that could speak lifted their voices in the praises of their God.
    23 And now the Lord said unto Alma: Haste thee and get thou and this people out of this land, for the Lamanites have awakened and do pursue thee; therefore get thee out of this land, and I will stop the Lamanites in this valley that they come no further in pursuit of this people.
    24 And it came to pass that they departed out of the valley, and took their journey into the wilderness.
    25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah did also receive them with joy.

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Map showing the valley of Alma, and neighboring locations.
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Aerial view of the valley of Alma, and in the background, the city of Helam.
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Distance from Helam to the valley of Alma shown is 10.39 miles. This is about 1 days travel by land.
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Path plotted from from valley of Alma to the city of Zarahemla is 212 miles in 12 days.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Ammonihah +7
+[Ammonihah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2,3,4,5|land1,2,3,4,5}
+[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <is located north of> ⇒ [Melek]{land1}
+[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <is three days distance from> ⇒ [Melek]{land1}
+[Ammonihah]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land4}
+[Ammonihah]{city} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Sidom]{land2}
+[Ammonihah] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {wilderness side borders1,3,5}
+[Ammonihah] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Noah]{land3,5|city5}

INT_RULE_3"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
INT_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
APP_RULE_10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 2 mph.
The distance from Melek to Ammonihah, which is stated as 3 days journey. From APP_RULE_10 the Iowa River journey upstream from Toolsboro Iowa (Melek) to Coralville Iowa (Ammonihah) should be calculated as 8 hrs X 3 mph X 3 days = 72 miles. The actual (google map trace) distance on the Book of Mormon map, following the river, is precisely 75.5 miles so that is an excellent fit.
The scriptures refer to the "borders on the wilderness side" and the close proximity of the city of Noah. See Section 4.4.3 for information on the related topography. Modern place-name: Coralville, Iowa.
  1. Alma 8:6-7 Alma 8
    4 And he began to teach the people in the land of Melek according to the holy order of God, by which he had been called; and he began to teach the people throughout all the land of Melek.
    5 And it came to pass that the people came to him throughout all the borders of the land which was by the wilderness side. And they were baptized throughout all the land;
    6 So that when he had finished his work at Melek he departed thence, and traveled three days' journey on the north of the land of Melek; and he came to a city which was called Ammonihah.
    7 Now it was the custom of the people of Nephi to call their lands, and their cities, and their villages, yea, even all their small villages, after the name of him who first possessed them; and thus it was with the land of Ammonihah.

  2. Alma 15:1 Alma 15
    1 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek were commanded to depart out of that city; and they departed, and came out even into the land of Sidom; and behold, there they found all the people who had departed out of the land of Ammonihah, who had been cast out and stoned, because they believed in the words of Alma.

  3. Alma 16:2-3 Alma 16
    2 For behold, the armies of the Lamanites had come in upon the wilderness side, into the borders of the land, even into the city of Ammonihah, and began to slay the people and destroy the city. 3 And now it came to pass, before the Nephites could raise a sufficient army to drive them out of the land, they had destroyed the people who were in the city of Ammonihah, and also some around the borders of Noah, and taken others captive into the wilderness.

  4. Alma 25:2 Alma 25
    1 And behold, now it came to pass that those Lamanites were more angry because they had slain their brethren; therefore they swore vengeance upon the Nephites; and they did no more attempt to slay the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi at that time.
    2 But they took their armies and went over into the borders of the land of Zarahemla, and fell upon the people who were in the land of Ammonihah and destroyed them.

  5. Alma 49:1-14 Alma 49
    1 And now it came to pass in the eleventh month of the nineteenth year, on the tenth day of the month, the armies of the Lamanites were seen approaching towards the land of Ammonihah.
    2 And behold, the city had been rebuilt, and Moroni had stationed an army by the borders of the city, and they had cast up dirt round about to shield them from the arrows and the stones of the Lamanites; for behold, they fought with stones and with arrows.
    3 Behold, I said that the city of Ammonihah had been rebuilt. I say unto you, yea, that it was in part rebuilt; and because the Lamanites had destroyed it once because of the iniquity of the people, they supposed that it would again become an easy prey for them.
    4 But behold, how great was their disappointment; for behold, the Nephites had dug up a ridge of earth round about them, which was so high that the Lamanites could not cast their stones and their arrows at them that they might take effect, neither could they come upon them save it was by their place of entrance.
    5 Now at this time the chief captains of the Lamanites were astonished exceedingly, because of the wisdom of the Nephites in preparing their places of security.
    6 Now the leaders of the Lamanites had supposed, because of the greatness of their numbers, yea, they supposed that they should be privileged to come upon them as they had hitherto done; yea, and they had also prepared themselves with shields, and with breastplates; and they had also prepared themselves with garments of skins, yea, very thick garments to cover their nakedness.
    7 And being thus prepared they supposed that they should easily overpower and subject their brethren to the yoke of bondage, or slay and massacre them according to their pleasure.
    8 But behold, to their uttermost astonishment, they were prepared for them, in a manner which never had been known among the children of Lehi. Now they were prepared for the Lamanites, to battle after the manner of the instructions of Moroni.
    9 And it came to pass that the Lamanites, or the Amalickiahites, were exceedingly astonished at their manner of preparation for war.
    10 Now, if king Amalickiah had come down out of the land of Nephi, at the head of his army, perhaps he would have caused the Lamanites to have attacked the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah; for behold, he did care not for the blood of his people.
    11 But behold, Amalickiah did not come down himself to battle. And behold, his chief captains durst not attack the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah, for Moroni had altered the management of affairs among the Nephites, insomuch that the Lamanites were disappointed in their places of retreat and they could not come upon them.
    12 Therefore they retreated into the wilderness, and took their camp and marched towards the land of Noah, supposing that to be the next best place for them to come against the Nephites.
    13 For they knew not that Moroni had fortified, or had built forts of security, for every city in all the land round about; therefore, they marched forward to the land of Noah with a firm determination; yea, their chief captains came forward and took an oath that they would destroy the people of that city.
    14 But behold, to their astonishment, the city of Noah, which had hitherto been a weak place, had now, by the means of Moroni, become strong, yea, even to exceed the strength of the city of Ammonihah.

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Cities of Ammonihah and Noah relative locations to other nearby lands and cities.
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Ammonihah is 75.5 miles (3 days) from Melek along the Iowa River.
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View is from the east. Ammonihah is placed on the flat ground close to the Iowa River on the the right (north).
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View is looking south onto the Iowa River from Highway IA 22.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Amulon +7
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
+[Amulon] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mormon]{land2}
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{land2,city2}
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Helam]{land1}
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1}
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shemlon]{land3}
+[Amulon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shilom]{land3}

INT_RULE_3"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
The land of Amulon, named by Lamanites and where they found the priests of King Noah, is placed not to far from the city of Nephi just across the river on the east side and a little south of Nephi. This relative location becomes desirable by a process of elimination and when considering the locations of Helam, Shemlon, and Shilom, and keeping in mind that Amulon was occupied by the priests of King Noah who fled out of the city of Nephi - so it's likely close to the city of Nephi. See Section 4.3.4. Modern place-name: east of Dupo, Illinois.
  1. Mosiah 23:30-31,36-39 Mosiah 23
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
    31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
    ...
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

  2. Alma 21:2Alma 21
    1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amalekites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem.

  3. Mosiah 24:1-4 Mosiah 24
    1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
    2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
    3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
    4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.

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Amulon and nearby cities.
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View of Amulon and nearby cities, looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Amnihu +4
+[Amnihu] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
+[Amnihu] ⇒ <is east of> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1}
+[Amnihu] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Sidon]{river1}
+[Amnihu] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}

APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The Hill Amnihu, on the east side of the river across from Zarahemla, the highest point being where the Nauvoo Temple is located today. See the battle maps for Section 4.4.2 Amlicite War - Battle of Zarahemla. Early Latter-day Saints found mounds, burials and ancient artifacts in Nauvoo. Modern place-name: Temple site, Nauvoo, Illinois.
  1. Alma 2:14-19 Alma 2
    14 And it came to pass that Amlici did arm his men with all manner of weapons of war of every kind; and he also appointed rulers and leaders over his people, to lead them to war against their brethren.
    15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites.
    16 Now Alma, being the chief judge and the governor of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with his people, yea, with his captains, and chief captains, yea, at the head of his armies, against the Amlicites to battle.
    17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites.
    18 Nevertheless the Lord did strengthen the hand of the Nephites, that they slew the Amlicites with great slaughter, that they began to flee before them.
    19 And it came to pass that the Nephites did pursue the Amlicites all that day, and did slay them with much slaughter, insomuch that there were slain of the Amlicites twelve thousand five hundred thirty and two souls; and there were slain of the Nephites six thousand five hundred sixty and two souls.

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Hill Amnihu and relative locations to other nearby lands and cities.
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View from Amnihu looking west across the Sidon to Zarahemla.
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View of Hill Amnihu and Nauvoo Temple, from the west side of the Mississippi looking directly east.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Ani-Anti +3
+[Ani-Anti] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {village1}
+[Ani-Anti] ⇒ <is over from> ⇒ [Jerusalem]{city1}
+[Ani-Anti] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Middoni]{land1}

INT_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
The description of Aaron's missionary journey provides information regarding Ani-Anti and it's relative location on the west side of the Sidon river. It is consistent with the Logical Model to say that "came over" indicates crossing the river. See Section 4.3.3 Missionary Journey which contains a detailed map that allows Ani-Anti to be placed. Modern place-name: Columbia, Illinois.
  1. Alma 21:2-4,11-12 Alma 21
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem. ...
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors. ...
    ...
    11 Therefore, when he saw that they would not hear his words, he departed out of their synagogue, and came over to a village which was called Ani-Anti, and there he found Muloki preaching the word unto them; and also Ammah and his brethren. And they contended with many about the word.
    12 And it came to pass that they saw that the people would harden their hearts, therefore they departed and came over into the land of Middoni.

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View of Ani-Anti and nearby cities, looking north.
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Ani-Anti and nearby cities.
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View of Amulon and nearby cities, looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Antionum +9
+[Antionum] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,3}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <is east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]{land1}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <contains> ⇒ {gathering place2,3}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <nearly borders the> ⇒{seashore1}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Onidah]{hill2}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Jershon]{land1,3}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <borders the> ⇒ {wilderness south1}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <is long journey to> ⇒ {Manti3}
+[Antionum] ⇒ <is long journey to> ⇒ {Sidon Head3}

INT_RULE_3"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
INT_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
INT_RULE_7The phrase "round about" indicates "circuitous or indirect, as a road, journey"
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
APP_RULE_4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
Antionum is a vast swath of land that lies between the Illinois river on the south and east and to the Mississippi on the west - basically the land between Nauvoo and Peoria Illinois but then it turns east and extends further towards lake Michigan. In Book of Mormon times Antionum was the land of the Zoramites. Coming up the Illinois river (wilderness south) was a common invasion route for the Lamanites. This area was frequently mentioned in the military campaigns of "captain" Moroni. A place where the Zoramites were "gathered" is mentioned in Antionum but not named. The unnamed place contained the Rameumptum and was also near to the hill Onidah where Alma preached. See Section 4.4.3, 4.4.5, 4.4.6, and 4.5.2. Modern location for the land of Antionum: most of northeastern Illinois. Modern place-name for Zoramite gathering place: Peoria, Illinois.
  1. Alma 31:2-6 Alma 31
    2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.
    4 Now the Nephites greatly feared that the Zoramites would enter into a correspondence with the Lamanites, and that it would be the means of great loss on the part of the Nephites.
    5 And now, as the preaching of the word had a great tendency to lead the people to do that which was just--yea, it had had more powerful effect upon the minds of the people than the sword, or anything else, which had happened unto them--therefore Alma thought it was expedient that they should try the virtue of the word of God.
    6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons.
    ...
    12 Now, when they had come into the land, behold, to their astonishment they found that the Zoramites had built synagogues, and that they did gather themselves together on one day of the week, which day they did call the day of the Lord; and they did worship after a manner which Alma and his brethren had never beheld;
    13 For they had a place built up in the center of their synagogue, a place for standing, which was high above the head; and the top thereof would only admit one person. ...
    21 Now the place was called by them Rameumptom, which, being interpreted, is the holy stand.

  2. Alma 32:4 Alma 34
    4 Now, as Alma was teaching and speaking unto the people upon the hill Onidah, there came a great multitude unto him, who were those of whom we have been speaking, of whom were poor in heart, because of their poverty as to the things of the world.


  3. Alma 43:5,15-17,22 Alma 43
    5 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came with their thousands; and they came into the land of Antionum, which is the land of the Zoramites; and a man by the name of Zerahemnah was their leader.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass as the armies of the Lamanites had gathered together in the land of Antionum, behold, the armies of the Nephites were prepared to meet them in the land of Jershon.
    16 Now, the leader of the Nephites, or the man who had been appointed to be the chief captain over the Nephites--now the chief captain took the command of all the armies of the Nephites--and his name was Moroni;
    17 And Moroni took all the command, and the government of their wars. And he was only twenty and five years old when he was appointed chief captain over the armies of the Nephites.
    ...
    22 Behold, now it came to pass that they durst not come against the Nephites in the borders of Jershon; therefore they departed out of the land of Antionum into the wilderness, and took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti and take possession of the land; for they did not suppose that the armies of Moroni would know whither they had gone.

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The land of of Antionum and an unnamed Zoramite city in Antionum.
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Aerial view of land of east of Zarahemla, showing the lands (all uppercase) and cities.
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The "round about" journey from Antionum to Manti and head of Sidon (B to G). See section 4.5.2
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Antiparah +6
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2}
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Manti]{land1|city1}
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Zeezrom]{city1}
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Cumeni]{city1}
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Judea]{city1}
+[Antiparah] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [City by Seashore]{city1}

INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The campaign of the Stripling Soldiers provides lots of geographic information. INT_RULE_6 and APP_RULE_3 would place Antiparah is up north nearly to Lake Superior at present day Salon Springs Wisconsin which is also next to Upper St Croix Lake, the source of the Sidon river. See Sidon Head. When the Lamanites flee Antiparah it is a simple matter for them to float down river to the other cities they have possession of. See the campaign maps in Section 4.5.3. Modern place-name for Antiparah: Salon Springs, Wisconsin.
  1. Alma 56:13-15,29-36Alma 56
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city. ...
    ...
    29 And the Lamanites, thus seeing our forces increase daily, and provisions arrive for our support, they began to be fearful, and began to sally forth, if it were possible to put an end to our receiving provisions and strength.
    30 Now when we saw that the Lamanites began to grow uneasy on this wise, we were desirous to bring a stratagem into effect upon them; therefore Antipus ordered that I should march forth with my little sons to a neighboring city, as if we were carrying provisions to a neighboring city.
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    35 And it came to pass that when they had been informed by their spies, they came forth with their army and marched against us.
    36 And it came to pass that we did flee before them, northward. And thus we did lead away the most powerful army of the Lamanites;

  2. Alma 57:1-4 Alma 57
    1 And now it came to pass that I received an epistle from Ammoron, the king, stating that if I would deliver up those prisoners of war whom we had taken that he would deliver up the city of Antiparah unto us.
    2 But I sent an epistle unto the king, that we were sure our forces were sufficient to take the city of Antiparah by our force; and by delivering up the prisoners for that city we should suppose ourselves unwise, and that we would only deliver up our prisoners on exchange.
    3 And Ammoron refused mine epistle, for he would not exchange prisoners; therefore we began to make preparations to go against the city of Antiparah.
    4 But the people of Antiparah did leave the city, and fled to their other cities, which they had possession of, to fortify them; and thus the city of Antiparah fell into our hands.

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Aerial view of Judea and other cities in the land of Manti.
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Aerial view of land of Manti including Upper St. Croix lake, the source of the Sidon
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Source of Sidon continental divide
Aerial view of Antipas including and Upper St. Croix lake, the source of the Sidon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Antipas +4
+[Antipas] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {mount1}
+[Antipas] ⇒ <borders a> ⇒ {valley1}
+[Antipas] ⇒ <is located in> ⇒ [Oneidah1]
+[Antipas] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Nephi]{land1}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_8The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summitor as part of a fortified location.
APP_RULE_5Sites with archeological remains are preferred as likely Book of Mormon sites if they are compatible with the entity relationships.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The commonly accepted Hebraic root meaning for the name "Antipas" is "for all, or against all" which ties in well for a gathering place in "Oneida" the "place of arms" (where troops gather). Antipas is therefore clearly a fortified location and not a "mountain" per se. As to the location of the fortified Antipas mount know it to be in the land of Nephi and probably not far from the king in the capital city of Nephi. The ancient mounds once near East St. Louis (destroyed in late 1800's) is a logical location for Antipas and Oneidah, the place-of-arms.
  1. Alma 47:1,5-12 Alma 47
    1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites.
    ...
    5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
    6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
    7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle.
    8 Now it was not Amalickiah's intention to give them battle according to the commandments of the king; but behold, it was his intention to gain favor with the armies of the Lamanites, that he might place himself at their head and dethrone the king and take possession of the kingdom.
    9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas.
    10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him.
    11 And it came to pass that when Lehonti received the message he durst not go down to the foot of the mount. And it came to pass that Amalickiah sent again the second time, desiring him to come down. And it came to pass that Lehonti would not; and he sent again the third time.
    12 And it came to pass that when Amalickiah found that he could not get Lehonti to come down off from the mount, he went up into the mount, nearly to Lehonti's camp; and he sent again the fourth time his message unto Lehonti, desiring that he would come down, and that he would bring his guards with him.

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Topographical map of Nephi and nearby regions, including proposed Antipas location. Mississippi restored to former horseshoe route that may have still existed
two millennia ago.
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Nephi and nearby regions, including proposed Antipas location. These are the most densely populations regions of the Book of Mormon
during the times of Lamanite occupation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Bountiful +14
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land2,4,5,6,7,8,9,10|city1}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <has> ⇒ {narrow neck4,8}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,2,3]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Jershon5]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Mulek3]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Desolation4,8,9]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation4,8,9]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <border with> ⇒ [Desolation4] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {1.5 days travel1}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <fortified line with> ⇒ [Desolation1] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {1 days travel1}
+[Bountiful]{city} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Gid3]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Morianton6]
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {Hagoth ship launch to west sea8}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <border is> ⇒ {Hagoth departure point8}
+[Bountiful]{land} ⇒ <extends> ⇒ {from east to west sea2,4}
  [Bountiful] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {Temple10}

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
APP_RULE_4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
APP_RULE_9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 6 mph.
The city of Bountiful is placed where the modern city of Sault Ste. Marie is located. This is an extremely important location for trade transportation as it controls access between Lake Superior (the West Sea) and Lake Michigan/Huron (the East Sea). It also sits on the border between the land of Bountiful and the land of Desolation, which is the same border that divides the United States and Canada today. For the Nephites, precious metals from the Keweenaw peninsula and other Lake Superior sites would have been available and shipped south through Bountiful. The Book of Mormon states explicitly (Helaman 3:10,14) that wood was shipped north and so would have gone by/through the city of Bountiful also. The portion of the land of Bountiful as the "narrow neck of land" is spoken of in the Book of Mormon and is what is known as "Upper Michigan" today. The actual location for Bountiful is a certain as it can be. It is the most described locale of any in the Book of Mormon outside of Nephi and Zarahemla. The 63 mile Bountiful/Desolation border (east sea to west sea) is a water border of 1.5 days journey "for a Nephite". This border water-way as so important for trade and military strategy that it was never occupied by Lamanites until Nephites were defeated there in Mormons time around 400 AD. Modern place-names: Land of Bountiful = Upper Michigan, city of Bountiful = Sault Ste. Marie.
  1. Helaman 1:23 Helaman 1
    23 And now he did not tarry in the land of Zarahemla, but he did march forth with a large army, even towards the city of Bountiful; for it was his determination to go forth and cut his way through with the sword, that he might obtain the north parts of the land.

  2. Helaman 4:5-8 Helaman 4
    5 And in the fifty and seventh year they did come down against the Nephites to battle, and they did commence the work of death; yea, insomuch that in the fifty and eighth year of the reign of the judges they succeeded in obtaining possession of the land of Zarahemla; yea, and also all the lands, even unto the land which was near the land Bountiful.
    6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
    7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.
    8 And thus those dissenters of the Nephites, with the help of a numerous army of the Lamanites, had obtained all the possession of the Nephites which was in the land southward. And all this was done in the fifty and eighth and ninth years of the reign of the judges.

  3. Helaman 5:14-15 Helaman 5
    14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful;
    15 And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;

  4. Alma 22:29-34 Alma 22
    29 And also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them. And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites; nevertheless the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land bordering on the wilderness, at the head of the river Sidon, from the east to the west, round about on the wilderness side; on the north, even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.
    34 Therefore the Lamanites could have no more possessions only in the land of Nephi, and the wilderness round about. Now this was wisdom in the Nephites--as the Lamanites were an enemy to them, they would not suffer their afflictions on every hand, and also that they might have a country whither they might flee, according to their desires.

  5. Alma 27:22 Alma 27
    22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.

  6. Alma 50:11 Alma 50
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.

  7. Alma 50:32 Alma 50
    32 Now behold, the people who were in the land Bountiful, or rather Moroni, feared that they would hearken to the words of Morianton and unite with his people, and thus he would obtain possession of those parts of the land, which would lay a foundation for serious consequences among the people of Nephi, yea, which consequences would lead to the overthrow of their liberty.

  8. Alma 63:5 Alma 63
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.

  9. 3 Nephi 3:23 3 Nephi 3
    23 And the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla, and the land which was between the land Zarahemla and the land Bountiful, yea, to the line which was between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation.
  10. 3 Nephi 11:1 3 Nephi 11
    1 And now it came to pass that there were a great multitude gathered together, of the people of Nephi, round about the temple which was in the land Bountiful; and they were marveling and wondering one with another, and were showing one to another the great and marvelous change which had taken place.
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Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
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Entire land of Bountiful which extends "from the east unto the west sea". This land is now called "Upper Michigan".
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : city by Seashore +8
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2}
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Manti1]
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Zeezrom1]
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Cumeni1]
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Judea1]
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [West Sea1,3]
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Antiparah1]
+[city by Seashore] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Antiparah3]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
During the campaign of the Stripling Soldiers a city is mentioned beyond Antiparah on the west sea. It is never named, although from a trade route perspective such an outpost would be important for trade on Lake Superior. The city is never mentioned by name but we know it is "beyond" Antiparah, borders the west sea, and is held by the Nephites. See the campaign maps in Section 4.5.3. Modern place-name: mouth of the Bois Brule River.
  1. Alma 56:14-15,29-36Alma 56
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city. ...
    ...
    29 And the Lamanites, thus seeing our forces increase daily, and provisions arrive for our support, they began to be fearful, and began to sally forth, if it were possible to put an end to our receiving provisions and strength.
    30 Now when we saw that the Lamanites began to grow uneasy on this wise, we were desirous to bring a stratagem into effect upon them; therefore Antipus ordered that I should march forth with my little sons to a neighboring city, as if we were carrying provisions to a neighboring city.
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    35 And it came to pass that when they had been informed by their spies, they came forth with their army and marched against us.
    36 And it came to pass that we did flee before them, northward. And thus we did lead away the most powerful army of the Lamanites;

  2. Alma 57:1-4 Alma 57
    1 And now it came to pass that I received an epistle from Ammoron, the king, stating that if I would deliver up those prisoners of war whom we had taken that he would deliver up the city of Antiparah unto us.
    2 But I sent an epistle unto the king, that we were sure our forces were sufficient to take the city of Antiparah by our force; and by delivering up the prisoners for that city we should suppose ourselves unwise, and that we would only deliver up our prisoners on exchange.
    3 And Ammoron refused mine epistle, for he would not exchange prisoners; therefore we began to make preparations to go against the city of Antiparah.
    4 But the people of Antiparah did leave the city, and fled to their other cities, which they had possession of, to fortify them; and thus the city of Antiparah fell into our hands.

  3. Alma 58:22 Alma 58
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.
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Aerial view of land of Manti including Upper St. Croix lake, the source of the Sidon
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Where the Bois BRule River empties into Lake Superior -- the location of the city "beyond" Antiparah.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Cumeni +5
+[Cumeni] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Cumeni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Manti1]
+[Cumeni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Zeezrom1]
+[Cumeni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antiparah1]
+[Cumeni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Judea1]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
See Section 4.5.3 for the campaigns of the stripling soldiers. In Alma 56, all of these cities are on or near the Sidon river (St Croix river to us) as it turns and heads towards Lake Superior and appear to be listed in order, from south to north (i.e. bottom to top - see Section 3.3, item 5) as Manti, Zeezrom, Cumeni, and Antiparah. See also Section 3.5.2 for the course of the Sidon river and the continental divide at Salon Springs (the source of the Sidon). In Alma 57, soldiers provisions are mentioned as arriving from Zarahemla and Lamanite prisoners are mentioned as being sent to Zarahemla. Logically this transportation occurs on the Sidon river and is just a float trip as there are no waterfalls between Cumeni and Zarahemla requiring portage. So it is an easy trip, albeit a long one. Modern place-name: Danbury, Wisconsin.
  1. Alma 56:7-34 Alma 56
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
  2. Alma 57:7-12, 23-25, 28-34Alma 57
    7 And it came to pass that it was our desire to wage a battle with the army which was placed to protect the city Cumeni.
    8 And now behold, I will show unto you that we soon accomplished our desire; yea, with our strong force, or with a part of our strong force, we did surround, by night, the city Cumeni, a little before they were to receive a supply of provisions.
    9 And it came to pass that we did camp round about the city for many nights; but we did sleep upon our swords, and keep guards, that the Lamanites could not come upon us by night and slay us, which they attempted many times; but as many times as they attempted this their blood was spilt.
    10 At length their provisions did arrive, and they were about to enter the city by night. And we, instead of being Lamanites, were Nephites; therefore, we did take them and their provisions.
    11 And notwithstanding the Lamanites being cut off from their support after this manner, they were still determined to maintain the city ; therefore it became expedient that we should take those provisions and send them to Judea, and our prisoners to the land of Zarahemla.
    12 And it came to pass that not many days had passed away before the Lamanites began to lose all hopes of succor; therefore they yielded up the city unto our hands; and thus we had accomplished our designs in obtaining the city Cumeni.
    ...
    23 And we retained our city Cumeni, and were not all destroyed by the sword; nevertheless, we had suffered great loss.
    24 And it came to pass that after the Lamanites had fled, I immediately gave orders that my men who had been wounded should be taken from among the dead, and caused that their wounds should be dressed.
    25 And it came to pass that there were two hundred, out of my two thousand and sixty, who had fainted because of the loss of blood; nevertheless, according to the goodness of God, and to our great astonishment, and also the joy of our whole army, there was not one soul of them who did perish; yea, and neither was there one soul among them who had not received many wounds.
    ... 28 And now it came to pass that after we had thus taken care of our wounded men, and had buried our dead and also the dead of the Lamanites, who were many, behold, we did inquire of Gid concerning the prisoners whom they had started to go down to the land of Zarahemla with.
    29 Now Gid was the chief captain over the band who was appointed to guard them down to the land.
    30 And now, these are the words which Gid said unto me: Behold, we did start to go down to the land of Zarahemla with our prisoners. And it came to pass that we did meet the spies of our armies, who had been sent out to watch the camp of the Lamanites.
    31 And they cried unto us, saying--Behold, the armies of the Lamanites are marching towards the city of Cumeni; and behold, they will fall upon them, yea, and will destroy our people.
    32 And it came to pass that our prisoners did hear their cries, which caused them to take courage; and they did rise up in rebellion against us.
    33 And it came to pass because of their rebellion we did cause that our swords should come upon them. And it came to pass that they did in a body run upon our swords, in the which, the greater number of them were slain; and the remainder of them broke through and fled from us.
    34 And behold, when they had fled and we could not overtake them, we took our march with speed towards the city Cumeni; and behold, we did arrive in time that we might assist our brethren in preserving the city.
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Aerial view of cities in the land of Manti, south of the west sea. Looking north.
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Map of Cumeni and other cities in the land of Manti.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Desolation +13
+[Desolation] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9/city7,9}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <is north> ⇒ [Bountiful1,2]
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful1,4]
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <border distance> ⇒ {one and one half days1}
+[Desolation]{land|city} ⇒ <contains a> ⇒ [Narrow Pass3,6|Passage9]
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea1,3]
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [West Sea1,3,4]
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <is located far> ⇒ {northward1,3,4,6,8}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <is location for> ⇒ {mass migration6}
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <lacks> ⇒ {timber6}
+[Desolation]{city} ⇒ <near to the> ⇒ [Narrow Pass3,7|Passage8]
+[Desolation]{land|city} ⇒ <near to > ⇒ [Teancum9]
+[Desolation]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Hagoth departure point4}
  [Desolation]{land} ⇒ <is location of> ⇒ {Jaredite destruction1,6}

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
The land of Desolation was named after the many destroyed remains of the Jaredite nation that were found there and also because pf the lack of timber, that had all been harvested off. Today it is within the Canadian province of Ontario. Because the land of Bountiful is so well attested, the location of the land Desolation is also not in doubt, at least the border where it starts. Modern place name: Ontario, Canada.
  1. Alma 22:30-32 Alma 22
    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.

  2. Alma 46:17 Alma 46
    17 And it came to pass that when he had poured out his soul to God, he named all the land which was south of the land Desolation, yea, and in fine, all the land, both on the north and on the south--A chosen land, and the land of liberty.

  3. Alma 50:34 Alma 50
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

  4. Alma 63:5 Alma 63
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.

  5. 3 Nephi 3:23 3 Nephi
    23 And the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla, and the land which was between the land Zarahemla and the land Bountiful, yea, to the line which was between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation.

  6. Helaman 3:2-13 Helaman 3
    2 And there was no contention among the people in the forty and fourth year; neither was there much contention in the forty and fifth year.
    3 And it came to pass in the forty and sixth, yea, there was much contention and many dissensions; in the which there were an exceedingly great many who departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and went forth unto the land northward to inherit the land.
    4 And they did travel to an exceedingly great distance, insomuch that they came to large bodies of water and many rivers.
    5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
    6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
    7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell.
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.
    9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings.
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.
    12 And it came to pass that there were many of the people of Ammon, who were Lamanites by birth, did also go forth into this land.
    13 And now there are many records kept of the proceedings of this people, by many of this people, which are particular and very large, concerning them.

  7. Mormon 3:5-7 Mormon 3
    5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.
    6 And there we did place our armies, that we might stop the armies of the Lamanites, that they might not get possession of any of our lands; therefore we did fortify against them with all our force.
    7 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and first year the Lamanites did come down to the city of Desolation to battle against us; and it came to pass that in that year we did beat them, insomuch that they did return to their own lands again.

  8. Mormon 2:29 Mormon 2
    29 And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites all the land southward.
  9. Mormon 4:1-3,8,13,19 Mormon 4
    1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
    2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
    3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
    ...
    8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
    ...
    19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
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Nephite land where the sea divides the land, 3D view
Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
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Nephite land where the sea divides the land, 3D view
Land of Desolation, so named because of a lack of timber dating from Jaredite times.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : East Sea +14
+[East Sea] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {large body of water1,2}
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Moroni3]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Aaron3]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah3,4]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Lehi4]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Morianton4]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Omner4]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Gid4]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mulek4]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful1,2,3,7]
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Nephite land1,3,5,7}
+[East Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Lamanite land1,3}
+[East Sea] ⇒ <is boundary of> ⇒ {Nephite land1,8}
+[East Sea] ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Narrow Pass3]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
The East Sea figures prominently in Nephite geography with port cities on Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and the northern part of Lake Huron. These are all hydrologically one lake. Lakes are directionally named by their relationship to one another, not by their direction from Zarahemla. So therefore, the East Sea is east in relation to the West sea. The East and West sea are often mentioned together and are separated by a 1.5 day water journey. The West sea, Lake Superior, is west of the East Sea, lake Michigan/Huron and although it is also north, it is more west than north, and so it is called the West Sea. By the reverse logic, the East Sea is considered east rather than south. In the Book of Mormon, Nephite lands in Manti is also mentioned as being south of the West Sea, so that means the West Sea is north of Nephite lands (Alma 53:8 and Section 4.5.3) and the East Sea is east of both Nephite lands and the West Sea. Modern place name: Lake Michigan/Huron.
  1. Alma 22:27-29,32-33 Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; Yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore; and also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.
    29 And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites. Nevertheless, the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land: bordering on the wilderness at the head of the river Sidon; from the east to the west round about on the wilderness side; on the north even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.
    ...
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Alma 27:22 Alma 27
    22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.

  3. Alma 50:7-9,11,13,34 Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
    14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.
    ...
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

  4. Alma 51:26 Alma 51
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  5. Alma 52:13 Alma 52
    13 And thus he was endeavoring to harass the Nephites, and to draw away a part of their forces to that part of the land, while he had commanded those whom he had left to possess the cities which he had taken, that they should also harass the Nephites on the borders by the east sea, and should take possession of their lands as much as it was in their power, according to the power of their armies.

  6. Helaman 3:8 Helaman 4
    8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.

  7. Helaman 4:6-7 Helaman 4
    6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
    7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.

  8. Helaman 11:20 Helaman 11
    20 And thus it did come to pass that the people of Nephi began to prosper again in the land, and began to build up their waste places, and began to multiply and spread, even until they did cover the whole face of the land, both on the northward and on the southward, from the sea west to the sea east.

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Lands and cities near to the East Sea.
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Aerial view of Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : East Wilderness +5
+[East Wilderness] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {travel route1,3|border2,3}
+[East Wilderness] ⇒ <is east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla2,3]
+[East Wilderness] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Zarahemla1]
+[East Wilderness] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ {Lamanite lands2,3}
+[East Wilderness] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Nephi3]
+[East Wilderness] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Antionum2}

INT_RULE_3"Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text.
APP_RULE_2Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon.
The east wilderness is the alluvial plain of the Illinois river. Anciently it was dense with vegetation and trees but not a place for a permanent settlement since it's a floodplain. The east wilderness extends from St. Louis Missouri almost to Chicago Illinois (city of Moroni) on the east sea. See sections 3.3 and 4.3.2 for more information. Anciently, Lamanite hostiles would camp out in the east wilderness as a jumping off point for attacks, especially after the Zoramites joined with the Lamanites. See Alma 50. Modern place-name: Illinois River bottoms.
  1. Alma 25:1-7Alma 25
    1 And behold, now it came to pass that those Lamanites were more angry because they had slain their brethren; therefore they swore vengeance upon the Nephites; and they did no more attempt to slay the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi at that time.
    2 But they took their armies and went over into the borders of the land of Zarahemla, and fell upon the people who were in the land of Ammonihah and destroyed them.
    3 And after that, they had many battles with the Nephites, in the which they were driven and slain.
    4 And among the Lamanites who were slain were almost all the seed of Amulon and his brethren, who were the priests of Noah, and they were slain by the hands of the Nephites;
    5 And the remainder, having fled into the east wilderness, and having usurped the power and authority over the Lamanites, caused that many of the Lamanites should perish by fire because of their belief-- 6 For many of them, after having suffered much loss and so many afflictions, began to be stirred up in remembrance of the words which Aaron and his brethren had preached to them in their land; therefore they began to disbelieve the traditions of their fathers, and to believe in the Lord, and that he gave great power unto the Nephites; and thus there were many of them converted in the wilderness.
    7 And it came to pass that those rulers who were the remnant of the children of Amulon caused that they should be put to death, yea, all those that believed in these things.
    8 Now this martyrdom caused that many of their brethren should be stirred up to anger; and there began to be contention in the wilderness; and the Lamanites began to hunt the seed of Amulon and his brethren and began to slay them; and they fled into the east wilderness.
  2. Alma 31:2-4Alma 31
    2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south [south of Antionum = east of Zarahemla], which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.
    4 Now the Nephites greatly feared that the Zoramites would enter into a correspondence with the Lamanites, and that it would be the means of great loss on the part of the Nephites.
  3. Alma 50:7-9,11Alma 50
    7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
    8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
    9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
    ...
    11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.

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Map shows the East Wilderness in context to nearby lands.
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This terrain map shows a section of the East Wilderness as the Illinois River bottomlands, south of Peoria, Illinois.
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Aerial view showing the East Wilderness from Zarahemla, looking east.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gad +3
+[Gad] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Gad] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Josh1]
+[Gad] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Kishkumen1]
  [Gad] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire1}

INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen are hard to place because they are only mentioned in as being destroyed by fire prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following criteria:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There are only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NE. In the case of Kishkumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishkumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers. So Kishkumen aligns best with Des Moines IO.
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishkumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen in areas populated by both Lamanites and later, Gadianton robbers.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gadiandi +3
+[Gadiandi] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city2}
+[Gadiandi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gadiomnah2]
+[Gadiandi] ⇒ <location may be> ⇒ [mountainous1]
  [Gadiandi] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {being sunk into earth2}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha Michigan, and Gimgimno = Red Wing Michigan.
  1. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

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The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk.
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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gadiomnah +4
+[Gadiomnah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city2}
+[Gadiomnah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ [Gadiandi2]
+[Gadiomnah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ [Jacob2]
+[Gadiandi] ⇒ <location may be> ⇒ [mountainous1]
  [Gadiomnah] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {being sunk into the earth2}

INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno are hard to place because they are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha Michigan, and Gimgimno = Red Wing Michigan.
  1. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

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The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk.
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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gid +6
+[Gid] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2,3}
+[Gid] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea1]
+[Gid] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Bountiful2,3]
+[Gid] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Mulek1]
+[Gid] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Omner1]
+[Gid] ⇒ <is northward of> ⇒ {Nephite lands1}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The city of Gid factors prominently in the wars of Amalickiah and is on the Bountiful/Desolation border. See also Section 4.6.2. Modern place-name: Munuscong, Michigan
  1. Alma 51:26 Alma 51
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.
  2. Alma 55:7,16,25-26 Alma 55
    7 Now the Nephites were guarded in the city of Gid; therefore Moroni appointed Laman and caused that a small number of men should go with him.
    ...
    16 And now this was according to the design of Moroni. And Moroni had prepared his men with weapons of war; and he went to the city Gid, while the Lamanites were in a deep sleep and drunken, and cast in weapons of war unto the prisoners, insomuch that they were all armed;
    ...
    25 And it came to pass that he did cause the Lamanites, whom he had taken prisoners, that they should commence a labor in strengthening the fortifications round about the city Gid.
    26 And it came to pass that when he had fortified the city Gid, according to his desires, he caused that his prisoners should be taken to the city Bountiful; and he also guarded that city with an exceedingly strong force.
  3. Helaman 5:14-16 Helaman 5
    14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful;
    15 And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;
    16 And even from one city to another, until they had gone forth among all the people of Nephi who were in the land southward; and from thence into the land of Zarahemla, among the Lamanites.

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Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
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Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gideon +6
+[Gideon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {valley1,2|land3,4,5,6,7|city2,8}
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,2,4,7]
+[Gideon]{valley} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Minon1]
+[Gideon]{valley,city} ⇒ <is east of> ⇒ [Sidon2]
+[Gideon]{hill} ⇒ <is east of> ⇒ [Sidon1]
+[Gideon]{land} ⇒ <is southward of> ⇒ [Manti4]

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
We know that the land of Gideon is south and east of Zarahemla and is also less than 1 days march - because of the Amlicite war, the battles of which are mapped out in detail. See Section 4.4.2. The best topographical location for the city of Gideon is Hamilton, on the east side of the Mississippi, across the river from Keokuk, and at the end of the Des Moines rapids. See also Section 4.4.13. Modern location: East of Mt Moriah Scenic Turnout halfway between Nauvoo and Keokuk on the east side of the Mississippi/Sidon river.
  1. Alma 2:15-26Alma 2
    15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites. ...
    17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites. ...
    20 And it came to pass that when Alma could pursue the Amlicites no longer he caused that his people should pitch their tents in the valley of Gideon, the valley being called after that Gideon who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword; and in this valley the Nephites did pitch their tents for the night.
    21 And Alma sent spies to follow the remnant of the Amlicites, that he might know of their plans and their plots, whereby he might guard himself against them, that he might preserve his people from being destroyed.
    22 Now those whom he had sent out to watch the camp of the Amlicites were called Zeram, and Amnor, and Manti, and Limher; these were they who went out with their men to watch the camp of the Amlicites.
    23 And it came to pass that on the morrow they returned into the camp of the Nephites in great haste, being greatly astonished, and struck with much fear, saying:
    24 Behold, we followed the camp of the Amlicites, and to our great astonishment, in the land of Minon, above [EME before] the land of Zarahemla, in the course of the land of Nephi, we saw a numerous host of the Lamanites; and behold, the Amlicites have joined them;
    25 And they are upon our brethren in that land; and they are fleeing before them with their flocks, and their wives, and their children, towards our city ; and except we make haste they obtain possession of our city, and our fathers, and our wives, and our children be slain.
    26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla.

  2. Alma 6:4-8Alma 6
    4 And thus they began to establish the order of the church in the city of Zarahemla.
    5 Now I would that ye should understand that the word of God was liberal unto all, that none were deprived of the privilege of assembling themselves together to hear the word of God.
    6 Nevertheless the children of God were commanded that they should gather themselves together oft, and join in fasting and mighty prayer in behalf of the welfare of the souls of those who knew not God.
    7 And now it came to pass that when Alma had made these regulations he departed from them, yea, from the church which was in the city of Zarahemla, and went over upon the east of the river Sidon, into the valley of Gideon, there having been a city built, which was called the city of Gideon, which was in the valley that was called Gideon, being called after the man who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword.
    8 And Alma went and began to declare the word of God unto the church which was established in the valley of Gideon, according to the revelation of the truth of the word which had been spoken by his fathers, and according to the spirit of prophecy which was in him, according to the testimony of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who should come to redeem his people from their sins, and the holy order by which he was called. And thus it is written. Amen.

  3. Alma 8:1 Alma 8
    1 And now it came to pass that Alma returned from the land of Gideon, after having taught the people of Gideon many things which cannot be written, having established the order of the church, according as he had before done in the land of Zarahemla, yea, he returned to his own house at Zarahemla to rest himself from the labors which he had performed.

  4. Alma 17:1 Alma 17
    1 And now it came to pass that as Alma was journeying from the land of Gideon southward, away to [EME "on the way to"] the land of Manti, behold, to his astonishment, he met with the sons of Mosiah journeying towards the land of Zarahemla.

  5. Alma 30:21 Alma 30
    21 And it came to pass that he caused that he should be carried out of the land. And he came over into the land of Gideon, and began to preach unto them also; and here he did not have much success, for he was taken and bound and carried before the high priest, and also the chief judge over the land.

  6. Alma 61:4-5,8 Alma 61
    4 And it is those who have sought to take away the judgment-seat from me that have been the cause of this great iniquity; for they have used great flattery, and they have led away the hearts of many people, which will be the cause of sore affliction among us; they have withheld our provisions, and have daunted our freemen that they have not come unto you.
    5 And behold, they have driven me out before them, and I have fled to the land of Gideon, with as many men as it were possible that I could get.
    ...
    8 They have got possession of the land, or the city, of Zarahemla; they have appointed a king over them, and he hath written unto the king of the Lamanites, in the which he hath joined an alliance with him; in the which alliance he hath agreed to maintain the city of Zarahemla, which maintenance he supposeth will enable the Lamanites to conquer the remainder of the land, and he shall be placed king over this people when they shall be conquered under the Lamanites.


  7. Alma 62:3-4,6 Alma 62
    3 And it came to pass that Moroni took a small number of men, according to the desire of Pahoran, and gave Lehi and Teancum command over the remainder of his army, and took his march towards the land of Gideon.
    4 And he did raise the standard of liberty in whatsoever place he did enter, and gained whatsoever force he could in all his march towards the land of Gideon.
    ...
    6 And thus, when Moroni had gathered together whatsoever men he could in all his march, he came to the land of Gideon; and uniting his forces with those of Pahoran they became exceedingly strong, even stronger than the men of Pachus, who was the king of those dissenters who had driven the freemen out of the land of Zarahemla and had taken possession of the land.

  8. Helaman 13:12-16 Helaman 13
    12 Yea, wo unto this great city of Zarahemla; for behold, it is because of those who are righteous that it is saved; yea, wo unto this great city, for I perceive, saith the Lord, that there are many, yea, even the more part of this great city, that will harden their hearts against me, saith the Lord.
    13 But blessed are they who will repent, for them will I spare. But behold, if it were not for the righteous who are in this great city, behold, I would cause that fire should come down out of heaven and destroy it.
    14 But behold, it is for the righteous' sake that it is spared. But behold, the time cometh, saith the Lord, that when ye shall cast out the righteous from among you, then shall ye be ripe for destruction; yea, wo be unto this great city, because of the wickedness and abominations which are in her.
    15 Yea, and wo be unto the city of Gideon, for the wickedness and abominations which are in her.
    16 Yea, and wo be unto all the cities which are in the land round about, which are possessed by the Nephites, because of the wickedness and abominations which are in them.

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Aerial view of land, city, and valley of Gideon. Looking west.
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Map showing land, city, and valley of Gideon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Gimgimno +2
+[Gimgimno] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city2}
+[Gimgimno] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Jacob2]
+[Gimgimno] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {being sunk into the earth2}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno are hard to place because they are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha Michigan, and Gimgimno = Red Wing Michigan.
  1. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

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The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk at the coming of Christ.
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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Hagoth +5
+[Hagoth] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {ship building site1}
+[Hagoth] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [West Sea1]
+[Hagoth] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful1]
+[Hagoth] ⇒ <ships go northward into> ⇒ [West Sea1,2]
+[Hagoth] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Desolation1]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
Nephite technology included metal working, "machinery", monetary currency, writing, animal domestication, and ship building. Water craft must have been very important given the many rivers and proximity to the great lakes. Note that Hagoths ship was noteworthy not because he built it but because it was "exceedingly large". Five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children plus timber is a lot to convey on this and "other ships" mentioned. Based on the description, the launch point is into the west sea (not Ste. Marie's River), and on the border of Bountiful near to the land Desolation. The best candidate for a location appears to be: Cedar Point at Round Island Point Nature Preserve, Michigan.
  1. Alma 63:4-9 Alma 63
    4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward.
    5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
    6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
    7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.
    8 And it came to pass that they were never heard of more. And we suppose that they were drowned in the depths of the sea. And it came to pass that one other ship also did sail forth; and whither she did go we know not.
    9 And it came to pass that in this year there were many people who went forth into the land northward. And thus ended the thirty and eighth year.

  2. Helaman 3:10,14 Helaman 3
    10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
    ...
    14 But behold, a hundredth part of the proceedings of this people, yea, the account of the Lamanites and of the Nephites, and their wars, and contentions, and dissensions, and their preaching, and their prophecies, and their shipping and their building of ships, and their building of temples, and of synagogues and their sanctuaries, and their righteousness, and their wickedness, and their murders, and their robbings, and their plundering, and all manner of abominations and whoredoms, cannot be contained in this work.

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Cedar Point at Round Island Point Nature Preserve, Michigan. Launch area for ships built by Hagoth for northern migration.
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Overall map view of launch area for ships built by Hagoth for northern migration.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Helam +7
+[Helam] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land|city1,2,3}
+[Helam] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness1,3}
+[Helam] ⇒ <is 1 days travel from> ⇒ [Alma3]
+[Helam] ⇒ <is 8 days travel from> ⇒ [Mormon1]
+[Helam] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephi1,2]
+[Helam] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Jerusalem1,3]
+[Helam] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon1]
  [Helam] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {pleasant land of pure water1}

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
APP_RULE_9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 6 mph.
APP_RULE_10Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 6 mph.
APP_RULE_7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
Helam is where the converted people of Alma travel to after being baptized at the Waters of Mormon. It is 8 days travel north in the direction of the land of Nephi until they reach Helam. We know Helam in the same general region as the city of Jerusalem -- and it is because of this that we know it is also in the region of Middoni, Anti-Anti, and Amulon. See Sections 4.3.5 and 4.3.4 and the 4.3.5 travel chart for a detailed analysis on how the distances work out. In summary, the 8 days travel can be accounted for by EITHER a land or river journey. Modern place-name: Chrystal city, Missouri.
  1. Mosiah 23:3-4,19-20,25-39 Mosiah 23
    3 And they fled eight days' journey into the wilderness.
    4 And they came to a land, yea, even a very beautiful and pleasant land, a land of pure water.
    ...
    19 And it came to pass that they began to prosper exceedingly in the land; and they called the land Helam.
    20 And it came to pass that they did multiply and prosper exceedingly in the land of Helam; and they built a city, which they called the city of Helam.
    ...
    25 For behold, it came to pass that while they were in the land of Helam, yea, in the city of Helam, while tilling the land round about, behold an army of the Lamanites was in the borders of the land.
    26 Now it came to pass that the brethren of Alma fled from their fields, and gathered themselves together in the city of Helam; and they were much frightened because of the appearance of the Lamanites.
    27 But Alma went forth and stood among them, and exhorted them that they should not be frightened, but that they should remember the Lord their God and he would deliver them.
    28 Therefore they hushed their fears, and began to cry unto the Lord that he would soften the hearts of the Lamanites, that they would spare them, and their wives, and their children.
    29 And it came to pass the the Lord did soften the hearts of the Lamanites. And Alma and his brethren went forth and delivered themselves up into their hands; and the Lamanites took possession of the land of Helam.
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
    31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
    32 Now the name of the leader of those priests was Amulon.
    33 And it came to pass that Amulon did plead with the Lamanites; and he also sent forth their wives, who were the daughters of the Lamanites, to plead with their brethren, that they should not destroy their husbands.
    34 And the Lamanites had compassion on Amulon and his brethren, and did not destroy them, because of their wives.
    35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

  2. Mosiah 27:16 Mosiah 27
    16 Now I say unto thee: Go, and remember the captivity of thy fathers in the land of Helam, and in the land of Nephi; and remember how great things he has done for them; for they were in bondage, and he has delivered them. And now I say unto thee, Alma, go thy way, and seek to destroy the church no more, that their prayers may be answered, and this even if thou wilt of thyself be cast off.

  3. Alma 24:1,20-23 Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amlicites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam, and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amlicites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.
    ...
    20 And Alma and his people departed into the wilderness; and when they had traveled all day they pitched their tents in a valley, and they called the valley Alma, because he led their way in the wilderness.
    21 Yea, and in the valley of Alma they poured out their thanks to God because he had been merciful unto them, and eased their burdens, and had delivered them out of bondage; for they were in bondage, and none could deliver them except it were the Lord their God.
    22 And they gave thanks to God, yea, all their men and all their women and all their children that could speak lifted their voices in the praises of their God.
    23 And now the Lord said unto Alma: Haste thee and get thou and this people out of this land, for the Lamanites have awakened and do pursue thee; therefore get thee out of this land, and I will stop the Lamanites in this valley that they come no further in pursuit of this people.

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Aerial view of the valley of Alma, and in the background, the city of Helam.
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Distance from Helam to the valley of Alma shown is 10.39 miles. See also Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Hermounts
+[Hermounts] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {wilderness with wild beasts1}
+[Hermounts] ⇒ <is west and north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla1]

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
Hermounts is explicitly stated as being immediately north and west and Zarahemla so it is not hard to place. See 3.3 Rules of Interpretation for explanation on the use of the term "wilderness" which is any place unfit for permanent habitation. It is most commonly used with river bottom land areas but it this case it is because of the wild beasts that inhabit the area. See also the Amlicite war and diagrams in Section 4.4.2. See also Section 3.4.4.
  1. Alma 2:26-28,35-38 Alma 2
    26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla.
    27 And behold, as they were crossing the river Sidon, the Lamanites and the Amlicites, being as numerous almost, as it were, as the sands of the sea, came upon them to destroy them.
    28 Nevertheless, the Nephites being strengthened by the hand of the Lord, having prayed mightily to him that he would deliver them out of the hands of their enemies, therefore the Lord did hear their cries, and did strengthen them, and the Lamanites and the Amlicites did fall before them.
    ...
    35 And it came to pass that when they had all crossed the river Sidon that the Lamanites and the Amlicites began to flee before them, notwithstanding they were so numerous that they could not be numbered.
    36 And they fled before the Nephites towards the wilderness which was west and north, away beyond the borders of the land; and the Nephites did pursue them with their might, and did slay them.
    37 Yea, they were met on every hand, and slain and driven, until they were scattered on the west, and on the north, until they had reached the wilderness, which was called Hermounts; and it was that part of the wilderness which was infested by wild and ravenous beasts.
    38 And it came to pass that many died in the wilderness of their wounds, and were devoured by those beasts and also the vultures of the air; and their bones have been found, and have been heaped up on the earth.

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Aerial view of the region of Zarahemla. Looking west with Hermounts to the north and west of Zarahemla.
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Map showing nearby regions of Zarahemla, including Hermounts.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Ishmael +9
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6,7}
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephi1,4,5,7]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Middoni2,3,4]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Midian6]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shilom5]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shemlon5]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lemuel5]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shimnilom5]
+[Ishmael] ⇒ <encountered first from> ⇒ [Zarahemla1]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Ishmael is in the heartland of Lamanite territory near the land of Nephi of about 76 BC and we know about Ishmael because of the missionary journeys of the sons of Mosiah. It was their first Lamanite city encountered in the trip from Zarahemla, where Ammon departed from his fellow misionaries. That could place Ishmael in the vicinity of St. Charles, Missouri. See Section 4.3.3.
  1. Alma 17:7-8,13,18-21Alma 17
    7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
    8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.
    ...
    13 And it came to pass when they had arrived in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, that they separated themselves and departed one from another, trusting in the Lord that they should meet again at the close of their harvest; for they supposed that great was the work which they had undertaken.
    ...
    17 Therefore they separated themselves one from another, and went forth among them, every man alone, according to the word and power of God which was given unto him. 18 Now Ammon being the chief among them, or rather he did administer unto them, and he departed from them, after having blessed them according to their several stations, having imparted the word of God unto them, or administered unto them before his departure; and thus they took their several journeys throughout the land.
    19 And Ammon went to the land of Ishmael, the land being called after the sons of Ishmael, who also became Lamanites.
    20 And as Ammon entered the land of Ishmael, the Lamanites took him and bound him, as was their custom to bind all the Nephites who fell into their hands, and carry them before the king; and thus it was left to the pleasure of the king to slay them, or to retain them in captivity, or to cast them into prison, or to cast them out of his land, according to his will and pleasure.
    21 And thus Ammon was carried before the king who was over the land of Ishmael; and his name was Lamoni; and he was a descendant of Ishmael.

  2. Alma 20:14-15 Alma 20
    14 Now the father of Lamoni commanded him that he should slay Ammon with the sword. And he also commanded him that he should not go to the land of Middoni, but that he should return with him to the land of Ishmael.
    15 But Lamoni said unto him: I will not slay Ammon, neither will I return to the land of Ishmael, but I go to the land of Middoni that I may release the brethren of Ammon, for I know that they are just men and holy prophets of the true God.

  3. Alma 21:18-21 Alma 21
    18 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni returned from the land of Middoni to the land of Ishmael, which was the land of their inheritance.
    19 And king Lamoni would not suffer that Ammon should serve him, or be his servant.
    20 But he caused that there should be synagogues built in the land of Ishmael; and he caused that his people, or the people who were under his reign, should assemble themselves together.
    21 And he did rejoice over them, and he did teach them many things. And he did also declare unto them that they were a people who were under him, and that they were a free people, that they were free from the oppressions of the king, his father; for that his father had granted unto him that he might reign over the people who were in the land of Ishmael, and in all the land round about.

  4. Alma 22:1,4 Alma 22
    1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually, we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi, even to the house of the king which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
    ...
    4 And Aaron said unto the king: Behold, the Spirit of the Lord has called him another way; he has gone to the land of Ishmael, to teach the people of Lamoni.

  5. Alma 23:8-13 Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

  6. Alma 24:5 Alma 24
    24 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.

  7. Alma 25:13 Alma 25
    13 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that they could not overpower the Nephites they returned again to their own land; and many of them came over to dwell in the land of Ishmael and the land of Nephi, and did join themselves to the people of God, who were the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi.

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View of Ishmael and nearby cities, looking west.
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Ishmael and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jacob +4
+[Jacob] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Jacob] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gadiomnah2]
+[Jacob] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gimgimno2]
+[Jacob] ⇒ <is destroyed by> ⇒ {being sunk and buried1,2}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno are hard to place because they are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by being "sunk" prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following:
  1. Since all these cities suffered the fate of being "sunk" or covered with earth, resulting in hills and valleys, it makes sense to find the location of Nephite lands that has the most hills and valleys. That location is the hilly region along the stretch of the Sidon/Mississippi between Hastings WI and down to about Prairie du Chen WI.
  2. Of note is that Gadiandi and Gadiomah appear to share the same root or be a derivative of the word Gadianton, as in "Gadianton robbers" which were said to "infest" the hilly regions.
  3. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major cities today.
  5. From step 3, we get the following result: Gadiandi = Prairie du Chen Wisconsin, Gadiomnah = La Cross Wisconsin, Jacob = Wabasha Michigan, and Gimgimno = Red Wing Michigan.
  1. 3 Nephi 1:27 3 Nephi 19
    27 And it came to pass that the ninety and third year did also pass away in peace, save it were for the Gadianton robbers, who dwelt upon the mountains, who did infest the land; for so strong were their holds and their secret places that the people could not overpower them; therefore they did commit many murders, and did do much slaughter among the people.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    8 And behold, the city of Gadiandi, and the city of Gadiomnah, and the city of Jacob, and the city of Gimgimno, all these have I caused to be sunk, and made hills and valleys in the places thereof; and the inhabitants thereof have I buried up in the depths of the earth, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up any more unto me against them.

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The cities of Gadiandi, Gadiomnah, Jacob, and Gimgimno. These cities destroyed by being sunk at the coming of Christ.
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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen in an aerial view looking to the northeast. These cities destroyed by being sunk.

Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jacobugath +3
+[Jacobugath] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city2}
+[Jacobugath] ⇒ <is located> ⇒ {northernmost1}
+[Jacobugath] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire2}


INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The most northernmost part of the land is the Keweenaw peninsula, which is a key location due to the ore mines found there and thus a strategic location indeed. It could be as far north as Copper Harbor but an actual settlement makes more sense further inland but with good access to Lake Superior. Modern place-name: Hancock, Michigan. See Section 3.5.2.
  1. 3 Nephi 7:9,12 3 Nephi 7
    9 Now this secret combination, which had brought so great iniquity upon the people, did gather themselves together, and did place at their head a man whom they did call Jacob;
    ...
    12 Therefore, Jacob seeing that their enemies were more numerous than they, he being the king of the band, therefore he commanded his people that they should take their flight into the northernmost part of the land, and there build up unto themselves a kingdom, until they were joined by dissenters, (for he flattered them that there would be many dissenters) and they become sufficiently strong to contend with the tribes of the people; and they did so.

  2. 3 Nephi 9:8 3 Nephi 9
    9 And behold, that great city Jacobugath, which was inhabited by the people of king Jacob, have I caused to be burned with fire because of their sins and their wickedness, which was above all the wickedness of the whole earth, because of their secret murders and combinations; for it was they that did destroy the peace of my people and the government of the land; therefore I did cause them to be burned, to destroy them from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints should not come up unto me any more against them.

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Map with Jacobugath. This strategic location is the furthest north of all Nephite cities. See Section 3.5.2.
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View of the Keweenaw peninsula that extends into Lake Superior. The Keweenaw Waterway flows north and the Portage river goes south.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jershon +9
+[Jershon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6|city6}
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <is north and east of> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,4]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Antionum4]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Bountiful1]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Bountiful1]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Antionum4]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Melek5]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <nearly boarders> ⇒ [East Sea1]
+[Jershon]{land} ⇒ <separate via a wilderness from> ⇒ [Nephi1,2]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Jershon is a large land area in the center of Nephite territory. For map of the migrations of the People of Ammon, see Section 4.4.4. When the Nephites ceded this land to the People of Ammon, they gave up a vast but sparsely populated area in the center of their lands. Jershon extended far north and then to the East Sea (Lake Michigan). The location also provides buffer zones to for protection from Lamanite incursions. The city of Jershon is placed where the Iowa River meets the Rock Island river. Modern city place-name: Rock Island, Illinois.
  1. Alma 27:22-26 Alma 27
    22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.
    23 And behold, we will set our armies between the land Jershon and the land Nephi, that we may protect our brethren in the land Jershon; and this we do for our brethren, on account of their fear to take up arms against their brethren lest they should commit sin; and this their great fear came because of their sore repentance which they had, on account of their many murders and their awful wickedness.
    24 And now behold, this will we do unto our brethren, that they may inherit the land Jershon; and we will guard them from their enemies with our armies, on condition that they will give us a portion of their substance to assist us that we may maintain our armies.
    25 Now, it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he returned to the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, and also Alma with him, into the wilderness, where they had pitched their tents, and made known unto them all these things. And Alma also related unto them his conversion, with Ammon and Aaron, and his brethren.
    26 And it came to pass that it did cause great joy among them. And they went down into the land of Jershon, and took possession of the land of Jershon; and they were called by the Nephites the people of Ammon; therefore they were distinguished by that name ever after.

  2. Alma 28:1,8 Alma 28
    1 And now it came to pass that after the people of Ammon were established in the land of Jershon, and a church also established in the land of Jershon, and the armies of the Nephites were set round about the land of Jershon, yea, in all the borders round about the land of Zarahemla; behold the armies of the Lamanites had followed their brethren into the wilderness.
    ...
    8 And this is the account of Ammon and his brethren, their journeyings in the land of Nephi, their sufferings in the land, their sorrows, and their afflictions, and their incomprehensible joy, and the reception and safety of the brethren in the land of Jershon. And now may the Lord, the Redeemer of all men, bless their souls forever.

  3. Alma 30:1,6,19 Alma 30
    1 Behold, now it came to pass that after the people of Ammon were established in the land of Jershon, yea, and also after the Lamanites were driven out of the land, and their dead were buried by the people of the land--
    ...
    6 But it came to pass in the latter end of the seventeenth year, there came a man into the land of Zarahemla, and he was Anti-Christ, for he began to preach unto the people against the prophecies which had been spoken by the prophets, concerning the coming of Christ.
    ...
    19 Now this man went over to the land of Jershon also, to preach these things among the people of Ammon, who were once the people of the Lamanites.

  4. Alma 31:3 Alma 31
    3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.

  5. Alma 35:1,2,6,8,13,14 Alma 35
    1 Now it came to pass that after Amulek had made an end of these words, they withdrew themselves from the multitude and came over into the land of Jershon. 2 Yea, and the rest of the brethren, after they had preached the word unto the Zoramites, also came over into the land of Jershon.
    6 And it came to pass that after they had found out the minds of all the people, those who were in favor of the words which had been spoken by Alma and his brethren were cast out of the land; and they were many; and they came over also into the land of Jershon.<8> 8 Now the people of the Zoramites were angry with the people of Ammon who were in Jershon, and the chief ruler of the Zoramites, being a very wicked man, sent over unto the people of Ammon desiring them that they should cast out of their land all those who came over from them into their land.
    13 And the people of Ammon departed out of the land of Jershon, and came over into the land of Melek, and gave place in the land of Jershon for the armies of the Nephites, that they might contend with the armies of the Lamanites and the armies of the Zoramites; and thus commenced a war betwixt the Lamanites and the Nephites, in the eighteenth year of the reign of the judges; and an account shall be given of their wars hereafter.<14> 14 And Alma, and Ammon, and their brethren, and also the two sons of Alma returned to the land of Zarahemla, after having been instruments in the hands of God of bringing many of the Zoramites to repentance; and as many as were brought to repentance were driven out of their land; but they have lands for their inheritance in the land of Jershon, and they have taken up arms to defend themselves, and their wives, and children, and their lands.

  6. Alma 43:4-5,15 Alma 43
    4 For behold, it came to pass that the Zoramites became Lamanites; therefore, in the commencement of the eighteenth year the people of the Nephites saw that the Lamanites were coming upon them; therefore they made preparations for war; yea, they gathered together their armies in the land of Jershon.
    5 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came with their thousands; and they came into the land of Antionum, which is the land of the Zoramites; and a man by the name of Zerahemnah was their leader.
    ...
    15 And it came to pass as the armies of the Lamanites had gathered together in the land of Antionum, behold, the armies of the Nephites were prepared to meet them in the land of Jershon.
    ...
    25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.

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Map with Jershon and surrounding areas.
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Aerial view of the city of Jershon and the land area outlined in orange. Looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Jerusalem +8
+[Jerusalem] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2|city3}
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mormon1]
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon1,2]
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Helam2]
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Onihah3]
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Mocum3]
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <populated by> ⇒ [Lamanites1,2,3,Amlicites1,2,3,Amulonites1,2,3]
+[Jerusalem]{land} ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {waters coming up3}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Everywhere in the Book of Mormon where it says Amalekites, it should read Amlicites. See Section 3.9 Book of Mormon Copy Errors. Amlicites built the city of Jerusalem and named it after the Jerusalem in the old world. See also Section 4.3.3 for the city of Jerusalem in the missionary journeys of the sons of Mosiah which helps to pin-point the location. Modern place-name: St. Louis, Missouri, near River city Casino.
  1. Alma 21:1-2,4 Alma 21
    1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city , which was called Jerusalem.
    ...
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors.

  2. Alma 24:1 Alma 24
    1 And it came to pass that the Amlicites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam, and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amlicites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.

  3. 3 Nephi:9-7 3 Nephi
    7 Yea, and the city of Onihah and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Mocum and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof; and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come up any more unto me against them.

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View of Jerusalem and nearby cities, looking north.
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Jerusalem and nearby cities.
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View of Jerusalem and nearby cities, looking west.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Josh +3
+[Josh] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Josh] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Laman1]
+[Josh] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gad1]
  [Josh] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire1}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen are hard to place because they are only mentioned in connection with being destroyed by fire in connection with the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following reasons:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There is only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NB. In the case of Kishkumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishkumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers. So Kishkumen aligns best with Des Moines IO.
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishkumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen. These cities destroyed by fire.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Judea +5
+[Judea] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Judea] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Manti1]
+[Judea] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Zeezrom1]
+[Judea] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Cumeni1,2]
+[Judea] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antiparah1]
  [Judea] ⇒ <receives men and provisions from> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,2]

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The stripling soldiers campaign provides a wealth of information about Judea and the Land of Manti region and the cities in the neighborhood. See also Section 4.5.3. While Zarahemla is not in the neighborhood, it is a straight shot along the Sidon/Mississippi to travel between the two areas. The Lamanites invaded and held border cities along the Sidon. Therefore Judea, the home base for Helamans men and the stripling soldiers, is placed in the center of Manti along the Chippewa river which joins up with the Sidon. Modern place-name: Eau Claire, Wisconsin.
  1. Alma 56:9, 14-15, 18, 25-28, 31-34, 57 Alma 56
    9 But behold, here is one thing in which we may have great joy. For behold, in the twenty and sixth year, I, Helaman, did march at the head of these two thousand young men to the city of Judea, to assist Antipus, whom ye had appointed a leader over the people of that part of the land.
    ...
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city .
    ...
    18 And now it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that Antipus had received a greater strength to his army, they were compelled by the orders of Ammoron to not come against the city of Judea, or against us, to battle.
    ...
    25 Neither durst they march down against the city of Zarahemla; neither durst they cross the head of Sidon, over to the city of Nephihah.
    26 And thus, with their forces, they were determined to maintain those cities which they had taken.
    27 And now it came to pass in the second month of this year, there was brought unto us many provisions from the fathers of those my two thousand sons.
    28 And also there were sent two thousand men unto us from the land of Zarahemla. And thus we were prepared with ten thousand men, and provisions for them, and also for their wives and their children.
    ...
    31 And we were to march near the city of Antiparah, as if we were going to the city beyond, in the borders by the seashore.
    32 And it came to pass that we did march forth, as if with our provisions, to go to that city.
    33 And it came to pass that Antipus did march forth with a part of his army, leaving the remainder to maintain the city. But he did not march forth until I had gone forth with my little army, and came near the city Antiparah.
    34 And now, in the city Antiparah were stationed the strongest army of the Lamanites; yea, the most numerous.
    57 And as we had no place for our prisoners, that we could guard them to keep them from the armies of the Lamanites, therefore we sent them to the land of Zarahemla, and a part of those men who were not slain of Antipus, with them; and the remainder I took and joined them to my stripling Ammonites, and took our march back to the city of Judea.

  2. Alma 57:11-12, 23-24, 30-34 Alma 57
    11 And notwithstanding the Lamanites being cut off from their support after this manner, they were still determined to maintain the city ; therefore it became expedient that we should take those provisions and send them to Judea, and our prisoners to the land of Zarahemla.
    12 And it came to pass that not many days had passed away before the Lamanites began to lose all hopes of succor; therefore they yielded up the city unto our hands; and thus we had accomplished our designs in obtaining the city Cumeni.
    23 And we retained our city Cumeni, and were not all destroyed by the sword; nevertheless, we had suffered great loss.
    ...
    24 And it came to pass that after the Lamanites had fled, I immediately gave orders that my men who had been wounded should be taken from among the dead, and caused that their wounds should be dressed.
    ...
    30 And now, these are the words which Gid said unto me: Behold, we did start to go down to the land of Zarahemla with our prisoners. And it came to pass that we did meet the spies of our armies, who had been sent out to watch the camp of the Lamanites.
    31 And they cried unto us, saying--Behold, the armies of the Lamanites are marching towards the city of Cumeni; and behold, they will fall upon them, yea, and will destroy our people.
    32 And it came to pass that our prisoners did hear their cries, which caused them to take courage; and they did rise up in rebellion against us.
    33 And it came to pass because of their rebellion we did cause that our swords should come upon them. And it came to pass that they did in a body run upon our swords, in the which, the greater number of them were slain; and the remainder of them broke through and fled from us.
    34 And behold, when they had fled and we could not overtake them, we took our march with speed towards the city Cumeni; and behold, we did arrive in time that we might assist our brethren in preserving the city.

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Aerial view of cities in the land of Manti, showing Judea, south of the west sea. Looking north.
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Aerial view of Judea and other cities in the land of Manti.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Kishkumen +3
+[Kishkumen] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Kishkumen] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gad1]
+[Kishkumen] ⇒ <is outside of> ⇒ {Nephite lands2}
  [Kishkumen] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire1}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen are hard to place because they are only mentioned in connection with being destroyed by fire in connection with the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following reasons:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There is only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NB. In the case of Kishkumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishkumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers. So Kishkumen aligns best with Des Moines IO.
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishkumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

  2. Helaman 2:11Helaman 2
    11 But behold, when Gadianton had found that Kishkumen did not return he feared lest that he should be destroyed; therefore he caused that his band should follow him. And they took their flight out of the land, by a secret way, into the wilderness; and thus when Helaman sent forth to take them they could nowhere be found.

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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen. These cities destroyed by fire.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Laman +3
+[Laman] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Laman] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {Lamanite city1}
+[Laman] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Josh1]
  [Laman] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire}1

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen are hard to place because they are only mentioned in connection with being destroyed by fire in connection with the visitation of the resurrected Christ. The cities are placed according to the following reasons:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. It can reasonably be inferred that the first city, Laman, is in Lamanite territory.
  3. There is only two general areas mentioned as having a major Lamanite population where no cities have been identified at all via the Entity Relationship table in Section 3.2. That location is west of Nephi and west of Zarahemla which is populated with Lamanites according to Mormon. See Alma 22:28 in Section 4.2.
  4. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3 and starting on the Missouri river west of the land of Nephi, we start with the best topographical location for cities that border the Missouri river.
  5. From steps 1-4, we get the following result: Laman = Jefferson city MO, Josh = Kansas city MO, Gad = Omaha NB. In the case of Kishkumen, we know that cities are named after the founder/first inhabitant and in the case of Kishkumen, we know he fled from Zarahemla and it makes the most sense that he would flee northwest via the Des Moines river to be away from major populations of both Nephites and Lamanites in order to find his own space, as he is a founder of the Gadianton robbers. So Kishkumen aligns best with Des Moines IO.
  1. 3 Nephi 9:10 3 Nephi 9
    10 And behold, the city of Laman, and the city of Josh, and the city of Gad, and the city of Kishkumen, have I caused to be burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof, because of their wickedness in casting out the prophets, and stoning those whom I did send to declare unto them concerning their wickedness and their abominations.

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The cities of Laman, Josh, Gad, and Kishkumen. These cities destroyed by fire.
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View of Laman (top), looking west.
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Laman and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Lehi +6
+[Lehi] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,4|city2,3}
+[Lehi] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Morianton1,2]
+[Lehi] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea1]
+[Lehi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephihah2,3,4]
+[Lehi]{city} ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Moroni2,3]{city}
+[Lehi] ⇒ <is sea journey to> ⇒ [Narrow Pass1]

INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Lehi is one of the cities on the seashore of the East Sea or Lake Michigan and part of Jershon so probably populated by the people of Ammon. Modern place-name: Green Bay, Wisconsin. The "area of dispute" is at Marinette Wisconsin and Menominee Michigan. See the War of Amalickiah in Section 4.6.2.
  1. Alma 50:25-36 Alma 50
    25 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges, there would also have been peace among the people of Nephi had it not been for a contention which took place among them concerning the land of Lehi, and the land of Morianton, which joined upon the borders of Lehi; both of which were on the borders by the seashore.
    26 For behold, the people who possessed the land of Morianton did claim a part of the land of Lehi; therefore there began to be a warm contention between them, insomuch that the people of Morianton took up arms against their brethren, and they were determined by the sword to slay them.
    27 But behold, the people who possessed the land of Lehi fled to the camp of Moroni, and appealed unto him for assistance; for behold they were not in the wrong.
    28 And it came to pass that when the people of Morianton, who were led by a man whose name was Morianton, found that the people of Lehi had fled to the camp of Moroni, they were exceedingly fearful lest the army of Moroni should come upon them and destroy them.
    29 Therefore, Morianton put it into their hearts that they should flee to the land which was northward, which was covered with large bodies of water, and take possession of the land which was northward.
    30 And behold, they would have carried this plan into effect, (which would have been a cause to have been lamented) but behold, Morianton being a man of much passion, therefore he was angry with one of his maid servants, and he fell upon her and beat her much.
    31 And it came to pass that she fled, and came over to the camp of Moroni, and told Moroni all things concerning the matter, and also concerning their intentions to flee into the land northward.
    32 Now behold, the people who were in the land Bountiful, or rather Moroni, feared that they would hearken to the words of Morianton and unite with his people, and thus he would obtain possession of those parts of the land, which would lay a foundation for serious consequences among the people of Nephi, yea, which consequences would lead to the overthrow of their liberty.
    33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morianton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.
    35 And it came to pass that the army which was sent by Moroni, which was led by a man whose name was Teancum, did meet the people of Morianton; and so stubborn were the people of Morianton, (being inspired by his wickedness and his flattering words) that a battle commenced between them, in the which Teancum did slay Morianton and defeat his army, and took them prisoners, and returned to the camp of Moroni. And thus ended the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    36 And thus were the people of Morianton brought back. And upon their covenanting to keep the peace they were restored to the land of Morianton, and a union took place between them and the people of Lehi; and they were also restored to their lands.

  2. Alma 51:24-26 Alma 50
    24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  3. Alma 59:5 Alma 59
    5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morianton, were attacked by the Lamanites.

  4. Alma 62:30 Alma 62
    30 Now it came to pass that Moroni, after he had obtained possession of the city of Nephihah, having taken many prisoners, which did reduce the armies of the Lamanites exceedingly, and having regained many of the Nephites who had been taken prisoners, which did strengthen the army of Moroni exceedingly; therefore Moroni went forth from the land of Nephihah to the land of Lehi.

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Map showing Lehi and nearby cities. Lehi towards the bottom.
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Tilted view of Lehi, Morianton, and Omner. Note that Lehi is in the land of Jershon and Moriantion is in the land of Bountiful.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : LEHI +2
+[LEHI] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land area1}
+[LEHI] ⇒ <is all the land south of> ⇒ [MULEK1]
From a more global perspective, the lands south and north (From the mouth of the Mississippi up to Canada and beyond) were named Lehi and Mulek although these designations were rarely used because most of the historical records focus on more limited areas. Going south to north, LEHI extends from the mouth of the Mississippi to somewhat north of St. Louis, inclusive. MULEK extends from north of St. Louis to Lake Superior.
  1. Helaman 6:6-10Helaman 6
    6 And it came to pass that many of the Lamanites did go into the land northward; and also Nephi and Lehi went into the land northward, to preach unto the people. And thus ended the sixty and third year.
    7 And behold, there was peace in all the land, insomuch that the Nephites did go into whatsoever part of the land they would, whether among the Nephites or the Lamanites.
    8 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did also go whithersoever they would, whether it were among the Lamanites or among the Nephites; and thus they did have free intercourse one with another, to buy and to sell, and to get gain, according to their desire.
    9 And it came to pass that they became exceedingly rich, both the Lamanites and the Nephites; and they did have an exceeding plenty of gold, and of silver, and of all manner of precious metals, both in the land south and in the land north.
    10 Now the land south was called Lehi and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south.

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Master map showing the MULEK/LEHI border.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Lehi-Nephi +4
+[Lehi-Nephi] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2|city1,2}
+[Lehi-Nephi] ⇒ <is another name for> ⇒ [Nephi2]
+[Lehi-Nephi] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shilom1,2]
+[Lehi-Nephi] ⇒ <has> ⇒ {walls2}

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
The city of Nephi, abandoned by the Nephites about 280 BC, is later repopulated by Nephites in the 280 BC - 171 BC timeframe and it's walls were rebuilt. Originally called Nephi, it is referred to as Lehi-Nephi and then back to just Nephi again. Later, during the Reign of the Judges, Nephi becomes the capital city of the Lamanites. See also, Nephi. Modern place-name: St. Louis, Missouri.
  1. Mosiah 7:1-4,21Mosiah 7
    1 And now, it came to pass that after king Mosiah had had continual peace for the space of three years, he was desirous to know concerning the people who went up to dwell in the land of Lehi-Nephi, or in the city of Lehi-Nephi; for his people had heard nothing from them from the time they left the land of Zarahemla; therefore, they wearied him with their teasings.
    2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted that sixteen of their strong men might go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi, to inquire concerning their brethren.
    3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
    4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
    ...
    21 And ye all are witnesses this day, that Zeniff, who was made king over this people, he being over-zealous to inherit the land of his fathers, therefore being deceived by the cunning and craftiness of king Laman, who having entered into a treaty with king Zeniff, and having yielded up into his hands the possessions of a part of the land, or even the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom; and the land round about--

  2. Mosiah 9:6-15Mosiah 9
    6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
    7 And he also commanded that his people should depart out of the land, and I and my people went into the land that we might possess it.
    8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.
    9 And we began to till the ground, yea, even with all manner of seeds, with seeds of corn, and of wheat, and of barley, and with neas, and with sheum, and with seeds of all manner of fruits; and we did begin to multiply and prosper in the land.
    10 Now it was the cunning and the craftiness of king Laman, to bring my people into bondage, that he yielded up the land that we might possess it.
    11 Therefore it came to pass, that after we had dwelt in the land for the space of twelve years that king Laman began to grow uneasy, lest by any means my people should wax strong in the land, and that they could not overpower them and bring them into bondage.
    12 Now they were a lazy and an idolatrous people; therefore they were desirous to bring us into bondage, that they might glut themselves with the labors of our hands; yea, that they might feast themselves upon the flocks of our fields.
    13 Therefore it came to pass that king Laman began to stir up his people that they should contend with my people; therefore there began to be wars and contentions in the land.
    14 For, in the thirteenth year of my reign in the land of Nephi, away on the south of the land of Shilom, when my people were watering and feeding their flocks, and tilling their lands, a numerous host of Lamanites came upon them and began to slay them, and to take off their flocks, and the corn of their fields.
    15 Yea, and it came to pass that they fled, all that were not overtaken, even into the city of Nephi, and did call upon me for protection.

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Aerial view of Nephi (Lehi-Nephi) and surrounding cities, looking west.
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Land of Nephi and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Lemuel +8
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephi1]
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shilom1]
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shemlon1]
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shimnilom1]
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephi1]
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Middoni1]
+[Lemuel] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ishmael1]
  [Laman] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire}1

APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Lemuel is placed on the perimeter of the former path of the Sidon river (Horseshoe Lake) that once existed west of the city of Nephi. Lemuel is so placed because it is mentioned with the other cities that are around the circle. Lemuel was once bordering on the Sidon and and is put at about one o-clock because that is the only place left after Shemlon, Shimnilom, and Shilom are placed. See Section 4.3.4 East of Nephi Modern place-name: Granite City/Pontoon Beach, Illinois.
  1. Alma 23:8-13 Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

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View of Lemuel north of Horseshoe Lake, looking north.
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Aerial view of Nephi (Lehi-Nephi) and surrounding cities, looking west.
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Lemuel and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Line Bountiful/Desolation +7
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <contains a> ⇒ [Narrow Pass4|Passage3]
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <is border of> ⇒ [Bountiful1] and [Desolation1]
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <is route to> ⇒ {land southward1,3,4} and {land northward1,2}
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <contains a> ⇒ {fortified line2}
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <is 1 day journey on> ⇒ {fortified line2}
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <is 1.5 day journey> ⇒ {from east to west sea1}
+[Line Bountiful/Desolation] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {militarily strategic1,2}

APP_RULE_9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 6 mph.
APP_RULE_10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 2 mph.
The Narrow Passage is the route between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan/Huron and the border between Bountiful and Desolation (todays Upper Michigan and Ontario). The Book of Mormon says it is 1.5 days travel. That this border/passage fits so well with the Book of Morman narrative is a major factor in favor on the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map. This area was considered critically important for military reasons as well as for controlling trade and migration northward. The precise distance from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan/Huron is 63.2 miles. According to Section 3.3 Principles of Navigation, a day and a half journey with the current should be 72 miles and a day and a half journey against the current should be 48 miles for an average of 60 miles, so that is a pretty good match to the actual distance. Modern place-name: St Marys river OR border of Upper Michigan and Ontario Canada.
  1. Alma 22:32-33 Alma 22
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

  2. Helaman 4:6-7Helaman 4
    6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
    7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.

  3. Mormon 2:29Mormon 2
    29 And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites all the land southward.

  4. Mormon 3:4-5Mormon 3
    4 And it came to pass that after this tenth year had passed away, making, in the whole, three hundred and sixty years from the coming of Christ, the king of the Lamanites sent an epistle unto me, which gave unto me to know that they were preparing to come again to battle against us.
    5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.
  5. Ether 7:20-21Ether 7
    20 And they built a great city (Nehor) by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
    21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.

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The Line Bountiful|Desolation is a water border between Upper Michigan and Ontario.
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The Line Bountiful|Desolation is a water route from Lake Michigan/Huron to Lake Superior.
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The narrow pass is the entrance to the Line Bountiful|Desolation.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Manti +11
+[Manti] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2,4,5,8|city7,8}
+[Manti] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [West Sea6]
+[Manti] ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Sidon Head3,4]
+[Manti] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Gideon2]
+[Manti] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ {South Wilderness1}
+[Manti] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {South Wilderness1}
+[Manti] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Cumeni5,7]
+[Manti] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Zeezrom5]
+[Manti] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antiparah5]
+[Manti] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Riplah4]
+[Manti] ⇒ <is wilderness journey from> ⇒ [Antionum4]

INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
Most Book of Mormon maps place Manti as south of Zarahemla, which is incorrect. In fairness, the description of Alma's journey in Alma 17:1 can be read two ways: A) Alma is journeying south towards Manti starting at the land of Gideon (making Manti south of Gideon); or 2) Alma is journeying starting from Gideon located to the south then towards Manti (making Gideon south of Manti). However, Manti is also north because of many other factors. One reason we know Manti is north of Zarahemla is because Alma meets up with the sons of Mosiah who are traveling to Zarahemla from Jershon, and Jershon is north of Zarahemla. Also the head (source) of the Sidon river is north, way north and Alma 22:27 says "through the borders of Manti, by the head of the river Sidon" and Alma 43:22 says "took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti". The head of a River is its place of origin, it's source. 1 Nephi 8:13,14 also backs up this interpretation, showing that is how the Book of Mormon used the word "head" for a river. See also Section 4.5 The Lands Near Manti. In Alma 17, "away" means "on the way to". See Section 3.4.4. Also we know that the stripling soldiers campaigned in the land of Manti (Alma 43:22) with is just south of the west sea (lake Superior). See Section 4.5.3. The actual city of Manti is placed due to its order (bottom to top, left to right) when named in relation to the other nearby cities in Alma 56, and also because of it's strategic position at the junction of the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation. Modern place-name: Prescott, Wisconsin.
  1. Alma 16:6-7Alma 16
    6 And it came to pass that Alma inquired of the Lord concerning the matter. And Alma returned and said unto them: Behold, the Lamanites will cross the river Sidon in the south wilderness, away up beyond the borders of the land of Manti. And behold there shall ye meet them, on the east of the river Sidon, and there the Lord will deliver unto thee thy brethren who have been taken captive by the Lamanites.
    7 And it came to pass that Zoram and his sons crossed over the river Sidon, with their armies, and marched away beyond the borders of Manti into the south wilderness, which was on the east side of the river Sidon.

  2. Alma 17:1Alma 17
    1 And now it came to pass that as Alma was journeying from the land of Gideon southward, away to the land of Manti, behold, to his astonishment, he met with the sons of Mosiah journeying towards the land of Zarahemla.

  3. Alma 22:27Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

  4. Alma 43:22-32,42Alma 43
    22 Behold, now it came to pass that they durst not come against the Nephites in the borders of Jershon; therefore they departed out of the land of Antionum into the wilderness, and took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti and take possession of the land; for they did not suppose that the armies of Moroni would know whither they had gone.
    23 But it came to pass, as soon as they had departed into the wilderness Moroni sent spies into the wilderness to watch their camp; and Moroni, also, knowing of the prophecies of Alma, sent certain men unto him, desiring him that he should inquire of the Lord whither the armies of the Nephites should go to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
    24 And it came to pass that the word of the Lord came unto Alma, and Alma informed the messengers of Moroni, that the armies of the Lamanites were marching round about in the wilderness, that they might come over into the land of Manti, that they might commence an attack upon the weaker part of the people. And those messengers went and delivered the message unto Moroni.
    25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.
    26 And he caused that all the people in that quarter of the land should gather themselves together to battle against the Lamanites, to defend their lands and their country, their rights and their liberties; therefore they were prepared against the time of the coming of the Lamanites. 27 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his army should be secreted in the valley which was near the bank of the river Sidon, which was on the west of the river Sidon in the wilderness.
    28 And Moroni placed spies round about, that he might know when the camp of the Lamanites should come.
    29 And now, as Moroni knew the intention of the Lamanites, that it was their intention to destroy their brethren, or to subject them and bring them into bondage that they might establish a kingdom unto themselves over all the land;
    30 And he also knowing that it was the only desire of the Nephites to preserve their lands, and their liberty, and their church, therefore he thought it no sin that he should defend them by stratagem; therefore, he found by his spies which course the Lamanites were to take.
    31 Therefore, he divided his army and brought a part over into the valley, and concealed them on the east, and on the south of the hill Riplah;
    32 And the remainder he concealed in the west valley, on the west of the river Sidon, and so down into the borders of the land Manti.
    33 And thus having placed his army according to his desire, he was prepared to meet them.
    42 And the Lamanites did flee again before them, towards the land of Manti; and they were met again by the armies of Moroni.

  5. Alma 56:13-15Alma 56
    13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
    14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city.

  6. Alma 53:22Alma 53
    22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.

  7. Alma 57:22-23 Alma 57
    22 And now behold, it was these my sons, and those men who had been selected to convey the prisoners, to whom we owe this great victory; for it was they who did beat the Lamanites; therefore they were driven back to the city of Manti.
    23 And we retained our city Cumeni, and were not all destroyed by the sword; nevertheless, we had suffered great loss.

  8. Alma 58:1,13-14,25-28,38-39Alma 58
    1 And behold, now it came to pass that our next object was to obtain the city of Manti; but behold, there was no way that we could lead them out of the city by our small bands. For behold, they remembered that which we had hitherto done; therefore we could not decoy them away from their strongholds.
    ...
    13 And thus we did go forth with all our might against the Lamanites, who were in the city of Manti; and we did pitch our tents by the wilderness side, which was near to the city.
    14 And it came to pass that on the morrow, that when the Lamanites saw that we were in the borders by the wilderness which was near the city, that they sent out their spies round about us that they might discover the number and the strength of our army.
    ...
    25 And behold, it was night and they did pitch their tents, for the chief captains of the Lamanites had supposed that the Nephites were weary because of their march; and supposing that they had driven their whole army therefore they took no thought concerning the city of Manti.
    26 Now it came to pass that when it was night, I caused that my men should not sleep, but that they should march forward by another way towards the land of Manti.
    27 And because of this our march in the night-time, behold, on the morrow we were beyond the Lamanites, insomuch that we did arrive before them at the city of Manti.
    28 And thus it came to pass, that by this stratagem we did take possession of the city of Manti without the shedding of blood.
    ...
    38 Behold, this is the twenty and ninth year, in the latter end, and we are in the possession of our lands; and the Lamanites have fled to the land of Nephi.
    39 And those sons of the people of Ammon, of whom I have so highly spoken, are with me in the city of Manti; and the Lord had supported them, yea, and kept them from falling by the sword, insomuch that even one soul has not been slain.

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Aerial view of cities in the land of Manti, south of the west sea. Looking north.
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Map showing Manti and other cities in the land of Manti.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Hill Manti +2
+[Hill Manti] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ [hill2]
+[Hill Manti] ⇒ <is near to > ⇒ [Zarahemla1]
  [Hill Manti] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {execution of Nehor2}
There is no indication that the hill Manti has any connection with the land/city of Manti. With Zarahemla being the capital city, it is assumed to be the location of the judgement seat to which Nehor was brought (for example, see Helaman 7-9). Therefore the place of execution, the hill Manti, would likely also be nearby. The hill chosen is the most prominent at the approach to Zarahemla from the south. Modern place-name: Bluff Park, Iowa.
  1. Helaman 7:1 8:26-27 9:1-2Helaman 7
    1 Behold, now it came to pass in the sixty and ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of the Nephites, that Nephi, the son of Helaman, returned to the land of Zarahemla from the land northward.
    ...
    Helaman 8
    26 Yea, even at this time ye are ripening, because of your murders and your fornication and wickedness, for everlasting destruction; yea, and except ye repent it will come unto you soon.
    27 Yea, behold it is now even at your doors; yea, go ye in unto the judgment-seat, and search; and behold, your judge is murdered, and he lieth in his blood; and he hath been murdered by his brother, who seeketh to sit in the judgment-seat.
    ...
    Helaman 9
    1 Behold, now it came to pass that when Nephi had spoken these words, certain men who were among them ran to the judgment-seat; yea, even there were five who went, and they said among themselves, as they went:
    2 Behold, now we will know of a surety whether this man be a prophet and God hath commanded him to prophesy such marvelous things unto us. Behold, we do not believe that he hath; yea, we do not believe that he is a prophet; nevertheless, if this thing which he has said concerning the chief judge be true, that he be dead, then will we believe that the other words which he has spoken are true.
  2. Alma 1:2,8-10,13-15Alma 1
    2 And it came to pass that in the first year of the reign of Alma in the judgment-seat, there was a man brought before him to be judged, a man who was large, and was noted for his much strength. ...
    8 Now the name of the man was Gideon; and it was he who was an instrument in the hands of God in delivering the people of Limhi out of bondage.
    9 Now, because Gideon withstood him with the words of God he was wroth with Gideon, and drew his sword and began to smite him. Now Gideon being stricken with many years, therefore he was not able to withstand his blows, therefore he was slain by the sword.
    10 And the man who slew him was taken by the people of the church, and was brought before Alma, to be judged according to the crimes which he had committed.
    ...
    13 And thou hast shed the blood of a righteous man, yea, a man who has done much good among this people; and were we to spare thee his blood would come upon us for vengeance.
    14 Therefore thou art condemned to die, according to the law which has been given us by Mosiah, our last king; and it has been acknowledged by this people; therefore this people must abide by the law.
    15 And it came to pass that they took him; and his name was Nehor; and they carried him upon the top of the hill Manti, and there he was caused, or rather did acknowledge, between the heavens and the earth, that what he had taught to the people was contrary to the word of God; and there he suffered an ignominious death.

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Aerial view showing location of hill Manti just south of Zarahemla.
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Topographical map showing hill Manti.
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View from top of hill Manti. Brown river shading shows aproximate extent prior to Keokuk dam.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Melek +7
+[Melek] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,3,4}
+[Melek] ⇒ <is very near to> ⇒ [Jershon3]
+[Melek] ⇒ <distance is three days from> ⇒ [Ammonihah3]
+[Melek] ⇒ <is a near journey from> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,2,3]
+[Melek] ⇒ <is west of> ⇒ [Sidon1]
+[Melek] ⇒ <is west by the borders of> ⇒ {the wilderness1}
+[Melek] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Ammonihah1]
INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
APP_RULE_4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
APP_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
APP_RULE_10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 2 mph.
Some care is taken in the Book of Mormon to describe the location of Melek so it can be placed with some confidence. Interestingly there is no mention of a city of Melek even though the junction of the Iowa and Mississippi rivers would be a strategic area calling for a city. However, because of the terrain there is no modern city (of any size) on the west side of the river at this junction, so maybe the same was also true in Book of Mormon times.
The distance from Melek to Ammonihah, which is stated as 3 days journey. From APP_RULE_10 the Iowa River journey upstream from Toolsboro Iowa (Melek) to Coralville Iowa (Ammonihah) should be calculated as 8 hrs X 3 mph X 3 days = 72 miles. The actual (google map trace) distance on the Book of Mormon map, following the river, is precisely 75.5 miles so that is an excellent fit. Location: region enclosed by the Iowa, Cedar, Wapsipinicon and Mississippi rivers in eastern Iowa.
  1. Alma 8:1-8Alma 8
    1 And now it came to pass that Alma returned from the land of Gideon, after having taught the people of Gideon many things which cannot be written, having established the order of the church, according as he had before done in the land of Zarahemla, yea, he returned to his own house at Zarahemla to rest himself from the labors which he had performed.
    2 And thus ended the ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    3 And it came to pass in the commencement of the tenth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, that Alma departed from thence and took his journey over into the land of Melek, on the west of the river Sidon, on the west by the borders of the wilderness.
    4 And he began to teach the people in the land of Melek according to the holy order of God, by which he had been called; and he began to teach the people throughout all the land of Melek.
    5 And it came to pass that the people came to him throughout all the borders of the land which was by the wilderness side. And they were baptized throughout all the land;
    6 So that when he had finished his work at Melek he departed thence, and traveled three days' journey on the north of the land of Melek; and he came to a city which was called Ammonihah.
    7 Now it was the custom of the people of Nephi to call their lands, and their cities, and their villages, yea, even all their small villages, after the name of him who first possessed them; and thus it was with the land of Ammonihah.
    8 And it came to pass that when Alma had come to the city of Ammonihah he began to preach the word of God unto them.

  2. Alma 31:6-7Alma 31
    6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons. 7 Now the eldest of his sons he took not with him, and his name was Helaman; but the names of those whom he took with him were Shiblon and Corianton; and these are the names of those who went with him among the Zoramites, to preach unto them the word.

  3. Alma 35:13Alma 35
    13 And the people of Ammon departed out of the land of Jershon, and came over into the land of Melek, and gave place in the land of Jershon for the armies of the Nephites, that they might contend with the armies of the Lamanites and the armies of the Zoramites; and thus commenced a war betwixt the Lamanites and the Nephites, in the eighteenth year of the reign of the judges; and an account shall be given of their wars hereafter.

  4. Alma 45:18Alma 45
    18 And when Alma had done this he departed out of the land of Zarahemla, as if to go into the land of Melek. And it came to pass that he was never heard of more; as to his death or burial we know not of.

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Melek and nearby lands and cities.
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Melek and nearby lands and cities, looking north.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Middoni +5
+[Middoni] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2,3}
+[Middoni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephi1,2]
+[Middoni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Jerusalem2]{city}
+[Middoni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ishmael1,2,3]
+[Middoni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ani-Anti2]
INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
APP_RULE_4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
APP_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
Middoni is mentioned in relation to the missionary journeys of the sons of Mosiah. Aaron, Muloki and Ammah are imprisoned there and thus there are many references to Middoni. By the descriptions and by process of elimination Middoni is placed on the west of the Sidon and south of the city of Nephi. Note that Middoni is only a land (with a prison) but not designated as a city. It is thought to be directly across the river from Ani-Anti (Dupo, Missouri) due to the phrase "came over". See 3.3 Rules of Interpretation. Modern place-name: Bella Villa/Lemay Missouri.
  1. Alma 20: 1-7,14-15,28,30Alma 20
    1 And it came to pass that when they had established a church in that land, that king Lamoni desired that Ammon should go with him to the land of Nephi, that he might show him unto his father.
    2 And the voice of the Lord came to Ammon, saying: Thou shalt not go up to the land of Nephi, for behold, the king will seek thy life; but thou shalt go to the land of Middoni; for behold, thy brother Aaron, and also Muloki and Ammah are in prison.
    3 Now it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he said unto Lamoni: Behold, my brother and brethren are in prison at Middoni, and I go that I may deliver them.
    4 Now Lamoni said unto Ammon: I know, in the strength of the Lord thou canst do all things. But behold, I will go with thee to the land of Middoni; for the king of the land of Middoni, whose name is Antiomno, is a friend unto me; therefore I go to the land of Middoni, that I may flatter the king of the land, and he will cast thy brethren out of prison. Now Lamoni said unto him: Who told thee that thy brethren were in prison?
    5 And Ammon said unto him: No one hath told me, save it be God; and he said unto me--Go and deliver thy brethren, for they are in prison in the land of Middoni.
    6 Now when Lamoni had heard this he caused that his servants should make ready his horses and his chariots.
    7 And he said unto Ammon: Come, I will go with thee down to the land of Middoni, and there I will plead with the king that he will cast thy brethren out of prison.
    ...
    14 Now the father of Lamoni commanded him that he should slay Ammon with the sword. And he also commanded him that he should not go to the land of Middoni, but that he should return with him to the land of Ishmael.
    15 But Lamoni said unto him: I will not slay Ammon, neither will I return to the land of Ishmael, but I go to the land of Middoni that I may release the brethren of Ammon, for I know that they are just men and holy prophets of the true God. ...
    ...
    28 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni proceeded on their journey towards the land of Middoni. And Lamoni found favor in the eyes of the king of the land; therefore the brethren of Ammon were brought forth out of prison.
    ...
    30 And, as it happened, it was their lot to have fallen into the hands of a more hardened and a more stiffnecked people; therefore they would not hearken unto their words, and they had cast them out, and had smitten them, and had driven them from house to house, and from place to place, even until they had arrived in the land of Middoni; and there they were taken and cast into prison, and bound with strong cords, and kept in prison for many days, and were delivered by Lamoni and Ammon.

  2. Alma 21:3-4,11-13,18Alma 21
    3 Now the Lamanites of themselves were sufficiently hardened, but the Amlicites and the Amulonites were still harder; therefore they did cause the Lamanites that they should harden their hearts, that they should wax strong in wickedness and their abominations.
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors.
    ...
    11 Therefore, when he saw that they would not hear his words, he departed out of their synagogue, and came over to a village which was called Ani-Anti, and there he found Muloki preaching the word unto them; and also Ammah and his brethren. And they contended with many about the word.
    12 And it came to pass that they saw that the people would harden their hearts, therefore they departed and came over into the land of Middoni. And they did preach the word unto many, and few believed on the words which they taught.
    13 Nevertheless, Aaron and a certain number of his brethren were taken and cast into prison, and the remainder of them fled out of the land of Middoni unto the regions round about. ...
    ...
    18 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni returned from the land of Middoni to the land of Ishmael, which was the land of their inheritance.

  3. Alma 22:1-4Alma 22
    1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually, we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi, even to the house of the king which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
    2 And it came to pass that he went in unto him into the king's palace, with his brethren, and bowed himself before the king, and said unto him: Behold, O king, we are the brethren of Ammon, whom thou hast delivered out of prison.
    3 And now, O king, if thou wilt spare our lives, we will be thy servants. And the king said unto them: Arise, for I will grant unto you your lives, and I will not suffer that ye shall be my servants; but I will insist that ye shall administer unto me; for I have been somewhat troubled in mind because of the generosity and the greatness of the words of thy brother Ammon; and I desire to know the cause why he has not come up out of Middoni with thee.
    4 And Aaron said unto the king: Behold, the Spirit of the Lord has called him another way; he has gone to the land of Ishmael, to teach the people of Lamoni.

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View of Middoni and nearby cities, looking west.
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Land of Middoni and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Midian +2
+[Midian] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1>}
+[Midian] ⇒ <is a short journey to> ⇒ [Ishmael1]
APP_RULE_5The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less.
Midian is placed north up the river from where the most hostile Amlicites and Amulonites were located (in Amulon and Jerusalem etc south). It seems to me a more safe place to as a rendezvous. From there they would have an easy water route traveling west to Ishmael for their council mentioned. The location of Midian is also chosen because it only place of major population left to consider in the crowded St. Louis region. Unless there are other prominent factors major population centers of modern times are assumed to mirror the major population centers of ancient times. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation. Modern place-name: Alton, Illinois.
  1. Alma 24:5Alma 24
    5 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.

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View of land of Midian and nearby cities, looking west.
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Midan and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Minon +3
+[Minon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1}
+[Minon] ⇒ <is one day or less from> ⇒ [Zarahemla1]
+[Minon] ⇒ <is on the way to> ⇒ [Nephi1] ⇒ <from> ⇒ [Zarahemla1]
APP_RULE_4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
The Land of Minon is described during the Amlicite war as the Lamanites go right through Minon come up to fight with the Amlicites at Zarahemla. The land of Minon was apparently used for farming as there is mention of the crops being trodden down by the advancing armies. See Section 4.4.2 Amlicite War - Battle of Zarahemla. Modern location: land between Keokuk and Montrose, Iowa and between the Mississippi and Des Moins rivers.
  1. Alma 2:15-24Alma 2
    15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites. ...
    17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites. ...
    20 And it came to pass that when Alma could pursue the Amlicites no longer he caused that his people should pitch their tents in the valley of Gideon, the valley being called after that Gideon who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword; and in this valley the Nephites did pitch their tents for the night.
    21 And Alma sent spies to follow the remnant of the Amlicites, that he might know of their plans and their plots, whereby he might guard himself against them, that he might preserve his people from being destroyed.
    22 Now those whom he had sent out to watch the camp of the Amlicites were called Zeram, and Amnor, and Manti, and Limher; these were they who went out with their men to watch the camp of the Amlicites.
    23 And it came to pass that on the morrow they returned into the camp of the Nephites in great haste, being greatly astonished, and struck with much fear, saying:
    24 Behold, we followed the camp of the Amlicites, and to our great astonishment, in the land of Minon, above [EME before] the land of Zarahemla, in the course of the land of Nephi, we saw a numerous host of the Lamanites; and behold, the Amlicites have joined them;


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Aerial view of land of Minon. Looking west.
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Map showing the land of Minon.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Mocum +3
+[Mocum] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1}
+[Mocum] ⇒ <is near to > ⇒ [Onihah1]
+[Mocum] ⇒ <is near to > ⇒ [Jerusalem1]
  [Mocum] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ [water coming up1]
The cities of Onihah, Mocum, and Jerusalem are only mentioned in relation to being destroyed by flooding (waters that "come up") prior to the visitation of the resurrected Christ. This is an instance of river flooding and another indication that these cities bordered the waters of the Sidon. Note that, by contrast, the destroyed cities bordering the east sea were "sunk in the depths of the sea". The three cities mentioned with Mocum are placed according to the following:
  1. The cities listed are assumed to have an order, bottom to top. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.
  2. Using the Rule of listed order being bottom-to-top as mentioned in Section 3.3, we get the map results by placing the Nephite cities in the same location as major populations today.
  3. From step 2, we get the following result: Onihah = Ste. Genevieve Missouri, Mocum = Oakville Missouri, Jerusalem = St. Louis, Missouri, near River city Casino.
It is useful that we also have additional information on city of Jerusalem to use as an anchor point. Onihah could be placed at Peverly Missiouri or Ste. Genevieve Missouri. The reason the latter case was chosen is because the topography of Ste. Genevieve appears much more conducive to past and future flooding.
  1. 3 Nephi 9:73 Nephi 9
    7 Yea, and the city of Onihah and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Mocum and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof; and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come up any more unto me against them.

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View of Mocum (to the left) and nearby cities, looking west.
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Mocum and nearby cities.
Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Morianton +11
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city2,3,4,land1}
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is northward of> ⇒ [Lehi1]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is east by the borders of> ⇒ {the seashore2}
+[Morianton] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Lehi1]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Bountiful1]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gid3]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Mulek3]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Omner3]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephihah2]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Moroni2,4]
+[Morianton] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lehi1,2,3]
APP_RULE_4Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders.
Morianton was the instigator of a major internal dispute among the Nephites and the city has his name. It should be noted that the city of Lehi was in the land of Jershon and so was likely a city of the people of Ammon (Ammonites) who were previously Lamanites who had converted and joined with the Nephites, and the account says they "were not in the wrong" when it came to the sour relations with the people of Morianton. The area of dispute is not too difficult to surmise. Halfway between Morianton and Lehi is the Menominee River that empties into Lake Michigan. The river separates Bountiful from Jershon with the same border that separates today Upper Michigan from Wisconsin. One would think the people of Morianton would just take the north side of the Menominee River and let the Ammonites take the south side but apparently no such agreement was reached. Perhaps the south side was more agreeable and the people of Morianton just wanted it. Modern place-name for Morianton: Escanaba, Michigan. Modern place-name for area of dispute: Menominee Michigan (north of river) and Marinette Wisconsin (south of river).
  • Alma 50:25-36Alma 50
    25 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges, there would also have been peace among the people of Nephi had it not been for a contention which took place among them concerning the land of Lehi, and the land of Morianton, which joined upon the borders of Lehi; both of which were on the borders by the seashore.
    26 For behold, the people who possessed the land of Morianton did claim a part of the land of Lehi; therefore there began to be a warm contention between them, insomuch that the people of Morianton took up arms against their brethren, and they were determined by the sword to slay them.
    27 But behold, the people who possessed the land of Lehi fled to the camp of Moroni, and appealed unto him for assistance; for behold they were not in the wrong.
    28 And it came to pass that when the people of Morianton, who were led by a man whose name was Morianton, found that the people of Lehi had fled to the camp of Moroni, they were exceedingly fearful lest the army of Moroni should come upon them and destroy them.
    29 Therefore, Morianton put it into their hearts that they should flee to the land which was northward, which was covered with large bodies of water, and take possession of the land which was northward.
    30 And behold, they would have carried this plan into effect, (which would have been a cause to have been lamented) but behold, Morianton being a man of much passion, therefore he was angry with one of his maid servants, and he fell upon her and beat her much.
    31 And it came to pass that she fled, and came over to the camp of Moroni, and told Moroni all things concerning the matter, and also concerning their intentions to flee into the land northward.
    32 Now behold, the people who were in the land Bountiful, or rather Moroni, feared that they would hearken to the words of Morianton and unite with his people, and thus he would obtain possession of those parts of the land, which would lay a foundation for serious consequences among the people of Nephi, yea, which consequences would lead to the overthrow of their liberty.
    33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morianton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
    34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.
    35 And it came to pass that the army which was sent by Moroni, which was led by a man whose name was Teancum, did meet the people of Morianton; and so stubborn were the people of Morianton, (being inspired by his wickedness and his flattering words) that a battle commenced between them, in the which Teancum did slay Morianton and defeat his army, and took them prisoners, and returned to the camp of Moroni. And thus ended the twenty and fourth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
    36 And thus were the people of Morianton brought back. And upon their covenanting to keep the peace they were restored to the land of Morianton, and a union took place between them and the people of Lehi; and they were also restored to their lands.

  • Alma 51:1,24-26Alma 51
    1 And now it came to pass in the commencement of the twenty and fifth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, they having established peace between the people of Lehi and the people of Morianton concerning their lands, and having commenced the twenty and fifth year in peace;
    ...
    22 Behold, it came to pass that while Moroni was thus breaking down the wars and contentions among his own people, and subjecting them to peace and civilization, and making regulations to prepare for war against the Lamanites, behold, the Lamanites had come into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
    23 And it came to pass that the Nephites were not sufficiently strong in the city of Moroni; therefore Amalickiah did drive them, slaying many. And it came to pass that Amalickiah took possession of the city, yea, possession of all their fortifications.
    24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.
    25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
    26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

  • Alma 55:7,33Alma 55
    7 Now the Nephites were guarded in the city of Gid; therefore Moroni appointed Laman and caused that a small number of men should go with him. ...
    33 And now it came to pass that it was expedient for Moroni to make preparations to attack the city Morianton; for behold, the Lamanites had, by their labors, fortified the city Morianton until it had become an exceeding stronghold.

  • Alma 59:5Alma 59
    5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morianton, were attacked by the Lamanites.

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    Map showing Morianton and nearby cities. Morianton towards the top.
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    Tilted view of Lehi, Morianton, and Omner. Note that Lehi is in the land of Jershon and Moriantion is in the land of Bountiful.

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    Tilted view of Morianton, looking west.
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    Closeup of Marinette and Menominee, the area of dispute between the peoples of Lehi and the peoples of Morianton.
  • Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Mormon +3
    +[Mormon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {place1|land1,3,4,5|forest1|waters1,3}
    +[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Jerusalem4]
    +[Mormon]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephi3]
    The land of Mormon is a vast track of land covering most of western Missouri and contains the "waters of Mormon" in the southern regions. Land of Mormon modern place-name: Ozarks plateau. Waters of Mormon modern place-name: Big Springs, Missouri.
    1. Mosiah 18:4-8,16,30Mosiah 18
      4 And it came to pass that as many as did believe him did go forth to a place which was called Mormon, having received its name from the king, being in the borders of the land having been infested, by times or at seasons, by wild beasts.
      5 Now, there was in Mormon a fountain of pure water, and Alma resorted thither, there being near the water a thicket of small trees, where he did hide himself in the daytime from the searches of the king.
      6 And it came to pass that as many as believed him went thither to hear his words.
      7 And it came to pass after many days there were a goodly number gathered together at the Mormon place of , to hear the words of Alma. Yea, all were gathered together that believed on his word, to hear him. And he did teach them, and did preach unto them repentance, and redemption, and faith on the Lord.
      8 And it came to pass that he said unto them: Behold, here are the waters of Mormon (for thus were they called) and now, as ye are desirous to come into the fold of God, and to be called his people, and are willing to bear one another's burdens, that they may be light; ...
      ...
      16 And after this manner he did baptize every one that went forth to the place of Mormon; and they were in number about two hundred and four souls; yea, and they were baptized in the waters of Mormon, and were filled with the grace of God. ...
      ...
      30 And now it came to pass that all this was done in Mormon, yea, by the waters of Mormon, in the forest that was near the waters of Mormon; yea, the place of Mormon, the waters of Mormon, the forest of Mormon, how beautiful are they to the eyes of them who there came to the knowledge of their Redeemer; yea, and how blessed are they, for they shall sing to his praise forever.

    2. Mosiah 25:18Mosiah 25
      18 Therefore, Alma did go forth into the water and did baptize them; yea, he did baptize them after the manner he did his brethren in the waters of Mormon; yea, and as many as he did baptize did belong to the church of God; and this because of their belief on the words of Alma.

    3. Alma 5:3Alma 5
      3 I, Alma, having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest over the church of God, he having power and authority from God to do these things, behold, I say unto you that he began to establish a church in the land which was in the borders of Nephi; yea, the land which was called the land of Mormon; yea, and he did baptize his brethren in the waters of Mormon.

    4. Alma 21:1-2Alma 21
      1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
      2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem.

    5. 3 Nephi 5:123 Nephi 5
      12 And behold, I am called Mormon, being called after the land of Mormon, the land in which Alma did establish the church among the people, yea, the first church which was established among them after their transgression.

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    The land of Mormon
    Map showing the land of Mormon.
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    The waters of Mormon
    Topography of area surrounding the waters of Mormon.
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    The waters of Mormon
    Vertical view of the waters of Mormon.
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    The waters of Mormon
    Ground view of the waters of Mormon.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Moroni +11
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land2,3|city1,2,3}
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea1]
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephihah1,2,3,4]
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {seashore2,4}
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Lamanite/Nephite border line1,4}
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lehi2,3,4]
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {people of Ammon4}
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Morianton3]
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Aaron1]
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness south1,4}
    +[Moroni] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {wilderness east1,4}
      [Moroni] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {sinking into the sea}
    INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
    APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
    APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
    Moroni is a major city founded on the southwest corner of Lake Michigan at the entrance of the Chicago river. Being close to the Lamanite borders, Moroni was the location of a lot of military activity. Moroni is south of all the place-names listed as being "near". "Near" is a relative term in that these cities by the sea are not that near by land but have easy access to each via the east sea (Lake Michigan). Therefore in the Book of Mormon narrative there is a lot of migration mentioned between these coastal cities for safety and military reasons. Modern place-name: Chicago, Illinois.
    1. Alma 50:10-14Alma 50
      10 And he also placed armies on the south, in the borders of their possessions, and caused them to erect fortifications that they might secure their armies and their people from the hands of their enemies.
      11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.
      12 Thus Moroni, with his armies, which did increase daily because of the assurance of protection which his works did bring forth unto them, did seek to cut off the strength and the power of the Lamanites from off the lands of their possessions, that they should have no power upon the lands of their possession.
      13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
      14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.

    2. Alma 51:22-24Alma 51
      22 Behold, it came to pass that while Moroni was thus breaking down the wars and contentions among his own people, and subjecting them to peace and civilization, and making regulations to prepare for war against the Lamanites, behold, the Lamanites had come into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
      23 And it came to pass that the Nephites were not sufficiently strong in the city of Moroni; therefore Amalickiah did drive them, slaying many. And it came to pass that Amalickiah took possession of the city, yea, possession of all their fortifications.
      24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.

    3. Alma 59:5Alma 59
      5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morianton, were attacked by the Lamanites.

    4. Alma 62:25-34Alma 62
      25 And now when Moroni saw that they were fleeing before him, he did cause that his men should march forth against them, and slew many, and surrounded many others, and took them prisoners; and the remainder of them fled into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
      26 Thus had Moroni and Pahoran obtained the possession of the city of Nephihah without the loss of one soul; and there were many of the Lamanites who were slain.
      27 Now it came to pass that many of the Lamanites that were prisoners were desirous to join the people of Ammon and become a free people.
      28 And it came to pass that as many as were desirous, unto them it was granted according to their desires.
      29 Therefore, all the prisoners of the Lamanites did join the people of Ammon, and did begin to labor exceedingly, tilling the ground, raising all manner of grain, and flocks and herds of every kind; and thus were the Nephites relieved from a great burden; yea, insomuch that they were relieved from all the prisoners of the Lamanites.
      30 Now it came to pass that Moroni, after he had obtained possession of the city of Nephihah, having taken many prisoners, which did reduce the armies of the Lamanites exceedingly, and having regained many of the Nephites who had been taken prisoners, which did strengthen the army of Moroni exceedingly; therefore Moroni went forth from the land of Nephihah to the land of Lehi.
      31 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that Moroni was coming against them, they were again frightened and fled before the army of Moroni.
      32 And it came to pass that Moroni and his army did pursue them from city to city, until they were met by Lehi and Teancum; and the Lamanites fled from Lehi and Teancum, even down upon the borders by the seashore, until they came to the land of Moroni.
      33 And the armies of the Lamanites were all gathered together, insomuch that they were all in one body in the land of Moroni. Now Ammoron, the king of the Lamanites, was also with them.
      34 And it came to pass that Moroni and Lehi and Teancum did encamp with their armies round about in the borders of the land of Moroni, insomuch that the Lamanites were encircled about in the borders by the wilderness on the south, and in the borders by the wilderness on the east.

    5. 3 Nephi 3:83 Nephi 3
      9 And the city of Moroni did sink into the depths of the sea, and the inhabitants thereof were drowned.

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    Aerial view of Moroni and other Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
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    Chicago Illinois about 1870 where the Chicago River empties into Lake Michigan, near to the location of the city of Moroni.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Moronihah +1
    +[Moronihah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2}
    +[Moronihah] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {being covered with earth1,2}
    For Moronihah, we know it is in Nephite territory because of the name and we know it was destroyed by being covered with have a mountain cover its prior spot. So I have placed it in hilly region near to other cities covered with earth, and in the prime and elevated location not yet claiming a Nephite cities nearby - at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers. Modern place-name: Wyalusing State Park, Wisconsin.
    1. 3 Nephi 8:10,253 Nephi 8
      10 And the earth was carried up upon the city of Moronihah, that in the place of the city there became a great mountain.
      ...
      25 And in another place they were heard to cry and mourn, saying: O that we had repented before this great and terrible day, and had not killed and stoned the prophets, and cast them out; then would our mothers and our fair daughters, and our children have been spared, and not have been buried up in that great city Moronihah. And thus were the howlings of the people great and terrible.

    2. 3 Nephi 9:53 Nephi 9
      5 And behold, that great city Moronihah have I covered with earth, and the inhabitants thereof, to hide their iniquities and their abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come any more unto me against them.

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    Map location of Moronihah at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers.
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    Topographical map showing the Moronihah at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Mulek +5
    +[Mulek] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2,3,4}
    +[Mulek] ⇒ <is located east by> ⇒ {the seashore1}
    +[Mulek] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Bountiful1,2,3,4]
    +[Mulek] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Gid1,4]
    +[Mulek] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Omner1]
    Mulek is an important city mentioned in the war of Amalickiah. It is in the land of Bountiful and separated from the city of Bountiful by "plains". Mulek is thus placed in St. Ignace which qualifies by being separated from the city of Bountiful by plains and by being strategically situated near the Straits of Mackinac. In this location, Mulek would be the first city the Lamanites would encounter coming up from the south on the way to the Bountiful/Desolation border (St Marys river) and on the way to Bountiful (either by land or sea).
    1. Alma 51:25-26Alma 51
      25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
      26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

    2. Alma 52:2,16-34Alma 52
      2 And now, when the Lamanites saw this they were affrighted; and they abandoned their design in marching into the land northward, and retreated with all their army into the city of Mulek, and sought protection in their fortifications. ...
      16 And it came to pass that Teancum had received orders to make an attack upon the city of Mulek, and retake it if it were possible.
      17 And it came to pass that Teancum made preparations to make an attack upon the city of Mulek, and march forth with his army against the Lamanites; but he saw that it was impossible that he could overpower them while they were in their fortifications; therefore he abandoned his designs and returned again to the city Bountiful, to wait for the coming of Moroni, that he might receive strength to his army.
      18 And it came to pass that Moroni did arrive with his army at the land of Bountiful, in the latter end of the twenty and seventh year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
      19 And in the commencement of the twenty and eighth year, Moroni and Teancum and many of the chief captains held a council of war--what they should do to cause the Lamanites to come out against them to battle; or that they might by some means flatter them out of their strongholds, that they might gain advantage over them and take again the city of Mulek.
      20 And it came to pass they sent embassies to the army of the Lamanites, which protected the city of Mulek, to their leader, whose name was Jacob, desiring him that he would come out with his armies to meet them upon the plains between the two cities. But behold, Jacob, who was a Zoramite, would not come out with his army to meet them upon the plains.
      21 And it came to pass that Moroni, having no hopes of meeting them upon fair grounds, therefore, he resolved upon a plan that he might decoy the Lamanites out of their strongholds.
      22 Therefore he caused that Teancum should take a small number of men and march down near the seashore; and Moroni and his army, by night, marched in the wilderness, on the west of the city Mulek; and thus, on the morrow, when the guards of the Lamanites had discovered Teancum, they ran and told it unto Jacob, their leader.
      23 And it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites did march forth against Teancum, supposing by their numbers to overpower Teancum because of the smallness of his numbers. And as Teancum saw the armies of the Lamanites coming out against him he began to retreat down by the seashore, northward.
      24 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that he began to flee, they took courage and pursued them with vigor. And while Teancum was thus leading away the Lamanites who were pursuing them in vain, behold, Moroni commanded that a part of his army who were with him should march forth into the city, and take possession of it.
      25 And thus they did, and slew all those who had been left to protect the city, yea, all those who would not yield up their weapons of war.
      26 And thus Moroni had obtained possession of the city Mulek with a part of his army, while he marched with the remainder to meet the Lamanites when they should return from the pursuit of Teancum.
      27 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did pursue Teancum until they came near the city Bountiful, and then they were met by Lehi and a small army, which had been left to protect the city Bountiful.
      28 And now behold, when the chief captains of the Lamanites had beheld Lehi with his army coming against them, they fled in much confusion, lest perhaps they should not obtain the city Mulek before Lehi should overtake them; for they were wearied because of their march, and the men of Lehi were fresh.
      29 Now the Lamanites did not know that Moroni had been in their rear with his army; and all they feared was Lehi and his men.
      30 Now Lehi was not desirous to overtake them till they should meet Moroni and his army.
      31 And it came to pass that before the Lamanites had retreated far they were surrounded by the Nephites, by the men of Moroni on one hand, and the men of Lehi on the other, all of whom were fresh and full of strength; but the Lamanites were wearied because of their long march.
      32 And Moroni commanded his men that they should fall upon them until they had given up their weapons of war.
      33 And it came to pass that Jacob, being their leader, being also a Zoramite, and having an unconquerable spirit, he led the Lamanites forth to battle with exceeding fury against Moroni.
      34 Moroni being in their course of march, therefore Jacob was determined to slay them and cut his way through to the city of Mulek. But behold, Moroni and his men were more powerful; therefore they did not give way before the Lamanites.

    3. Alma 53:2-6Alma 53
      2 And Moroni went to the city of Mulek with Lehi, and took command of the city and gave it unto Lehi. Now behold, this Lehi was a man who had been with Moroni in the more part of all his battles; and he was a man like unto Moroni, and they rejoiced in each other's safety; yea, they were beloved by each other, and also beloved by all the people of Nephi.
      3 And it came to pass that after the Lamanites had finished burying their dead and also the dead of the Nephites, they were marched back into the land Bountiful; and Teancum, by the orders of Moroni, caused that they should commence laboring in digging a ditch round about the land, or the city, Bountiful.
      4 And he caused that they should build a breastwork of timbers upon the inner bank of the ditch; and they cast up dirt out of the ditch against the breastwork of timbers; and thus they did cause the Lamanites to labor until they had encircled the city of Bountiful round about with a strong wall of timbers and earth, to an exceeding height.
      5 And this city became an exceeding stronghold ever after; and in this city they did guard the prisoners of the Lamanites; yea, even within a wall which they had caused them to build with their own hands. Now Moroni was compelled to cause the Lamanites to labor, because it was easy to guard them while at their labor; and he desired all his forces when he should make an attack upon the Lamanites.
      6 And it came to pass that Moroni had thus gained a victory over one of the greatest of the armies of the Lamanites, and had obtained possession of the city of Mulek, which was one of the strongest holds of the Lamanites in the land of the Nephites; and thus he had also built a stronghold to retain his prisoners.

    4. Helaman 5:14,15Helaman 5
      14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful; And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;

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    Map showing Mulek at the Straits of Mackinac.
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    View of Mulek and nearby cities, with lands of Bountiful and Desolation in the background.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : MULEK +2
    +[MULEK] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land area1}
    +[MULEK] ⇒ <is all the land north of> ⇒ [LEHI1]
    From a more global perspective, the lands south and north (From the mouth of the Mississippi up to Canada and beyond) were named Lehi and Mulek although these designations were rarely used because most of the historical records focus on more limited areas. Going south to north, LEHI extends from the mouth of the Mississippi to somewhat north of St. Louis, inclusive. MULEK extends from north of St. Louis to Lake Superior.
    1. Helaman 6:6-10Helaman 6
      6 And it came to pass that many of the Lamanites did go into the land northward; and also Nephi and Lehi went into the land northward, to preach unto the people. And thus ended the sixty and third year.
      7 And behold, there was peace in all the land, insomuch that the Nephites did go into whatsoever part of the land they would, whether among the Nephites or the Lamanites.
      8 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did also go whithersoever they would, whether it were among the Lamanites or among the Nephites; and thus they did have free intercourse one with another, to buy and to sell, and to get gain, according to their desire.
      9 And it came to pass that they became exceedingly rich, both the Lamanites and the Nephites; and they did have an exceeding plenty of gold, and of silver, and of all manner of precious metals, both in the land south and in the land north.
      10 Now the land south was called Lehi and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south.

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    Master map showing the MULEK/LEHI border.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Narrow Pass|Passage +6
    +[Narrow Pass|Passage] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {travel route1,2,3}
    +[Narrow Pass|Passage] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {sea route1}
    +[Narrow Pass|Passage] ⇒ <is part of the> ⇒ [Line Bountiful1]
    +[Narrow Pass|Passage] ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ {land southward1}
    +[Narrow Pass|Passage] ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ {land northward1,2}
    +[Narrow Pass|Passage] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {militarily strategic2}
    INT_RULE_1Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text.
    The "narrow pass" is the entrance to the "narrow passage" which is a route between the east and west seas that forms the border between the lands Bountiful and Desolation. Modern place name: De Tour Passage.
    1. Alma 50:33-34Alma 50
      33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morianton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
      34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

    2. Alma 52:9Alma 52
      9 And he also sent orders unto him that he should fortify the land Bountiful, and secure the narrow pass which led into the land northward, lest the Lamanites should obtain that point and should have power to harass them on every side.

    3. Mormon 3:4-5Mormon 3
      4 And it came to pass that after this tenth year had passed away, making, in the whole, three hundred and sixty years from the coming of Christ, the king of the Lamanites sent an epistle unto me, which gave unto me to know that they were preparing to come again to battle against us.
      5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.

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    The narrow pass is the southern entrance to the water border of Upper Michigan and Ontario.
    Icon
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    The narrow pass is the southern entrance to the water border of Upper Michigan and Ontario.
    Icon
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    The narrow pass is the southern entrance to the water border of Upper Michigan and Ontario.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Neck of Land +9
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {small1|narrow2,3}
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <includes> ⇒ [Bountiful1,2]
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Hagoth2]
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Desolation1,2]
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea1]
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [West Sea1,2]
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {land northward1}
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {place where sea divides the land3}
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <separates> ⇒ {lands southward from northward1,2,3}
    +[Neck of Land] ⇒ <travel distance from east to west sea is> ⇒ {day and a half's journey1}
    APP_RULE_9Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 6 mph.
    APP_RULE_10Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 2 mph.
    The "narrow neck of land" is part of the land of Bountiful and is included in the geographical description of the most important, strategical area of Nephite territory. Upper Michigan and the St Marys river border, between Michigan and Ontario, is by far the most extensively described area in all of the Book of Mormon. The fact that Upper Michigan fits so well with the Book of Morman narrative is a major factor in favor on the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map. This area was considered critically important for military reasons as well as for controlling trade and migration northward. The precise distance from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan/Huron is 63.2 miles. According to Section 3.3 Principles of Navigation, a day and a half journey with the current should be 72 miles and a day and a half journey against the current should be 48 miles for an average of 60 miles, so that is a pretty good match to the actual distance. Modern place-name: Upper Michigan.
    1. Alma 22:32-34Alma 22
      32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
      33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.
      34 Therefore the Lamanites could have no more possessions only in the land of Nephi, and the wilderness round about. Now this was wisdom in the Nephites--as the Lamanites were an enemy to them, they would not suffer their afflictions on every hand, and also that they might have a country whither they might flee, according to their desires.

    2. Alma 63:4-10Alma 63
      4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward/span>.
      5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
      6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
      7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.
      8 And it came to pass that they were never heard of more. And we suppose that they were drowned in the depths of the sea. And it came to pass that one other ship also did sail forth; and whither she did go we know not.
      9 And it came to pass that in this year there were many people who went forth into the land northward. And thus ended the thirty and eighth year.
      10 And it came to pass in the thirty and ninth year of the reign of the judges, Shiblon died also, and Corianton had gone forth to the land northward in a ship, to carry forth provisions unto the people who had gone forth into that land.

    3. Ether 10:20-21Ether 10
      20 And they built a great city by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
      21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.

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    Entire land of Bountiful extends "from the east unto the west sea" and includes the narrow neck of land.
    Icon
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    Area of key military and trade significance for the Nephite nation.
    Icon
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    Map showing border of Bountiful/Desolation with travel route of 63.2 miles.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Narrow Strip Wilderness +6
    +[Narrow Strip Wilderness] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {wilderness1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}
    +[Narrow Strip Wilderness] ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12]
    +[Narrow Strip Wilderness] ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ [Nephi2,7,8,10]
    +[Narrow Strip Wilderness] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {travel route2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12}
    +[Narrow Strip Wilderness] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {twelve days travel6}
    +[Narrow Strip Wilderness] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {many days travel5}
    APP_RULE_6Average civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 1.5 mph.
    APP_RULE_7Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph.
    This important feature defines an homogeneous piece of land separating Nephi from Zarahemla. It is a "wilderness" or "narrow strip of wilderness". We know it was frequently traveled and was a twelve days journey for Limhi's people to walk/flee with their flocks and herds, starting two days south of the city of Nephi. So the estimated 10 days distance based on 3.3 Rules of Interpretation is 192 miles with a 50/50 combination of Rule 6 and Rule 7. The actual distance (google map plot) between the city of Nephi (St. Louis Missouri) and land of Zarahemla is 189 miles. Modern place-name: Mississippi river valley between St. Louis Missouri and Keokuk Iowa.
    1. Alma 22:27Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
      27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

    2. Omni 1:12-13,28Omni 1
      12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness--
      13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness, as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla.
      28 Wherefore, they went up into the wilderness. And their leader being a strong and mighty man, and a stiffnecked man, wherefore he caused a contention among them; and they were all slain, save fifty, in the wilderness, and they returned again to the land of Zarahemla.

    3. Mosiah 8:7Mosiah 8
      7 And the king said unto him: Being grieved for the afflictions of my people, I caused that forty and three of my people should take a journey into the wilderness, that thereby they might find the land of Zarahemla, that we might appeal unto our brethren to deliver us out of bondage.

    4. Mosiah 21:25Mosiah 21
      25 Now king Limhi had sent, previous to the coming of Ammon, a small number of men to search for the land of Zarahemla; but they could not find it, and they were lost in the wilderness.

    5. Mosiah 22:11,13Mosiah 22
      11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren.
      13 And after being many days in the wilderness they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah's people, and became his subjects.

    6. Mosiah 24:25Mosiah 24
      25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah did also receive them with joy.

    7. Mosiah 25:2Mosiah 25
      2 Now there were not so many of the children of Nephi, or so many of those who were descendants of Nephi, as there were of the people of Zarahemla, who was a descendant of Mulek, and those who came with him into the wilderness.

    8. Alma 17:7-8Alma 17
      7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
      8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.

    9. Alma 22:27Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
      27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

    10. Alma 27:14Alma 27
      14 And they gathered together all their people, yea, all the people of the Lord, and did gather together all their flocks and herds, and departed out of the land, and came into the wilderness which divided the land of Nephi from the land of Zarahemla, and came over near the borders of the land.

    11. Alma 47:29Alma 47
      27 And it came to pass that Amalickiah commanded that his armies should march forth and see what had happened to the king; and when they had come to the spot, and found the king lying in his gore, Amalickiah pretended to be wroth, and said: Whosoever loved the king, let him go forth, and pursue his servants that they may be slain.
      28 And it came to pass that all they who loved the king, when they heard these words, came forth and pursued after the servants of the king.
      29 Now when the servants of the king saw an army pursuing after them, they were frightened again, and fled into the wilderness, and came over into the land of Zarahemla and joined the people of Ammon.

    12. Alma 48:5-6Alma 48
      5 And thus he did appoint chief captains of the Zoramites, they being the most acquainted with the strength of the Nephites, and their places of resort, and the weakest parts of their cities; therefore he appointed them to be chief captains over his armies.
      6 And it came to pass that they took their camp, and moved forth toward the land of Zarahemla in the wilderness.

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    Map showing narrow strip of wilderness between Nephi and Zarahemla.
    Icon
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    Map showing "narrow strip" of wilderness on the left and "east wilderness" on the right.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Nephi +21
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,19,20,21,22,23,24, city3,4,6,7,18,23}
    +[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <is Nephite> ⇒ {first inheritance1,2,4}
    +[Nephi]{city} ⇒ <is Lamanite> ⇒ {chief city22}
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is another name for> ⇒ [Lehi-Nephi3,4]
    +[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <boarders> ⇒ [Shilom3]{land}
    +[Nephi]{land} ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Mormon12]{land}
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is located south of> ⇒ {wilderness16}
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is located south of> ⇒ [Zarahemla16]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is separated by wilderness from> ⇒ [Zarahemla1,3,4,7,14,21]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {a wilderness1,3,4,5,6,7,8,14,17,22}
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon8-9]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antipas22]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Helam8,10,19]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ishmael17,18,19,20]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Jerusalem19]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Middoni16,17,18]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Midian19]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shemlon6,9,18]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shilom3,4,17]
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {west wilderness17}
    +[Nephi] ⇒ <city has> ⇒ [walls4]
    After Zarahemla, Nephi is the second most attested city, with the most geographical references, in the Book of Mormon ER model. It is the original settlement site of Nephi and during the reign of the Judges it becomes a vast Lamanite centered metropolis and capital, with the most populated and concentrated cities of any location. In addition to the ER model entity relationships, there are many reasons to designate this St Louis and nearby areas as Nephi. See Section 4.3. Modern place-name: St. Louis Missouri north
    1. Omni 1:12-13,27Omni 1
      12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness--
      13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness, as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla.
      ...
      27 And now I would speak somewhat concerning a certain number who went up into the wilderness to return to the land of Nephi; for there was a large number who were desirous to possess the land of their inheritance.

    2. Words of Mormon 1:12-14Words of Mormon 1
      12 And now, concerning this king Benjamin--he had somewhat of contentions among his own people.
      13 And it came to pass also that the armies of the Lamanites came down out of the land of Nephi, to battle against his people. But behold, king Benjamin gathered together his armies, and he did stand against them; and he did fight with the strength of his own arm, with the sword of Laban.
      14 And in the strength of the Lord they did contend against their enemies, until they had slain many thousands of the Lamanites. And it came to pass that they did contend against the Lamanites until they had driven them out of all the lands of their inheritance.

    3. Mosiah 7:1-7,21Mosiah 7
      1 And now, it came to pass that after king Mosiah had had continual peace for the space of three years, he was desirous to know concerning the people who went up to dwell in the land of Lehi-Nephi, or in the city of Lehi-Nephi; for his people had heard nothing from them from the time they left the land of Zarahemla; therefore, they wearied him with their teasings.
      2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted that sixteen of their strong men might go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi, to inquire concerning their brethren.
      3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
      4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
      5 And when they had wandered forty days they came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom, and there they pitched their tents.
      6 And Ammon took three of his brethren, and their names were Amaleki, Helem, and Hem, and they went down into the land of Nephi.
      7 And behold, they met the king of the people who were in the land of Nephi, and in the land of Shilom; and they were surrounded by the king's guard, and were taken, and were bound, and were committed to prison.
      ...
      21 And ye all are witnesses this day, that Zeniff, who was made king over this people, he being over-zealous to inherit the land of his fathers, therefore being deceived by the cunning and craftiness of king Laman, who having entered into a treaty with king Zeniff, and having yielded up into his hands the possessions of a part of the land, or even the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom; and the land round about--

    4. Mosiah 9:1-8,14-15Mosiah 9
      1 I, Zeniff, having been taught in all the language of the Nephites, and having had a knowledge of the land of Nephi, or of the land of our fathers' first inheritance, and having been sent as a spy among the Lamanites that I might spy out their forces, that our army might come upon them and destroy them--but when I saw that which was good among them I was desirous that they should not be destroyed.
      2 Therefore, I contended with my brethren in the wilderness, for I would that our ruler should make a treaty with them; but he being an austere and a blood-thirsty man commanded that I should be slain; but I was rescued by the shedding of much blood; for father fought against father, and brother against brother, until the greater number of our army was destroyed in the wilderness; and we returned, those of us that were spared, to the land of Zarahemla, to relate that tale to their wives and their children.
      3 And yet, I being over-zealous to inherit the land of our fathers, collected as many as were desirous to go up to possess the land, and started again on our journey into the wilderness to go up to the land; but we were smitten with famine and sore afflictions; for we were slow to remember the Lord our God.
      4 Nevertheless, after many days' wandering in the wilderness we pitched our tents in the place where our brethren were slain, which was near to the land of our fathers.
      5 And it came to pass that I went again with four of my men into the city, in unto the king, that I might know of the disposition of the king, and that I might know if I might go in with my people and possess the land in peace.
      6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
      7 And he also commanded that his people should depart out of the land, and I and my people went into the land that we might possess it.
      8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.
      ...
      14 For, in the thirteenth year of my reign in the land of Nephi, away on the south of the land of Shilom, when my people were watering and feeding their flocks, and tilling their lands, a numerous host of Lamanites came upon them and began to slay them, and to take off their flocks, and the corn of their fields.
      15 Yea, and it came to pass that they fled, all that were not overtaken, even into the city of Nephi, and did call upon me for protection.

    5. Mosiah 19:15-24Mosiah 19
      15 Therefore the Lamanites did spare their lives, and took them captives and carried them back to the land of Nephi, and granted unto them that they might possess the land, under the conditions that they would deliver up king Noah into the hands of the Lamanites, and deliver up their property, even one half of all they possessed, one half of their gold, and their silver, and all their precious things, and thus they should pay tribute to the king of the Lamanites from year to year.
      16 And now there was one of the sons of the king among those that were taken captive, whose name was Limhi.
      17 And now Limhi was desirous that his father should not be destroyed; nevertheless, Limhi was not ignorant of the iniquities of his father, he himself being a just man.
      18 And it came to pass that Gideon sent men into the wilderness secretly, to search for the king and those that were with him. And it came to pass that they met the people in the wilderness, all save the king and his priests.
      19 Now they had sworn in their hearts that they would return to the land of Nephi, and if their wives and their children were slain, and also those that had tarried with them, that they would seek revenge, and also perish with them.
      20 And the king commanded them that they should not return; and they were angry with the king, and caused that he should suffer, even unto death by fire.
      21 And they were about to take the priests also and put them to death, and they fled before them.
      22 And it came to pass that they were about to return to the land of Nephi, and they met the men of Gideon. And the men of Gideon told them of all that had happened to their wives and their children; and that the Lamanites had granted unto them that they might possess the land by paying a tribute to the Lamanites of one half of all they possessed.
      23 And the people told the men of Gideon that they had slain the king, and his priests had fled from them farther into the wilderness.
      24 And it came to pass that after they had ended the ceremony, that they returned to the land of Nephi, rejoicing, because their wives and their children were not slain; and they told Gideon what they had done to the king.

    6. Mosiah 20:1-7Mosiah 20
      1 Now there was a place in Shemlon where the daughters of the Lamanites did gather themselves together to sing, and to dance, and to make themselves merry.
      2 And it came to pass that there was one day a small number of them gathered together to sing and to dance.
      3 And now the priests of king Noah, being ashamed to return to the city of Nephi, yea, and also fearing that the people would slay them, therefore they durst not return to their wives and their children.
      4 And having tarried in the wilderness, and having discovered the daughters of the Lamanites, they laid and watched them;
      5 And when there were but few of them gathered together to dance, they came forth out of their secret places and took them and carried them into the wilderness; yea, twenty and four of the daughters of the Lamanites they carried into the wilderness.
      6 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites found that their daughters had been missing, they were angry with the people of Limhi, for they thought it was the people of Limhi.
      7 Therefore they sent their armies forth; yea, even the king himself went before his people; and they went up to the land of Nephi to destroy the people of Limhi.

    7. Mosiah 21:1,24-27Mosiah 21
      1 And it came to pass that Limhi and his people returned to the city of Nephi, and began to dwell in the land again in peace.
      ...
      24 But when he found that they were not, but that they were his brethren, and had come from theland of Zarahemla, he was filled with exceedingly great joy.
      25 Now king Limhi had sent, previous to the coming of Ammon, a small number of men to search for the land of Zarahemla; but they could not find it, and they were lost in the wilderness.
      26 Nevertheless, they did find a land which had been peopled; yea, a land which was covered with dry bones; yea, a land which had been peopled and which had been destroyed; and they, having supposed it to be the land of Zarahemla, returned to the land of Nephi, having arrived in the borders of the land not many days before the coming of Ammon.
      27 And they brought a record with them, even a record of the people whose bones they had found; and it was engraven on plates of ore.

    8. Mosiah 23:29-38Mosiah 23
      29 And it came to pass the the Lord did soften the hearts of the Lamanites. And Alma and his brethren went forth and delivered themselves up into their hands; and the Lamanites took possession of the land of Helam.
      30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
      31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
      ...
      35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
      36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.
      37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam, over Alma and his brethren.
      38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi; and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.

    9. Mosiah 24:2-4Mosiah 24
      1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
      2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
      3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
      4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.

    10. Mosiah 27:16Mosiah 27
      16 Now I say unto thee: Go, and remember the captivity of thy fathers in the land of Helam, and in the land of Nephi; and remember how great things he has done for them; for they were in bondage, and he has delivered them. And now I say unto thee, Alma, go thy way, and seek to destroy the church no more, that their prayers may be answered, and this even if thou wilt of thyself be cast off.

    11. Mosiah 28:1,5Mosiah 28
      1 Now it came to pass that after the sons of Mosiah had done all these things, they took a small number with them and returned to their father, the king, and desired of him that he would grant unto them that they might, with these whom they had selected, go up to the land of Nephi that they might preach the things which they had heard, and that they might impart the word of God to their brethren, the Lamanites--
      ...
      5 And it came to pass that they did plead with their father many days that they might go up to the land of Nephi.

    12. 12 Mosiah 29:3Mosiah 29
      3 Now Aaron had gone up to the land of Nephi, therefore the king could not confer the kingdom upon him; neither would Aaron take upon him the kingdom; neither were any of the sons of Mosiah willing to take upon them the kingdom.

    13. Alma 5:3Alma 5
      3 I, Alma, having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest over the church of God, he having power and authority from God to do these things, behold, I say unto you that he began to establish a church in the land which was in the borders of Nephi; yea, the land which was called the land of Mormon; yea, and he did baptize his brethren in the waters of Mormon.

    14. Alma 17:7-9Alma 17
      7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
      8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.
      9 And it came to pass that they journeyed many days in the wilderness, and they fasted much and prayed much that the Lord would grant unto them a portion of his Spirit to go with them, and abide with them, that they might be an instrument in the hands of God to bring, if it were possible, their brethren, the Lamanites, to the knowledge of the truth, to the knowledge of the baseness of the traditions of their fathers, which were not correct.

    15. Alma 18:9Alma 18
      9 And they said unto him: Behold, he is feeding thy horses. Now the king had commanded his servants, previous to the time of the watering of their flocks, that they should prepare his horses and chariots, and conduct him forth to the land of Nephi; for there had been a great feast appointed at the land of Nephi, by the father of Lamoni, who was king over all the land.

    16. Alma 20:1-3Alma 20
      1 And it came to pass that when they had established a church in that land, that king Lamoni desired that Ammon should go with him to the land of Nephi, that he might show him unto his father.
      2 And the voice of the Lord came to Ammon, saying: Thou shalt not go up to the land of Nephi, for behold, the king will seek thy life; but thou shalt go to the land of Middoni; for behold, thy brother Aaron, and also Muloki and Ammah are in prison.
      3 Now it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he said unto Lamoni: Behold, my brother and brethren are in prison at Middoni, and I go that I may deliver them.

    17. Alma 22:1,27-34Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
      1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually, we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi, even to the house of the king which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
      ...
      [for the following verses, see Section 4.2 for detailed analysis]
      27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
      28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore; and also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.

    18. Alma 23:8-13Alma 23
      8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord: 9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
      10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
      11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
      12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
      13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

    19. Alma 24:1,5,20Alma 24
      1 And it came to pass that the Amlicites and the Amulonites and the Lamanites who were in the land of Amulon, and also in the land of Helam and who were in the land of Jerusalem, and in fine, in all the land round about, who had not been converted and had not taken upon them the name of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, were stirred up by the Amlicites and by the Amulonites to anger against their brethren.
      5 Now when Ammon and his brethren and all those who had come up with him saw the preparations of the Lamanites to destroy their brethren, they came forth to the land of Midian, and there Ammon met all his brethren; and from thence they came to the land of Ishmael that they might hold a council with Lamoni and also with his brother Anti-Nephi-Lehi, what they should do to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
      ...
      20 And it came to pass that their brethren, the Lamanites, made preparations for war, and came up to the land of Nephi for the purpose of destroying the king, and to place another in his stead, and also of destroying the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi out of the land.

    20. Alma 25:13Alma 25
      13 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that they could not overpower the Nephites they returned again to their own land; and many of them came over to dwell in the land of Ishmael and the land of Nephi, and did join themselves to the people of God, who were the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi.

    21. Alma 26:23Alma 26
      23 Now do ye remember, my brethren, that we said unto our brethren in the land of Zarahemla, we go up to the land of Nephi, to preach unto our brethren, the Lamanites, and they laughed us to scorn?

    22. Alma 27:14Alma 27
      14 And they gathered together all their people, yea, all the people of the Lord, and did gather together all their flocks and herds, and departed out of the land, and came into the wilderness which divided the land of Nephi from the land of Zarahemla, and came over near the borders of the land.

    23. Alma 47:1,5-10,20,31,35Alma 47:1,20,31,35
      1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites.
      ...
      5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
      6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
      7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle. ...
      9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas. ...
      10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him. ...
      20 And it came to pass that Amalickiah marched with his armies (for he had gained his desires) to the land of Nephi, to the city of Nephi, which was the chief city.
      ...
      31 And it came to pass on the morrow he entered the city Nephi with his armies, and took possession of the city.
      ...
      35 And it came to pass that Amalickiah sought the favor of the queen, and took her unto him to wife; and thus by his fraud, and by the assistance of his cunning servants, he obtained the kingdom; yea, he was acknowledged king throughout all the land, among all the people of the Lamanites, who were composed of the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites, and all the dissenters of the Nephites, from the reign of Nephi down to the present time.

    24. Helaman 5:19-21Helaman 5
      19 Therefore they did speak unto the great astonishment of the Lamanites, to the convincing them, insomuch that there were eight thousand of the Lamanites who were in the land of Zarahemla and round about baptized unto repentance, and were convinced of the wickedness of the traditions of their fathers.
      20 And it came to pass that Nephi and Lehi did proceed from thence to go to the land of Nephi.
      21 And it came to pass that they were taken by an army of the Lamanites and cast into prison; yea, even in that same prison in which Ammon and his brethren were cast by the servants of Limhi.

    Icon
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    View of Ishmael and nearby cities, looking west.
    Icon
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    Ishmael and nearby cities.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Nephihah +8
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city1,2,3,4|land1,4|plains4}
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Aaron1]
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Moroni1]
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <is located between> ⇒ [Moroni1] & [Aaron1]
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <is near > ⇒ [Moroni1,2,3,4]
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [East Sea1]
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <is near > ⇒ [Lehi1,2]
    +[Nephihah] ⇒ <is near > ⇒ [Morianton2,3]
    INT_RULE_6When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last.
    APP_RULE_1When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains.
    APP_RULE_3Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements.
    Scriptures in Alma give much information on the coastal cities along the "east sea" or Lake Michigan, and indicates the relative order (bottom to top - see Section 3.3, item 5) of the cities which is (1) Moroni, (2) Nephihah, and (3) Aaron (Moronihah and Lehi come later). The final location of these cities is determined by assuming the most favorable topography of Book of Mormon times would still match that of today, which leads me to place Aaron in the location of present day Milwaulkie, Wisconsin. Milwaukie borders the east side of Lake Michigan and is the largest city in Wisconsin. A European trading post was first established there if 1785. The Milwaulkie area is where the Kinnickinnic, Menomonee, and Milwaulkie rivers join before empting into Lake Michigan. Note that the people of Moroni, Lehi, and Morianton were gathered to Nephihah for defense. If walking this is a long journey but is of course much easier by sea. In the entity relationship, the term "near" refers more to ease of travel rather than a proximity in miles. See also, Section 4.6.3 and the city entity Moroni. Modern place-name: Milwaukie, Wisconsin.
    1. Alma 50:13-15Alma 50
      13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
      14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.
      15 And they also began in that same year to build many cities on the north, one in a particular manner which they called Lehi, which was in the north by the borders of the seashore.

    2. Alma 51:23-26Alma 51
      23 And it came to pass that the Nephites were not sufficiently strong in the city of Moroni; therefore Amalickiah did drive them, slaying many. And it came to pass that Amalickiah took possession of the city, yea, possession of all their fortifications.
      24 And those who fled out of the city of Moroni came to the city of Nephihah; and also the people of the city of Lehi gathered themselves together, and made preparations and were ready to receive the Lamanites to battle.
      25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
      26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.

    3. Alma 59:5-11Alma 59
      5 And it came to pass that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of Morianton, were attacked by the Lamanites.
      6 Yea, even those who had been compelled to flee from the land of Manti, and from the land round about, had come over and joined the Lamanites in this part of the land.
      7 And thus being exceedingly numerous, yea, and receiving strength from day to day, by the command of Ammoron they came forth against the people of Nephihah, and they did begin to slay them with an exceedingly great slaughter.
      8 And their armies were so numerous that the remainder of the people of Nephihah were obliged to flee before them; and they came even and joined the army of Moroni.
      9 And now as Moroni had supposed that there should be men sent to the city of Nephihah, to the assistance of the people to maintain that city, and knowing that it was easier to keep the city from falling into the hands of the Lamanites than to retake it from them, he supposed that they would easily maintain that city.
      10 Therefore he retained all his force to maintain those places which he had recovered.
      11 And now, when Moroni saw that the city of Nephihah was lost he was exceedingly sorrowful, and began to doubt, because of the wickedness of the people, whether they should not fall into the hands of their brethren.

    4. Alma 62:19-30Alma 59
      18 And it came to pass that when they had sent them away they pursued their march towards the land of Nephihah. And it came to pass that when they had come to the city of Nephihah, they did pitch their tents in the plains of Nephihah, which is near the city of Nephihah.
      19 Now Moroni was desirous that the Lamanites should come out to battle against them, upon the plains; but the Lamanites, knowing of their exceedingly great courage, and beholding the greatness of their numbers, therefore they durst not come out against them; therefore they did not come to battle in that day.
      20 And when the night came, Moroni went forth in the darkness of the night, and came upon the top of the wall to spy out in what part of the city the Lamanites did camp with their army.
      21 And it came to pass that they were on the east, by the entrance; and they were all asleep. And now Moroni returned to his army, and caused that they should prepare in haste strong cords and ladders, to be let down from the top of the wall into the inner part of the wall.
      22 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his men should march forth and come upon the top of the wall, and let themselves down into that part of the city, yea, even on the west, where the Lamanites did not camp with their armies.
      23 And it came to pass that they were all let down into the city by night, by the means of their strong cords and their ladders; thus when the morning came they were all within the walls of the city.
      24 And now, when the Lamanites awoke and saw that the armies of Moroni were within the walls, they were affrighted exceedingly, insomuch that they did flee out by the pass.
      25 And now when Moroni saw that they were fleeing before him, he did cause that his men should march forth against them, and slew many, and surrounded many others, and took them prisoners; and the remainder of them fled into the land of Moroni, which was in the borders by the seashore.
      26 Thus had Moroni and Pahoran obtained the possession of the city of Nephihah without the loss of one soul; and there were many of the Lamanites who were slain.
      27 Now it came to pass that many of the Lamanites that were prisoners were desirous to join the people of Ammon and become a free people.
      28 And it came to pass that as many as were desirous, unto them it was granted according to their desires.
      29 Therefore, all the prisoners of the Lamanites did join the people of Ammon, and did begin to labor exceedingly, tilling the ground, raising all manner of grain, and flocks and herds of every kind; and thus were the Nephites relieved from a great burden; yea, insomuch that they were relieved from all the prisoners of the Lamanites.
      30 Now it came to pass that Moroni, after he had obtained possession of the city of Nephihah, having taken many prisoners, which did reduce the armies of the Lamanites exceedingly, and having regained many of the Nephites who had been taken prisoners, which did strengthen the army of Moroni exceedingly; therefore Moroni went forth from the land of Nephihah to the land of Lehi.

    Icon
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    Aerial view of Nephihah and other Nephite cities on the east coast of Lake Michigan.
    Icon
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    Nephihah bordering the east sea and located between Moroni and Aaron.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Noah
    +[Noah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Noah] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ammonihah]
    +[Noah] ⇒ <fortified by> ⇒ {Captain Moroni}
    1. Alma 16:2-3Alma 16
      2 For behold, the armies of the Lamanites had come in upon the wilderness side, into the borders of the land, even into the city of Ammonihah, and began to slay the people and destroy the city.
      3 And now it came to pass, before the Nephites could raise a sufficient army to drive them out of the land, they had destroyed the people who were in the city of Ammonihah, and also some around the borders of Noah, and taken others captive into the wilderness.

    2. Alma 49:10-15Alma 49
      10 Now, if king Amalickiah had come down out of the land of Nephi, at the head of his army, perhaps he would have caused the Lamanites to have attacked the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah; for behold, he did care not for the blood of his people.
      11 But behold, Amalickiah did not come down himself to battle. And behold, his chief captains durst not attack the Nephites at the city of Ammonihah, for Moroni had altered the management of affairs among the Nephites, insomuch that the Lamanites were disappointed in their places of retreat and they could not come upon them.
      12 Therefore they retreated into the wilderness, and took their camp and marched towards the land of Noah, supposing that to be the next best place for them to come against the Nephites.
      13 For they knew not that Moroni had fortified, or had built forts of security, for every city in all the land round about; therefore, they marched forward to the land of Noah with a firm determination; yea, their chief captains came forward and took an oath that they would destroy the people of that city.
      14 But behold, to their astonishment, the city of Noah, which had hitherto been a weak place, had now, by the means of Moroni, become strong, yea, even to exceed the strength of the city Ammonihah.
      15 And now, behold, this was wisdom in Moroni; for he had supposed that they would be frightened at the city Ammonihah; and as the city of Noah had hitherto been the weakest part of the land, therefore they would march thither to battle; and thus it was according to his desires.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Omner
    +[Omner] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land,hill}
    +[Omner] ⇒ <borders the east> ⇒ {seashore}
    +[Omner] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lehi]
    +[Omner] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Morianton]
    +[Omner] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephihah]
    +[Omner] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Mulek]
    1. Alma 51:25-26Alma 51
      25 But it came to pass that Amalickiah would not suffer the Lamanites to go against the city of Nephihah to battle, but kept them down by the seashore, leaving men in every city to maintain and defend it.
      26 And thus he went on, taking possession of many cities, the city of Nephihah, and the city of Lehi, and the city of Morianton, and the city of Omner, and the city of Gid, and the city of Mulek, all of which were on the east borders by the seashore.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Oneidah
    +[Oneidah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {place of arms}
    +[Oneidah] ⇒ <is in land of> ⇒ [Nephi]
    +[Oneidah] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Antipas]
    The spelling of Oneidah as "Onidah" (in the standard text) for this location is an copy error. It should read "Oneidah". See Royal Skousen, The Book of Mormon, The Earliest Text, Alma 47:5.
    1. Alma 47:1,5-12 Alma 47
      1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites. ...
      ...
      5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
      6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
      7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle.
      8 Now it was not Amalickiah's intention to give them battle according to the commandments of the king; but behold, it was his intention to gain favor with the armies of the Lamanites, that he might place himself at their head and dethrone the king and take possession of the kingdom.
      9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas.
      10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him.
      11 And it came to pass that when Lehonti received the message he durst not go down to the foot of the mount. And it came to pass that Amalickiah sent again the second time, desiring him to come down. And it came to pass that Lehonti would not; and he sent again the third time.
      12 And it came to pass that when Amalickiah found that he could not get Lehonti to come down off from the mount, he went up into the mount, nearly to Lehonti's camp; and he sent again the fourth time his message unto Lehonti, desiring that he would come down, and that he would bring his guards with him.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Onidah
    +[Onidah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
    +[Onidah] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Mocum]
    +[Onidah] ⇒ <is in> ⇒ [Antionum]
    1. Alma 31:2-11 Alma 31
      2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
      3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites. ...
      5 And now, as the preaching of the word had a great tendency to lead the people to do that which was just--yea, it had had more powerful effect upon the minds of the people than the sword, or anything else, which had happened unto them--therefore Alma thought it was expedient that they should try the virtue of the word of God.
      6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons. ...
      8 Now the Zoramites were dissenters from the Nephites; therefore they had had the word of God preached unto them.
      9 But they had fallen into great errors, for they would not observe to keep the commandments of God, and his statutes, according to the law of Moses.
      10 Neither would they observe the performances of the church, to continue in prayer and supplication to God daily, that they might not enter into temptation.
      11 Yea, in fine, they did pervert the ways of the Lord in very many instances; therefore, for this cause, Alma and his brethren went into the land to preach the word unto them.
      Alma 32:4-5Alma 32
      4 Now, as Alma was teaching and speaking unto the people upon the hill Onidah, there came a great multitude unto him, who were those of whom we have been speaking, of whom were poor in heart, because of their poverty as to the things of the world.
      5 And they came unto Alma; and the one who was the foremost among them said unto him: Behold, what shall these my brethren do, for they are despised of all men because of their poverty, yea, and more especially by our priests; for they have cast us out of our synagogues which we have labored abundantly to build with our own hands; and they have cast us out because of our exceeding poverty; and we have no place to worship our God; and behold, what shall we do?
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Onihah
    +[Onihah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Onihah] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {waters coming up}
    Mocum is one of the cities inundated prior to the visit of Christ. See Section
    1. 3 Nephi 9:73 Nephi 9
      7 Yea, and the city of Onihah and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Mocum and the inhabitants thereof, and the city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof; and waters have I caused to come up in the stead thereof, to hide their wickedness and abominations from before my face, that the blood of the prophets and the saints shall not come up any more unto me against them.
      Icon
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      Onihah and nearby cities.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Riplah
    +[Riplah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
    +[Riplah] ⇒ <east of> ⇒ [Sidon]
    +[Riplah] ⇒ <is near to borders of> ⇒ [Manti]
    +[Riplah] ⇒ <is near to valley> ⇒ <west of> ⇒ [Manti]
    +[Riplah] ⇒ <is north> of> ⇒ [Manti]
    1. Alma 43:23-35Alma 43
      23 But it came to pass, as soon as they had departed into the wilderness Moroni sent spies into the wilderness to watch their camp; and Moroni, also, knowing of the prophecies of Alma, sent certain men unto him, desiring him that he should inquire of the Lord whither the armies of the Nephites should go to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
      24 And it came to pass that the word of the Lord came unto Alma, and Alma informed the messengers of Moroni, that the armies of the Lamanites were marching round about in the wilderness, that they might come over into the land of Manti, that they might commence an attack upon the weaker part of the people. And those messengers went and delivered the message unto Moroni.
      25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.
      26 And he caused that all the people in that quarter of the land should gather themselves together to battle against the Lamanites, to defend their lands and their country, their rights and their liberties; therefore they were prepared against the time of the coming of the Lamanites.
      27 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his army should be secreted in the valley which was near the bank of the river Sidon, which was on the west of the river Sidon in the wilderness.
      28 And Moroni placed spies round about, that he might know when the camp of the Lamanites should come.
      29 And now, as Moroni knew the intention of the Lamanites, that it was their intention to destroy their brethren, or to subject them and bring them into bondage that they might establish a kingdom unto themselves over all the land;
      30 And he also knowing that it was the only desire of the Nephites to preserve their lands, and their liberty, and their church, therefore he thought it no sin that he should defend them by stratagem; therefore, he found by his spies which course the Lamanites were to take.
      31 Therefore, he divided his army and brought a part over into the valley, and concealed them on the east, and on the south of the hill Riplah;
      32 And the remainder he concealed in the west valley, on the west of the river Sidon, and so down into the borders of the land Manti.
      33 And thus having placed his army according to his desire, he was prepared to meet them.
      34 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came up on the north of the hill, where a part of the army of Moroni was concealed.
      35 And as the Lamanites had passed the hill Riplah, and came into the valley, and began to cross the river Sidon, the army which was concealed on the south of the hill, which was led by a man whose name was Lehi, and he led his army forth and encircled the Lamanites about on the east in their rear.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Sebus
    +[Sebus] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {watering place}
    +[Sebus] ⇒ <is located in> ⇒ [Ishmael]
    +[Sebus] ⇒ <is located near> ⇒ [Nephi]
    Waters of Sebus are near to Ishmael.
    1. Alma 17:19-26,34Alma 17
      19 And Ammon went to the land of Ishmael, the land being called after the sons of Ishmael, who also became Lamanites.
      20 And as Ammon entered the land of Ishmael, the Lamanites took him and bound him, as was their custom to bind all the Nephites who fell into their hands, and carry them before the king; and thus it was left to the pleasure of the king to slay them, or to retain them in captivity, or to cast them into prison, or to cast them out of his land, according to his will and pleasure.
      21 And thus Ammon was carried before the king who was over the land of Ishmael; and his name was Lamoni; and he was a descendant of Ishmael.
      22 And the king inquired of Ammon if it were his desire to dwell in the land among the Lamanites, or among his people.
      23 And Ammon said unto him: Yea, I desire to dwell among this people for a time; yea, and perhaps until the day I die.
      24 And it came to pass that king Lamoni was much pleased with Ammon, and caused that his bands should be loosed; and he would that Ammon should take one of his daughters to wife.
      25 But Ammon said unto him: Nay, but I will be thy servant. Therefore Ammon became a servant to king Lamoni. And it came to pass that he was set among other servants to watch the flocks of Lamoni, according to the custom of the Lamanites.
      26 And after he had been in the service of the king three days, as he was with the Lamanitish servants going forth with their flocks to the place of water, which was called the water of Sebus, and all the Lamanites drive their flocks hither, that they may have water-- ...
      34 Therefore, they did as Ammon commanded them, and he went forth and stood to contend with those who stood by the waters of Sebus; and they were in number not a few.

    2. Alma 18:6-9Alma 18
      6 For he had slain many of them because their brethren had scattered their flocks at the place of water; and thus, because they had had their flocks scattered they were slain.
      7 Now it was the practice of these Lamanites to stand by the waters of Sebus to scatter the flocks of the people, that thereby they might drive away many that were scattered unto their own land, it being a practice of plunder among them.
      8 And it came to pass that king Lamoni inquired of his servants, saying: Where is this man that has such great power? 9 And they said unto him: Behold, he is feeding thy horses. Now the king had commanded his servants, previous to the time of the watering of their flocks, that they should prepare his horses and chariots, and conduct him forth to the land of Nephi; for there had been a great feast appointed at the land of Nephi, by the father of Lamoni, who was king over all the land.

    3. Alma 19:19-21Alma 19
      19 And now the people began to murmur among themselves; some saying that it was a great evil that had come upon them, or upon the king and his house, because he had suffered that the Nephite should remain in the land.
      20 But others rebuked them, saying: The king hath brought this evil upon his house, because he slew his servants who had had their flocks scattered at the waters of Sebus.
      21 And they were also rebuked by those men who had stood at the waters of Sebus and scattered the flocks which belonged to the king, for they were angry with Ammon because of the number which he had slain of their brethren at the waters of Sebus, while defending the flocks of the king.
      Icon
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      View of Ishmael and nearby cities, looking west.
      Icon
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      Ishmael and nearby cities.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Shemlon
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shilom]
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Nephi]
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is visible> ⇒ {from tower}
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lemuel]
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shimnilom]
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon]
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Middoni]
    +[Shemlon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ishmael]
    Shemlon is east of Nephi and north of Shilom, bording the Sidon river. It is mentioned as being visible from the tower in near the Temple in Nephi. Modern place-name: Madison, Illinois. See Section 4.3.4 East of Nephi.
    1. Mosiah 10:7-9Mosiah 10
      7 But I had sent my spies out round about the land of Shemlon, that I might discover their preparations, that I might guard against them, that they might not come upon my people and destroy them.
      8 And it came to pass that they came up upon the north of the land of Shilom, with their numerous hosts, men armed with bows, and with arrows, and with swords, and with cimeters, and with stones, and with slings; and they had their heads shaved that they were naked; and they were girded with a leathern girdle about their loins.
      9 And it came to pass that I caused that the women and children of my people should be hid in the wilderness; and I also caused that all my old men that could bear arms, and also all my young men that were able to bear arms, should gather themselves together to go to battle against the Lamanites; and I did place them in their ranks, every man according to his age.

    2. Mosiah 11:12-13Mosiah 11
      12 And it came to pass that he built a tower near the temple; yea, a very high tower, even so high that he could stand upon the top thereof and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon, which was possessed by the Lamanites; and he could even look over all the land round about.
      13 And it came to pass that he caused many buildings to be built in the land Shilom; and he caused a great tower to be built on the hill north of the land Shilom, which had been a resort for the children of Nephi at the time they fled out of the land; and thus he did do with the riches which he obtained by the taxation of his people.

    3. Mosiah 19:5-9Mosiah 19
      5 And it came to pass that he fought with the king; and when the king saw that he was about to overpower him, he fled and ran and got upon the tower which was near the temple.
      6 And Gideon pursued after him and was about to get upon the tower to slay the king, and the king cast his eyes round about towards the land of Shemlon, and behold, the army of the Lamanites were within the borders of the land.
      7 And now the king cried out in the anguish of his soul, saying: Gideon, spare me, for the Lamanites are upon us, and they will destroy us; yea, they will destroy my people.
      8 And now the king was not so much concerned about his people as he was about his own life; nevertheless, Gideon did spare his life.
      9 And the king commanded the people that they should flee before the Lamanites, and he himself did go before them, and they did flee into the wilderness, with their women and their children.

    4. Mosiah 20:1-7Mosiah 20
      1 Now there was a place in Shemlon where the daughters of the Lamanites did gather themselves together to sing, and to dance, and to make themselves merry.
      2 And it came to pass that there was one day a small number of them gathered together to sing and to dance.
      3 And now the priests of king Noah, being ashamed to return to the city of Nephi, yea, and also fearing that the people would slay them, therefore they durst not return to their wives and their children.
      4 And having tarried in the wilderness, and having discovered the daughters of the Lamanites, they laid and watched them;
      5 And when there were but few of them gathered together to dance, they came forth out of their secret places and took them and carried them into the wilderness; yea, twenty and four of the daughters of the Lamanites they carried into the wilderness.
      6 And it came to pass that when the Lamanites found that their daughters had been missing, they were angry with the people of Limhi, for they thought it was the people of Limhi.
      7 Therefore they sent their armies forth; yea, even the king himself went before his people; and they went up to the land of Nephi to destroy the people of Limhi.

    5. Mosiah 24:1-4Mosiah 24
      1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
      2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
      3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
      4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.

    6. Alma 23:8-13Alma 23
      8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord: 9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
      10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
      11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
      12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
      13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

    Icon
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    View of Shemlon, looking north.
    Icon
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    Shemlon and nearby cities.
    Icon
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    View of Shemlon and nearby cities, looking west.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Shilom
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land|city}
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Hill]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <boarders> ⇒ [Nephi]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Lehi-Nephi]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shemlon]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Hill]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lemuel]
    +[Shilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shimnilom]
    Shilom, frequently mentioned in the Book of Mormon, was very near Nephi, just across on the east side of the river, near the "horseshoe bend, that the river course used to follow in ancient times. Modern place-name: East St. Louis. See Section 4.3.4 East of Nephi.
    1. Mosiah 7:1-7,16,21Mosiah 7
      1 And now, it came to pass that after king Mosiah had had continual peace for the space of three years, he was desirous to know concerning the people who went up to dwell in the land of Lehi-Nephi, or in the city of Lehi-Nephi; for his people had heard nothing from them from the time they left the land of Zarahemla; therefore, they wearied him with their teasings.
      2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted that sixteen of their strong men might go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi, to inquire concerning their brethren.
      3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
      4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
      5 And when they had wandered forty days they came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom, and there they pitched their tents.
      6 And Ammon took three of his brethren, and their names were Amaleki, Helem, and Hem, and they went down into the land of Nephi.
      7 And behold, they met the king of the people who were in the land of Nephi, and in the land of Shilom; and they were surrounded by the king's guard, and were taken, and were bound, and were committed to prison.
      ...
      16 And now, king Limhi commanded his guards that they should no more bind Ammon nor his brethren, but caused that they should go to the hill which was north of Shilom, and bring their brethren into the city, that thereby they might eat, and drink, and rest themselves from the labors of their journey; for they had suffered many things; they had suffered hunger, thirst, and fatigue.
      ...
      21 And ye all are witnesses this day, that Zeniff, who was made king over this people, he being over-zealous to inherit the land of his fathers, therefore being deceived by the cunning and craftiness of king Laman, who having entered into a treaty with king Zeniff, and having yielded up into his hands the possessions of a part of the land, or even the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom; and the land round about--

    2. Mosiah 9:1-8,14Mosiah 9
      1 I, Zeniff, having been taught in all the language of the Nephites, and having had a knowledge of the land of Nephi, or of the land of our fathers' first inheritance, and having been sent as a spy among the Lamanites that I might spy out their forces, that our army might come upon them and destroy them--but when I saw that which was good among them I was desirous that they should not be destroyed.
      2 Therefore, I contended with my brethren in the wilderness, for I would that our ruler should make a treaty with them; but he being an austere and a blood-thirsty man commanded that I should be slain; but I was rescued by the shedding of much blood; for father fought against father, and brother against brother, until the greater number of our army was destroyed in the wilderness; and we returned, those of us that were spared, to the land of Zarahemla, to relate that tale to their wives and their children.
      3 And yet, I being over-zealous to inherit the land of our fathers, collected as many as were desirous to go up to possess the land, and started again on our journey into the wilderness to go up to the land; but we were smitten with famine and sore afflictions; for we were slow to remember the Lord our God.
      4 Nevertheless, after many days' wandering in the wilderness we pitched our tents in the place where our brethren were slain, which was near to the land of our fathers.
      5 And it came to pass that I went again with four of my men into the city, in unto the king, that I might know of the disposition of the king, and that I might know if I might go in with my people and possess the land in peace.
      6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
      7 And he also commanded that his people should depart out of the land, and I and my people went into the land that we might possess it.
      8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.
      ...
      14 For, in the thirteenth year of my reign in the land of Nephi, away on the south of the land of Shilom, when my people were watering and feeding their flocks, and tilling their lands, a numerous host of Lamanites came upon them and began to slay them, and to take off their flocks, and the corn of their fields.

    3. Mosiah 10:6-9Mosiah 10
      6 And it came to pass that king Laman died, and his son began to reign in his stead. And he began to stir his people up in rebellion against my people; therefore they began to prepare for war, and to come up to battle against my people.
      7 But I had sent my spies out round about the land of Shemlon, that I might discover their preparations, that I might guard against them, that they might not come upon my people and destroy them.
      8 And it came to pass that they came up upon the north of the land of Shilom, with their numerous hosts, men armed with bows, and with arrows, and with swords, and with cimeters, and with stones, and with slings; and they had their heads shaved that they were naked; and they were girded with a leathern girdle about their loins.
      9 And it came to pass that I caused that the women and children of my people should be hid in the wilderness; and I also caused that all my old men that could bear arms, and also all my young men that were able to bear arms, should gather themselves together to go to battle against the Lamanites; and I did place them in their ranks, every man according to his age.

    4. Mosiah 11:8-13Mosiah 11
      8 And it came to pass that king Noah built many elegant and spacious buildings; and he ornamented them with fine work of wood, and of all manner of precious things, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of brass, and of ziff, and of copper;
      9 And he also built him a spacious palace, and a throne in the midst thereof, all of which was of fine wood and was ornamented with gold and silver and with precious things.
      10 And he also caused that his workmen should work all manner of fine work within the walls of the temple, of fine wood, and of copper, and of brass.
      11 And the seats which were set apart for the high priests, which were above all the other seats, he did ornament with pure gold; and he caused a breastwork to be built before them, that they might rest their bodies and their arms upon while they should speak lying and vain words to his people.
      12 And it came to pass that he built a tower near the temple; yea, a very high tower, even so high that he could stand upon the top thereof and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon, which was possessed by the Lamanites; and he could even look over all the land round about.
      13 And it came to pass that he caused many buildings to be built in the landShilom; and he caused a great tower to be built on the hill north of the landShilom, which had been a resort for the children of Nephi at the time they fled out of the land; and thus he did do with the riches which he obtained by the taxation of his people.

    5. Mosiah 22:7-16Mosiah 22
      7 And I will go according to thy command and pay the last tribute of wine to the Lamanites, and they will be drunken; and we will pass through the secret pass on the left of their camp when they are drunken and asleep.
      8 Thus we will depart with our women and our children, our flocks, and our herds into the wilderness; and we will travel around the land of Shilom.
      9 And it came to pass that the king hearkened unto the words of Gideon.
      10 And king Limhi caused that his people should gather their flocks together; and he sent the tribute of wine to the Lamanites; and he also sent more wine, as a present unto them; and they did drink freely of the wine which king Limhi did send unto them.
      11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren.
      12 And they had taken all their gold, and silver, and their precious things, which they could carry, and also their provisions with them, into the wilderness; and they pursued their journey.
      13 And after being many days in the wilderness they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah's people, and became his subjects.
      14 And it came to pass that Mosiah received them with joy; and he also received their records, and also the records which had been found by the people of Limhi.
      15 And now it came to pass when the Lamanites had found that the people of Limhi had departed out of the land by night, that they sent an army into the wilderness to pursue them;
      16 And after they had pursued them two days, they could no longer follow their tracks; therefore they were lost in the wilderness.

    6. Mosiah 24:1-4Mosiah 24
      1 And it came to pass that Amulon did gain favor in the eyes of the king of the Lamanites; therefore, the king of the Lamanites granted unto him and his brethren that they should be appointed teachers over his people, yea, even over the people who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the land of Shilom, and in the land of Amulon.
      2 For the Lamanites had taken possession of all these lands; therefore, the king of the Lamanites had appointed kings over all these lands.
      3 And now the name of the king of the Lamanites was Laman, being called after the name of his father; and therefore he was called king Laman. And he was king over a numerous people.
      4 And he appointed teachers of the brethren of Amulon in every land which was possessed by his people; and thus the language of Nephi began to be taught among all the people of the Lamanites.

    7. Alma 23:8-13Alma 23
      8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord: 9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
      10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
      11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
      12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
      13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

    Icon
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    View of Shilom, east of Nephi, looking north.
    Icon
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    Shilom and nearby cities.
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    View of Shilom and nearby cities, looking west.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Shimnilom
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Shilom]
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Lemuel]
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shemlon]
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ishmael]
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Middoni]
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Amulon]
    +[Shimnilom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Nephi]
    Shimnilom border the ancient course of the river Sidon, but somewhat distant from current modern populations so the evidence of prior occupation are still evident. Modern place-name: Cahokia, Illinois. See Section 4.3.4 East of Nephi.
    1. Alma 23:8-13Alma 23
      8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord: 9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
      10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
      11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
      12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
      13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

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    View of Shimnilom just southeast of Horseshoe Lake, looking north.
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    Shimnilom and nearby cities.
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    View of Shimnilom and nearby cities, looking west.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Sidom
    +[Sidom] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Sidom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ammonihah]
    +[Sidom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Noah]
    Sidom has to be near to Ammonihah because the believers go there immediately after fleeing Ammonihah. So it makes sense it would be down river and also where two rivers meet (the Iowa river and the Cedar river). Sidom is also close to Noah because Noah boarders Ammonihah. Modern place-name: Columbus Junction, Iowa.
    1. Alma 15:1-4,11-17Alma 15
      1 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek were commanded to depart out of that city ; and they departed, and came out even into the land of Sidom; and behold, there they found all the people who had departed out of the land of Ammonihah, who had been cast out and stoned, because they believed in the words of Alma.
      2 And they related unto them all that had happened unto their wives and children, and also concerning themselves, and of their power of deliverance.
      3 And also Zeezrom lay sick at Sidom, with a burning fever, which was caused by the great tribulations of his mind on account of his wickedness, for he supposed that Alma and Amulek were no more; and he supposed that they had been slain because of his iniquity. And this great sin, and his many other sins, did harrow up his mind until it did become exceedingly sore, having no deliverance; therefore he began to be scorched with a burning heat.
      4 Now, when he heard that Alma and Amulek were in the land of Sidom, his heart began to take courage; and he sent a message immediately unto them, desiring them to come unto him.
      ...
      11 And when Alma had said these words, Zeezrom leaped upon his feet, and began to walk; and this was done to the great astonishment of all the people; and the knowledge of this went forth throughout all the land of Sidom.
      12 And Alma baptized Zeezrom unto the Lord; and he began from that time forth to preach unto the people.
      13 And Alma established a church in the land of Sidom, and consecrated priests and teachers in the land, to baptize unto the Lord whosoever were desirous to be baptized.
      14 And it came to pass that they were many; for they did flock in from all the region round about Sidom, and were baptized.
      15 But as to the people that were in the land of Ammonihah, they yet remained a hard-hearted and a stiffnecked people; and they repented not of their sins, ascribing all the power of Alma and Amulek to the devil; for they were of the profession of Nehor, and did not believe in the repentance of their sins.
      16 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek, Amulek having forsaken all his gold, and silver, and his precious things, which were in the land of Ammonihah, for the word of God, he being rejected by those who were once his friends and also by his father and his kindred;
      17 Therefore, after Alma having established the church at Sidom, seeing a great check, yea, seeing that the people were checked as to the pride of their hearts, and began to humble themselves before God, and began to assemble themselves together at their sanctuaries to worship God before the altar, watching and praying continually, that they might be delivered from Satan, and from death, and from destruction--
    2. Alma 16:2-3Alma 16
      2 For behold, the armies of the Lamanites had come in upon the wilderness side, into the borders of the land, even into the city of Ammonihah, and began to slay the people and destroy the city.
      3 And now it came to pass, before the Nephites could raise a sufficient army to drive them out of the land, they had destroyed the people who were in the city of Ammonihah, and also some around the borders of Noah, and taken others captive into the wilderness.

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    Sidom and nearby cities.
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    Sidom and nearby cities and lands, looking north.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Sidon
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {river}
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <is west> of> ⇒ [Gideon]
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zarahemla]
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <is east of> ⇒ [Melek]
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <is west> ⇒ {south wilderness}
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Riplah]
    1. Alma 2:11-38Alma 2
      11 Now the people of Amlici were distinguished by the name of Amlici, being called Amlicites; and the remainder were called Nephites, or the people of God.
      12 Therefore the people of the Nephites were aware of the intent of the Amlicites, and therefore they did prepare to meet them; yea, they did arm themselves with swords, and with cimeters, and with bows, and with arrows, and with stones, and with slings, and with all manner of weapons of war, of every kind.
      13 And thus they were prepared to meet the Amlicites at the time of their coming. And there were appointed captains, and higher captains, and chief captains, according to their numbers.
      14 And it came to pass that Amlici did arm his men with all manner of weapons of war of every kind; and he also appointed rulers and leaders over his people, to lead them to war against their brethren.
      15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites.
      16 Now Alma, being the chief judge and the governor of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with his people, yea, with his captains, and chief captains, yea, at the head of his armies, against the Amlicites to battle.
      17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites.
      18 Nevertheless the Lord did strengthen the hand of the Nephites, that they slew the Amlicites with great slaughter, that they began to flee before them.
      19 And it came to pass that the Nephites did pursue the Amlicites all that day, and did slay them with much slaughter, insomuch that there were slain of the Amlicites twelve thousand five hundred thirty and two souls; and there were slain of the Nephites six thousand five hundred sixty and two souls.
      20 And it came to pass that when Alma could pursue the Amlicites no longer he caused that his people should pitch their tents in the valley of Gideon, the valley being called after that Gideon who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword; and in this valley the Nephites did pitch their tents for the night.
      21 And Alma sent spies to follow the remnant of the Amlicites, that he might know of their plans and their plots, whereby he might guard himself against them, that he might preserve his people from being destroyed.
      22 Now those whom he had sent out to watch the camp of the Amlicites were called Zeram, and Amnor, and Manti, and Limher; these were they who went out with their men to watch the camp of the Amlicites.
      23 And it came to pass that on the morrow they returned into the camp of the Nephites in great haste, being greatly astonished, and struck with much fear, saying: 24 Behold, we followed the camp of the Amlicites, and to our great astonishment, in the land of Minon, above the land of Zarahemla, in the course of the land of Nephi, we saw a numerous host of the Lamanites; and behold, the Amlicites have joined them;
      25 And they are upon our brethren in that land; and they are fleeing before them with their flocks, and their wives, and their children, towards our city ; and except we make haste they obtain possession of our city, and our fathers, and our wives, and our children be slain.
      26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla.
      27 And behold, as they were crossing the river Sidon, the Lamanites and the Amlicites, being as numerous almost, as it were, as the sands of the sea, came upon them to destroy them.
      28 Nevertheless, the Nephites being strengthened by the hand of the Lord, having prayed mightily to him that he would deliver them out of the hands of their enemies, therefore the Lord did hear their cries, and did strengthen them, and the Lamanites and the Amlicites did fall before them.
      29 And it came to pass that Alma fought with Amlici with the sword, face to face; and they did contend mightily, one with another.
      30 And it came to pass that Alma, being a man of God, being exercised with much faith, cried, saying: O Lord, have mercy and spare my life, that I may be an instrument in thy hands to save and preserve this people.
      31 Now when Alma had said these words he contended again with Amlici; and he was strengthened, insomuch that he slew Amlici with the sword.
      32 And he also contended with the king of the Lamanites; but the king of the Lamanites fled back from before Alma and sent his guards to contend with Alma.
      33 But Alma, with his guards, contended with the guards of the king of the Lamanites until he slew and drove them back.
      34 And thus he cleared the ground, or rather the bank, which was on the west of the river Sidon, throwing the bodies of the Lamanites who had been slain into the waters of Sidon, that thereby his people might have room to cross and contend with the Lamanites and the Amlicites on the west side of the river Sidon.
      35 And it came to pass that when they had all crossed the river Sidon that the Lamanites and the Amlicites began to flee before them, notwithstanding they were so numerous that they could not be numbered.
      36 And they fled before the Nephites towards the wilderness which was west and north, away beyond the borders of the land; and the Nephites did pursue them with their might, and did slay them.
      37 Yea, they were met on every hand, and slain and driven, until they were scattered on the west, and on the north, until they had reached the wilderness, which was called Hermounts; and it was that part of the wilderness which was infested by wild and ravenous beasts.
      38 And it came to pass that many died in the wilderness of their wounds, and were devoured by those beasts and also the vultures of the air; and their bones have been found, and have been heaped up on the earth.
      Alma 3:1-3Alma 3
      1 And it came to pass that the Nephites who were not slain by the weapons of war, after having buried those who had been slain--now the number of the slain were not numbered, because of the greatness of their number--after they had finished burying their dead they all returned to their lands, and to their houses, and their wives, and their children.
      2 Now many women and children had been slain with the sword, and also many of their flocks and their herds; and also many of their fields of grain were destroyed, for they were trodden down by the hosts of men.
      3 And now as many of the Lamanites and the Amlicites who had been slain upon the bank of the river Sidon were cast into the waters of Sidon; and behold their bones are in the depths of the sea, and they are many.

    2. Alma 6:4-8Alma 6
      4 And thus they began to establish the order of the church in the city of Zarahemla.
      5 Now I would that ye should understand that the word of God was liberal unto all, that none were deprived of the privilege of assembling themselves together to hear the word of God.
      6 Nevertheless the children of God were commanded that they should gather themselves together oft, and join in fasting and mighty prayer in behalf of the welfare of the souls of those who knew not God.
      7 And now it came to pass that when Alma had made these regulations he departed from them, yea, from the church which was in the city of Zarahemla, and went over upon the east of the river Sidon, into the valley of Gideon, there having been a city built, which was called the city of Gideon, which was in the valley that was called Gideon, being called after the man who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword.
      8 And Alma went and began to declare the word of God unto the church which was established in the valley of Gideon, according to the revelation of the truth of the word which had been spoken by his fathers, and according to the spirit of prophecy which was in him, according to the testimony of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who should come to redeem his people from their sins, and the holy order by which he was called. And thus it is written. Amen.

    3. Alma 8:1-8Alma 8
      1 And now it came to pass that Alma returned from the land of Gideon, after having taught the people of Gideon many things which cannot be written, having established the order of the church, according as he had before done in the land of Zarahemla, yea, he returned to his own house at Zarahemla to rest himself from the labors which he had performed.
      2 And thus ended the ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
      3 And it came to pass in the commencement of the tenth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, that Alma departed from thence and took his journey over into the land of Melek, on the west of the river Sidon, on the west by the borders of the wilderness.
      4 And he began to teach the people in the land of Melek according to the holy order of God, by which he had been called; and he began to teach the people throughout all the land of Melek.
      5 And it came to pass that the people came to him throughout all the borders of the land which was by the wilderness side. And they were baptized throughout all the land;
      6 So that when he had finished his work at Melek he departed thence, and traveled three days' journey on the north of the land of Melek; and he came to a city which was called Ammonihah.
      7 Now it was the custom of the people of Nephi to call their lands, and their cities, and their villages, yea, even all their small villages, after the name of him who first possessed them; and thus it was with the land of Ammonihah.
      8 And it came to pass that when Alma had come to the city of Ammonihah he began to preach the word of God unto them.

    4. Alma 16:3-8Alma 3
      3 And now it came to pass, before the Nephites could raise a sufficient army to drive them out of the land, they had destroyed the people who were in the city of Ammonihah, and also some around the borders of Noah, and taken others captive into the wilderness.
      4 Now it came to pass that the Nephites were desirous to obtain those who had been carried away captive into the wilderness.
      5 Therefore, he that had been appointed chief captain over the armies of the Nephites, (and his name was Zoram, and he had two sons, Lehi and Aha)--now Zoram and his two sons, knowing that Alma was high priest over the church, and having heard that he had the spirit of prophecy, therefore they went unto him and desired of him to know whither the Lord would that they should go into the wilderness in search of their brethren, who had been taken captive by the Lamanites.
      6 And it came to pass that Alma inquired of the Lord concerning the matter. And Alma returned and said unto them: Behold, the Lamanites will cross the river Sidon in the south wilderness, away up beyond the borders of the land of Manti. And behold there shall ye meet them, on the east of the river Sidon, and there the Lord will deliver unto thee thy brethren who have been taken captive by the Lamanites.
      7 And it came to pass that Zoram and his sons crossed over the river Sidon, with their armies, and marched away beyond the borders of Manti into the south wilderness, which was on the east side of the river Sidon.
      8 And they came upon the armies of the Lamanites, and the Lamanites were scattered and driven into the wilderness; and they took their brethren who had been taken captive by the Lamanites, and there was not one soul of them had been lost that were taken captive. And they were brought by their brethren to possess their own lands.

    5. Alma 43:22-42,49-54Alma 43
      22 Behold, now it came to pass that they durst not come against the Nephites in the borders of Jershon; therefore they departed out of the land of Antionum into the wilderness, and took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti and take possession of the land; for they did not suppose that the armies of Moroni would know whither they had gone.
      23 But it came to pass, as soon as they had departed into the wilderness Moroni sent spies into the wilderness to watch their camp; and Moroni, also, knowing of the prophecies of Alma, sent certain men unto him, desiring him that he should inquire of the Lord whither the armies of the Nephites should go to defend themselves against the Lamanites.
      24 And it came to pass that the word of the Lord came unto Alma, and Alma informed the messengers of Moroni, that the armies of the Lamanites were marching round about in the wilderness, that they might come over into the land of Manti, that they might commence an attack upon the weaker part of the people. And those messengers went and delivered the message unto Moroni.
      25 Now Moroni, leaving a part of his army in the land of Jershon, lest by any means a part of the Lamanites should come into that land and take possession of the city, took the remaining part of his army and marched over into the land of Manti.
      26 And he caused that all the people in that quarter of the land should gather themselves together to battle against the Lamanites, to defend their lands and their country, their rights and their liberties; therefore they were prepared against the time of the coming of the Lamanites.
      27 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his army should be secreted in the valley which was near the bank of the river Sidon, which was on the west of the river Sidon in the wilderness.
      28 And Moroni placed spies round about, that he might know when the camp of the Lamanites should come.
      29 And now, as Moroni knew the intention of the Lamanites, that it was their intention to destroy their brethren, or to subject them and bring them into bondage that they might establish a kingdom unto themselves over all the land;
      30 And he also knowing that it was the only desire of the Nephites to preserve their lands, and their liberty, and their church, therefore he thought it no sin that he should defend them by stratagem; therefore, he found by his spies which course the Lamanites were to take.
      31 Therefore, he divided his army and brought a part over into the valley, and concealed them on the east, and on the south of the hill Riplah;
      32 And the remainder he concealed in the west valley, on the west of the river Sidon, and so down into the borders of the land Manti.
      33 And thus having placed his army according to his desire, he was prepared to meet them.
      34 And it came to pass that the Lamanites came up on the north of the hill, where a part of the army of Moroni was concealed.
      35 And as the Lamanites had passed the hill Riplah, and came into the valley, and began to cross the river Sidon, the army which was concealed on the south of the hill, which was led by a man whose name was Lehi, and he led his army forth and encircled the Lamanites about on the east in their rear.
      36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites, when they saw the Nephites coming upon them in their rear, turned them about and began to contend with the army of Lehi.
      37 And the work of death commenced on both sides, but it was more dreadful on the part of the Lamanites, for their nakedness was exposed to the heavy blows of the Nephites with their swords and their cimeters, which brought death almost at every stroke.
      38 While on the other hand, there was now and then a man fell among the Nephites, by their swords and the loss of blood, they being shielded from the more vital parts of the body, or the more vital parts of the body being shielded from the strokes of the Lamanites, by their breastplates, and their armshields, and their head-plates; and thus the Nephites did carry on the work of death among the Lamanites.
      39 And it came to pass that the Lamanites became frightened, because of the great destruction among them, even until they began to flee towards the river Sidon.
      40 And they were pursued by Lehi and his men; and they were driven by Lehi into the waters of Sidon, and they crossed the waters of Sidon. And Lehi retained his armies upon the bank of the river Sidon that they should not cross.
      41 And it came to pass that Moroni and his army met the Lamanites in the valley, on the other side of the river Sidon, and began to fall upon them and to slay them.
      42 And the Lamanites did flee again before them, towards the land of Manti; and they were met again by the armies of Moroni.
      ...
      49 And it came to pass that they turned upon the Lamanites, and they cried with one voice unto the Lord their God, for their liberty and their freedom from bondage.
      50 And they began to stand against the Lamanites with power; and in that selfsame hour that they cried unto the Lord for their freedom, the Lamanites began to flee before them; and they fled even to the waters of Sidon.
      51 Now, the Lamanites were more numerous, yea, by more than double the number of the Nephites; nevertheless, they were driven insomuch that they were gathered together in one body in the valley, upon the bank by the river Sidon.
      52 Therefore the armies of Moroni encircled them about, yea, even on both sides of the river, for behold, on the east were the men of Lehi.
      53 Therefore when Zerahemnah saw the men of Lehi on the east of the river Sidon, and the armies of Moroni on the west of the river Sidon, that they were encircled about by the Nephites, they were struck with terror.
      54 Now Moroni, when he saw their terror, commanded his men that they should stop shedding their blood.
      Alma 44:19-23Alma 44
      19 Now Zerahemnah, when he saw that they were all about to be destroyed, cried mightily unto Moroni, promising that he would covenant and also his people with them, if they would spare the remainder of their lives, that they never would come to war again against them.
      20 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that the work of death should cease again among the people. And he took the weapons of war from the Lamanites; and after they had entered into a covenant with him of peace they were suffered to depart into the wilderness.
      21 Now the number of their dead was not numbered because of the greatness of the number; yea, the number of their dead was exceedingly great, both on the Nephites and on the Lamanites.
      22 And it came to pass that they did cast their dead into the waters of Sidon, and they have gone forth and are buried in the depths of the sea.
      23 And the armies of the Nephites, or of Moroni, returned and came to their houses and their lands.

    6. Alma 49:16Alma 49
      16 And behold, Moroni had appointed Lehi to be chief captain over the men of that city ; and it was that same Lehi who fought with the Lamanites in the valley on the east of the river Sidon.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Sidon Head
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {place}
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <is located in> ⇒ {northern lands}
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <is near to the> ⇒ [West Sea]
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <is in the border of> ⇒ [Manti]
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Antiparah]
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <is encountered on the way to> ⇒ [Manti]
    +[Sidon Head] ⇒ <is crossed on the way to> ⇒ [Nephihah] ⇒ <from> ⇒ [Manti]
    The source or "headwaters" of the St Croix/Sidon River is Upper St Croix Lake. See also [Sidon]. The head of the Sidon get frequent mention in the Book of Mormon which indicates it was a well known and major feature. The St Croix lake is 855 acres in size and is fed by small streams and springs. Technically the small St Croix Creek north of Upper St Croix lake is the "true" source of the St. Croix river as it straddles the continental divide just north of the lake where water goes south to the Gulf of Mexico or north to Lake Superior and the Atlantic ocean. However this is a very technical distinction. The locals refer to the lake itself as the headwaters/source of the St Croix and apparently so did the Nephites of old.
    1. Alma 22:27-29Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
      27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
      28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; Yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore; and also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.
      29 And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites. Nevertheless, the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land: bordering on the wilderness at the head of the river Sidon; from the east to the west round about on the wilderness side; on the north even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.

    2. Alma 43:22Alma 43
      22 Behold, now it came to pass that they durst not come against the Nephites in the borders of Jershon; therefore they departed out of the land of Antionum into the wilderness, and took their journey round about in the wilderness, away by the head of the river Sidon, that they might come into the land of Manti and take possession of the land; for they did not suppose that the armies of Moroni would know whither they had gone.

    3. Alma 50:6-11Alma 50
      6 Thus Moroni did prepare strongholds against the coming of their enemies, round about every city in all the land.
      7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
      8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
      9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
      10 And he also placed armies on the south, in the borders of their possessions, and caused them to erect fortifications that they might secure their armies and their people from the hands of their enemies.
      11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.

    4. Alma 56:13-25Alma 49
      13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
      14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
      15 And these are the cities which they possessed when I arrived at the city of Judea; and I found Antipus and his men toiling with their might to fortify the city.
      16 Yea, and they were depressed in body as well as in spirit, for they had fought valiantly by day and toiled by night to maintain their cities; and thus they had suffered great afflictions of every kind.
      17 And now they were determined to conquer in this place or die; therefore you may well suppose that this little force which I brought with me, yea, those sons of mine, gave them great hopes and much joy.
      18 And now it came to pass that when the Lamanites saw that Antipus had received a greater strength to his army, they were compelled by the orders of Ammoron to not come against the city of Judea, or against us, to battle.
      19 And thus were we favored of the Lord; for had they come upon us in this our weakness they might have perhaps destroyed our little army; but thus were we preserved.
      20 They were commanded by Ammoron to maintain those cities which they had taken. And thus ended the twenty and sixth year. And in the commencement of the twenty and seventh year we had prepared our city and ourselves for defence.
      21 Now we were desirous that the Lamanites should come upon us; for we were not desirous to make an attack upon them in their strongholds.
      22 And it came to pass that we kept spies out round about, to watch the movements of the Lamanites, that they might not pass us by night nor by day to make an attack upon our other cities which were on the northward.
      23 For we knew in those cities they were not sufficiently strong to meet them; therefore we were desirous, if they should pass by us, to fall upon them in their rear, and thus bring them up in the rear at the same time they were met in the front. We supposed that we could overpower them; but behold, we were disappointed in this our desire.
      24 They durst not pass by us with their whole army, neither durst they with a part, lest they should not be sufficiently strong and they should fall.
      25 Neither durst they march down against the city of Zarahemla; neither durst they cross the head of Sidon, over to the city of Nephihah.
      26 And thus, with their forces, they were determined to maintain those cities which they had taken.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Siron
    +[Siron] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Siron] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ {Lamanites}
    +[Siron] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Antionum]
    +[Siron] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Antionum]
    1. Alma 31:3-6 Alma 31
      3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.
      4 Now the Nephites greatly feared that the Zoramites would enter into a correspondence with the Lamanites, and that it would be the means of great loss on the part of the Nephites.
      5 And now, as the preaching of the word had a great tendency to lead the people to do that which was just--yea, it had had more powerful effect upon the minds of the people than the sword, or anything else, which had happened unto them--therefore Alma thought it was expedient that they should try the virtue of the word of God.
      6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons.

    2. Alma 39:2-3Alma 39
      2 For thou didst not give so much heed unto my words as did thy brother, among the people of the Zoramites. Now this is what I have against thee; thou didst go on unto boasting in thy strength and thy wisdom.
      3 And this is not all, my son. Thou didst do that which was grievous unto me; for thou didst forsake the ministry, and did go over into the land of Siron among the borders of the Lamanites, after the harlot Isabel.
      ...
      11 Suffer not yourself to be led away by any vain or foolish thing; suffer not the devil to lead away your heart again after those wicked harlots. Behold, O my son, how great iniquity ye brought upon the Zoramites; for when they saw your conduct they would not believe in my words.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Waters of Mormon
    +[Waters of Mormon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {spring}
    +[Waters of Mormon] ⇒ <is located in> ⇒ [Mormon]
    +[Waters of Mormon] ⇒ <is 8 days travel to> ⇒ [Helam]
    1. Mosiah 18:1-8,14-17,30-35Mosiah 18
      1 And now, it came to pass that Alma, who had fled from the servants of king Noah, repented of his sins and iniquities, and went about privately among the people, and began to teach the words of Abinadi-- 2 Yea, concerning that which was to come, and also concerning the resurrection of the dead, and the redemption of the people, which was to be brought to pass through the power, and sufferings, and death of Christ, and his resurrection and ascension into heaven.
      3 And as many as would hear his word he did teach. And he taught them privately, that it might not come to the knowledge of the king. And many did believe his words.
      4 And it came to pass that as many as did believe him did go forth to a place which was called Mormon, having received its name from the king, being in the borders of the land having been infested, by times or at seasons, by wild beasts.
      5 Now, there was in Mormon a fountain of pure water, and Alma resorted thither, there being near the water a thicket of small trees, where he did hide himself in the daytime from the searches of the king.
      6 And it came to pass that as many as believed him went thither to hear his words.
      7 And it came to pass after many days there were a goodly number gathered together at the place of Mormon, to hear the words of Alma. Yea, all were gathered together that believed on his word, to hear him. And he did teach them, and did preach unto them repentance, and redemption, and faith on the Lord.
      8 And it came to pass that he said unto them: Behold, here are the waters of Mormon (for thus were they called) and now, as ye are desirous to come into the fold of God, and to be called his people, and are willing to bear one another's burdens, that they may be light;
      ...
      14 And after Alma had said these words, both Alma and Helam were buried in the water; and they arose and came forth out of the water rejoicing, being filled with the Spirit.
      15 And again, Alma took another, and went forth a second time into the water, and baptized him according to the first, only he did not bury himself again in the water.
      16 And after this manner he did baptize every one that went forth to the place of Mormon; and they were in number about two hundred and four souls; yea, and they were baptized in the waters of Mormon, and were filled with the grace of God.
      17 And they were called the church of God, or the church of Christ, from that time forward. And it came to pass that whosoever was baptized by the power and authority of God was added to his church.
      ...
      30 And now it came to pass that all this was done in Mormon, yea, by the waters of Mormon, in the forest that was near the waters of Mormon; yea, the place of Mormon, the waters of Mormon, the forest of Mormon, how beautiful are they to the eyes of them who there came to the knowledge of their Redeemer; yea, and how blessed are they, for they shall sing to his praise forever.
      31 And these things were done in the borders of the land, that they might not come to the knowledge of the king.
      32 But behold, it came to pass that the king, having discovered a movement among the people, sent his servants to watch them. Therefore on the day that they were assembling themselves together to hear the word of the Lord they were discovered unto the king.
      33 And now the king said that Alma was stirring up the people to rebellion against him; therefore he sent his army to destroy them.
      34 And it came to pass that Alma and the people of the Lord were apprised of the coming of the king's army; therefore they took their tents and their families and departed into the wilderness.
      35 And they were in number about four hundred and fifty souls.

    2. Mosiah 23:3-4,19-20Mosiah 23
      3 And they fled eight days' journey into the wilderness.
      4 And they came to a land, yea, even a very beautiful and pleasant land, a land of pure water.
      ...
      19 And it came to pass that they began to prosper exceedingly in the land; and they called the landHelam.
      20 And it came to pass that they did multiply and prosper exceedingly in the land of Helam; and they built a city, which they called the city of Helam.

    3. Mosiah 25:5-18Mosiah 25
      5 And it came to pass that Mosiah did read, and caused to be read, the records of Zeniff to his people; yea, he read the records of the people of Zeniff, from the time they left the land of Zarahemla until they returned again.
      6 And he also read the account of Alma and his brethren, and all their afflictions, from the time they left the land of Zarahemla until the time they returned again.
      7 And now, when Mosiah had made an end of reading the records, his people who tarried in the land were struck with wonder and amazement.
      8 For they knew not what to think; for when they beheld those that had been delivered out of bondage they were filled with exceedingly great joy.
      9 And again, when they thought of their brethren who had been slain by the Lamanites they were filled with sorrow, and even shed many tears of sorrow.
      10 And again, when they thought of the immediate goodness of God, and his power in delivering Alma and his brethren out of the hands of the Lamanites and of bondage, they did raise their voices and give thanks to God.
      11 And again, when they thought upon the Lamanites, who were their brethren, of their sinful and polluted state, they were filled with pain and anguish for the welfare of their souls.
      12 And it came to pass that those who were the children of Amulon and his brethren, who had taken to wife the daughters of the Lamanites, were displeased with the conduct of their fathers, and they would no longer be called by the names of their fathers, therefore they took upon themselves the name of Nephi, that they might be called the children of Nephi and be numbered among those who were called Nephites.
      13 And now all the people of Zarahemla were numbered with the Nephites, and this because the kingdom had been conferred upon none but those who were descendants of Nephi.
      14 And now it came to pass that when Mosiah had made an end of speaking and reading to the people, he desired that Alma should also speak to the people.
      15 And Alma did speak unto them, when they were assembled together in large bodies, and he went from one body to another, preaching unto the people repentance and faith on the Lord.
      16 And he did exhort the people of Limhi and his brethren, all those that had been delivered out of bondage, that they should remember that it was the Lord that did deliver them.
      17 And it came to pass that after Alma had taught the people many things, and had made an end of speaking to them, that king Limhi was desirous that he might be baptized; and all his people were desirous that they might be baptized also. 18 Therefore, Alma did go forth into the water and did baptize them; yea, he did baptize them after the manner he did his brethren in the waters of Mormon; yea, and as many as he did baptize did belong to the church of God; and this because of their belief on the words of Alma.

    4. Mosiah 26:14-15Mosiah 26
      14 And it came to pass that after he had poured out his whole soul to God, the voice of the Lord came to him, saying:
      15 Blessed art thou, Alma, and blessed are they who were baptized in the waters of Mormon. Thou art blessed because of thy exceeding faith in the words alone of my servant Abinadi.

    5. Alma 5:2-5Alma 5
      2 And these are the words which he spake to the people in the church which was established in the city of Zarahemla, according to his own record, saying: 3 I, Alma, having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest over the church of God, he having power and authority from God to do these things, behold, I say unto you that he began to establish a church in the land which was in the borders of Nephi; yea, the land which was called the land of Mormon; yea, and he did baptize his brethren in the waters of Mormon.
      4 And behold, I say unto you, they were delivered out of the hands of the people of king Noah, by the mercy and power of God.
      5 And behold, after that, they were brought into bondage by the hands of the Lamanites in the wilderness; yea, I say unto you, they were in captivity, and again the Lord did deliver them out of bondage by the power of his word; and we were brought into this land, and here we began to establish the church of God throughout this land also.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : West Sea
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is> {large body of water}
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Manti]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Judea]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Cumeni]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Zeezrom]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Antipara]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Sidon head]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Bountiful]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Narrow Pass|Passage]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <borders> {Lamanite land}
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <borders> {Nephite land}
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <is launch site of> ⇒ [Hagoth]
    +[West Sea] ⇒ <borders fortified line leading to> ⇒ [East Sea]
    1. For detailed analysis and maps regarding Alma 22, see Section 4.2.
      Alma 22:27,32-33Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
      27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
      ...
      32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
      33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

    2. Alma 50:10-11,33-34Alma 50
      10 And he also placed armies on the south, in the borders of their possessions, and caused them to erect fortifications that they might secure their armies and their people from the hands of their enemies.
      11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.
      ...
      33 Therefore Moroni sent an army, with their camp, to head the people of Morianton, to stop their flight into the land northward.
      34 And it came to pass that they did not head them until they had come to the borders of the land Desolation; and there they did head them, by the narrow pass which led by the sea into the land northward, yea, by the sea, on the west and on the east.

    3. Alma 52:9-13Alma 52
      9 And he also sent orders unto him that he should fortify the land Bountiful, and secure the narrow pass which led into the land northward, lest the Lamanites should obtain that point and should have power to harass them on every side.
      10 And Moroni also sent unto him, desiring him that he would be faithful in maintaining that quarter of the land, and that he would seek every opportunity to scourge the Lamanites in that quarter, as much as was in his power, that perhaps he might take again by stratagem or some other way those cities which had been taken out of their hands; and that he also would fortify and strengthen the cities round about, which had not fallen into the hands of the Lamanites.
      11 And he also said unto him, I would come unto you, but behold, the Lamanites are upon us in the borders of the land by the west sea; and behold, I go against them, therefore I cannot come unto you.
      12 Now, the king (Ammoron) had departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and had made known unto the queen concerning the death of his brother, and had gathered together a large number of men, and had marched forth against the Nephites on the borders by the west sea.
      13 And thus he was endeavoring to harass the Nephites, and to draw away a part of their forces to that part of the land, while he had commanded those whom he had left to possess the cities which he had taken, that they should also harass the Nephites on the borders by the east sea, and should take possession of their lands as much as it was in their power, according to the power of their armies.

    4. Alma 53:8-9,15-22Alma 53
      8 And now it came to pass that the armies of the Lamanites, on the west sea, south, while in the absence of Moroni on account of some intrigue amongst the Nephites, which caused dissensions amongst them, had gained some ground over the Nephites, yea, insomuch that they had obtained possession of a number of their cities in that part of the land.
      9 And thus because of iniquity amongst themselves, yea, because of dissensions and intrigue among themselves they were placed in the most dangerous circumstances.
      ...
      15 And Helaman feared lest by so doing they should lose their souls; therefore all those who had entered into this covenant were compelled to behold their brethren wade through their afflictions, in their dangerous circumstances at this time.
      16 But behold, it came to pass they had many sons, who had not entered into a covenant that they would not take their weapons of war to defend themselves against their enemies; therefore they did assemble themselves together at this time, as many as were able to take up arms, and they called themselves Nephites.
      17 And they entered into a covenant to fight for the liberty of the Nephites, yea, to protect the land unto the laying down of their lives; yea, even they covenanted that they never would give up their liberty, but they would fight in all cases to protect the Nephites and themselves from bondage.
      18 Now behold, there were two thousand of those young men, who entered into this covenant and took their weapons of war to defend their country.
      19 And now behold, as they never had hitherto been a disadvantage to the Nephites, they became now at this period of time also a great support; for they took their weapons of war, and they would that Helaman should be their leader.
      20 And they were all young men, and they were exceedingly valiant for courage, and also for strength and activity; but behold, this was not all--they were men who were true at all times in whatsoever thing they were entrusted.
      21 Yea, they were men of truth and soberness, for they had been taught to keep the commandments of God and to walk uprightly before him.
      22 And now it came to pass that Helaman did march at the head of his two thousand stripling soldiers, to the support of the people in the borders of the land on the south by the west sea.

    5. Alma 63:4-10Alma 63
      4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward.
      5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
      6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
      7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.
      8 And it came to pass that they were never heard of more. And we suppose that they were drowned in the depths of the sea. And it came to pass that one other ship also did sail forth; and whither she did go we know not.
      9 And it came to pass that in this year there were many people who went forth into the land northward. And thus ended the thirty and eighth year.
      10 And it came to pass in the thirty and ninth year of the reign of the judges, Shiblon died also, and Corianton had gone forth to the land northward in a ship, to carry forth provisions unto the people who had gone forth into that land.

    6. Helaman 4:5-10Helaman 4:7
      5 And in the fifty and seventh year they did come down against the Nephites to battle, and they did commence the work of death; yea, insomuch that in the fifty and eighth year of the reign of the judges they succeeded in obtaining possession of the land of Zarahemla; yea, and also all the lands, even unto the land which was near the land Bountiful.
      6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;
      7 And there they did fortify against the Lamanites, from the west sea, even unto the east; it being a day's journey for a Nephite, on the line which they had fortified and stationed their armies to defend their north country.
      8 And thus those dissenters of the Nephites, with the help of a numerous army of the Lamanites, had obtained all the possession of the Nephites which was in the land southward. And all this was done in the fifty and eighth and ninth years of the reign of the judges.
      9 And it came to pass in the sixtieth year of the reign of the judges, Moronihah did succeed with his armies in obtaining many parts of the land; yea, they regained many cities which had fallen into the hands of the Lamanites.
      10 And it came to pass in the sixty and first year of the reign of the judges they succeeded in regaining even the half of all their possessions.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Zarahemla
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land, city}
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is located> ⇒ {across the river from Nauvoo, Illinois}
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is located in the center of> ⇒ {land of Nephites}
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is north> ⇒ [Minon]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Nephi]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is 12 days journey from> ⇒ [Nephi]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Sidon]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Gideon]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Melek]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [East Wilderness]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is west of> ⇒ [Sidon]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is west of> ⇒ [Gideon]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is west of> ⇒ [Antionum]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is west of> ⇒ [East Wilderness]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Ammonihah]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is divided from Nephi by a> ⇒ {wilderness}
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <destroyed by> ⇒ {fire}
    1. D&C 125:3Doctrine & Covenants 125
      3 Let them build up a city unto my name upon the land opposite the city of Nauvoo, and let the name of Zarahemla be named upon it.

    2. Omni 1:12-30Omni 1
      12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness-- 13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness, as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla.
      14 And they discovered a people, who were called the people of Zarahemla. Now, there was great rejoicing among the people of Zarahemla; and also Zarahemla did rejoice exceedingly, because the Lord had sent the people of Mosiah with the plates of brass which contained the record of the Jews.
      15 Behold, it came to pass that Mosiah discovered that the people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem at the time that Zedekiah, king of Judah, was carried away captive into Babylon.
      16 And they journeyed in the wilderness, and were brought by the hand of the Lord across the great waters, into the land where Mosiah discovered them; and they had dwelt there from that time forth.
      17 And at the time that Mosiah discovered them, they had become exceedingly numerous. Nevertheless, they had had many wars and serious contentions, and had fallen by the sword from time to time; and their language had become corrupted; and they had brought no records with them; and they denied the being of their Creator; and Mosiah, nor the people of Mosiah, could understand them.
      18 But it came to pass that Mosiah caused that they should be taught in his language. And it came to pass that after they were taught in the language of Mosiah, Zarahemla gave a genealogy of his fathers, according to his memory; and they are written, but not in these plates.
      19 And it came to pass that the people of Zarahemla, and of Mosiah, did unite together; and Mosiah was appointed to be their king.
      20 And it came to pass in the days of Mosiah, there was a large stone brought unto him with engravings on it; and he did interpret the engravings by the gift and power of God.
      21 And they gave an account of one Coriantumr, and the slain of his people. And Coriantumr was discovered by the people of Zarahemla; and he dwelt with them for the space of nine moons.
      22 It also spake a few words concerning his fathers. And his first parents came out from the tower, at the time the Lord confounded the language of the people; and the severity of the Lord fell upon them according to his judgments, which are just; and their bones lay scattered in the land northward.
      23 Behold, I, Amaleki, was born in the days of Mosiah; and I have lived to see his death; and Benjamin, his son, reigneth in his stead.
      24 And behold, I have seen, in the days of king Benjamin, a serious war and much bloodshed between the Nephites and the Lamanites. But behold, the Nephites did obtain much advantage over them; yea, insomuch that king Benjamin did drive them out of the land of Zarahemla.
      25 And it came to pass that I began to be old; and, having no seed, and knowing king Benjamin to be a just man before the Lord, wherefore, I shall deliver up these plates unto him, exhorting all men to come unto God, the Holy One of Israel, and believe in prophesying, and in revelations, and in the ministering of angels, and in the gift of speaking with tongues, and in the gift of interpreting languages, and in all things which are good; for there is nothing which is good save it comes from the Lord; and that which is evil cometh from the devil.
      26 And now, my beloved brethren, I would that ye should come unto Christ, who is the Holy One of Israel, and partake of his salvation, and the power of his redemption. Yea, come unto him, and offer your whole souls as an offering unto him, and continue in fasting and praying, and endure to the end; and as the Lord liveth ye will be saved.
      27 And now I would speak somewhat concerning a certain number who went up into the wilderness to return to the land of Nephi; for there was a large number who were desirous to possess the land of their inheritance.
      28 Wherefore, they went up into the wilderness. And their leader being a strong and mighty man, and a stiffnecked man, wherefore he caused a contention among them; and they were all slain, save fifty, in the wilderness, and they returned again to the land of Zarahemla.
      29 And it came to pass that they also took others to a considerable number, and took their journey again into the wilderness.
      30 And I, Amaleki, had a brother, who also went with them; and I have not since known concerning them. And I am about to lie down in my grave; and these plates are full. And I make an end of my speaking.

    3. Mosiah 1:9-10,18Mosiah 1
      9 And it came to pass that after king Benjamin had made an end of teaching his sons, that he waxed old, and he saw that he must very soon go the way of all the earth; therefore, he thought it expedient that he should confer the kingdom upon one of his sons.
      10 Therefore, he had Mosiah brought before him; and these are the words which he spake unto him, saying: My son, I would that ye should make a proclamation throughout all this land among all this people, or the people of Zarahemla, and the people of Mosiah who dwell in the land, that thereby they may be gathered together; for on the morrow I shall proclaim unto this my people out of mine own mouth that thou art a king and a ruler over this people, whom the Lord our God hath given us.
      ...
      18 And now, it came to pass that Mosiah went and did as his father had commanded him, and proclaimed unto all the people who were in the land of Zarahemla that thereby they might gather themselves together, to go up to the temple to hear the words which his father should speak unto them.

    4. Alma 2:3-7Alma 2
      3 And they also took of the firstlings of their flocks, that they might offer sacrifice and burnt offerings according to the law of Moses;
      4 And also that they might give thanks to the Lord their God, who had brought them out of the land of Jerusalem, and who had delivered them out of the hands of their enemies, and had appointed just men to be their teachers, and also a just man to be their king, who had established peace in the land of Zarahemla, and who had taught them to keep the commandments of God, that they might rejoice and be filled with love towards God and all men.
      5 And it came to pass that when they came up to the temple, they pitched their tents round about, every man according to his family, consisting of his wife, and his sons, and his daughters, and their sons, and their daughters, from the eldest down to the youngest, every family being separate one from another.
      6 And they pitched their tents round about the temple, every man having his tent with the door thereof towards the temple, that thereby they might remain in their tents and hear the words which king Benjamin should speak unto them;
      7 For the multitude being so great that king Benjamin could not teach them all within the walls of the temple, therefore he caused a tower to be erected, that thereby his people might hear the words which he should speak unto them.

    5. Mosiah 7:1-14Mosiah 7
      1 And now, it came to pass that after king Mosiah had had continual peace for the space of three years, he was desirous to know concerning the people who went up to dwell in the land of Lehi-Nephi, or in the city of Lehi-Nephi; for his people had heard nothing from them from the time they left the land of Zarahemla; therefore, they wearied him with their teasings.
      2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted that sixteen of their strong men might go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi, to inquire concerning their brethren.
      3 And it came to pass that on the morrow they started to go up, having with them one Ammon, he being a strong and mighty man, and a descendant of Zarahemla; and he was also their leader.
      4 And now, they knew not the course they should travel in the wilderness to go up to the land of Lehi-Nephi; therefore they wandered many days in the wilderness, even forty days did they wander.
      5 And when they had wandered forty days they came to a hill, which is north of the land of Shilom, and there they pitched their tents.
      6 And Ammon took three of his brethren, and their names were Amaleki, Helem, and Hem, and they went down into the land of Nephi.
      7 And behold, they met the king of the people who were in the land of Nephi, and in the land of Shilom; and they were surrounded by the king's guard, and were taken, and were bound, and were committed to prison.
      8 And it came to pass when they had been in prison two days they were again brought before the king, and their bands were loosed; and they stood before the king, and were permitted, or rather commanded, that they should answer the questions which he should ask them.
      9 And he said unto them: Behold, I am Limhi, the son of Noah, who was the son of Zeniff, who came up out of the land of Zarahemla to inherit this land, which was the land of their fathers, who was made a king by the voice of the people.
      10 And now, I desire to know the cause whereby ye were so bold as to come near the walls of the city, when I, myself, was with my guards without the gate? 11 And now, for this cause have I suffered that ye should be preserved, that I might inquire of you, or else I should have caused that my guards should have put you to death. Ye are permitted to speak.
      12 And now, when Ammon saw that he was permitted to speak, he went forth and bowed himself before the king; and rising again he said: O king, I am very thankful before God this day that I am yet alive, and am permitted to speak; and I will endeavor to speak with boldness;
      13 For I am assured that if ye had known me ye would not have suffered that I should have worn these bands. For I am Ammon, and am a descendant of Zarahemla, and have come up out of the land of Zarahemla to inquire concerning our brethren, whom Zeniff brought up out of that land.
      14 And now, it came to pass that after Limhi had heard the words of Ammon, he was exceedingly glad, and said: Now, I know of a surety that my brethren who were in the land of Zarahemla are yet alive. And now, I will rejoice; and on the morrow I will cause that my people shall rejoice also.

    6. Mosiah 8:1-14Mosiah 8
      1 And it came to pass that after king Limhi had made an end of speaking to his people, for he spake many things unto them and only a few of them have I written in this book, he told his people all the things concerning their brethren who were in the land of Zarahemla.
      2 And he caused that Ammon should stand up before the multitude, and rehearse unto them all that had happened unto their brethren from the time that Zeniff went up out of the land even until the time that he himself came up out of the land.
      3 And he also rehearsed unto them the last words which king Benjamin had taught them, and explained them to the people of king Limhi, so that they might understand all the words which he spake.
      4 And it came to pass that after he had done all this, that king Limhi dismissed the multitude, and caused that they should return every one unto his own house.
      5 And it came to pass that he caused that the plates which contained the record of his people from the time that they left the land of Zarahemla, should be brought before Ammon, that he might read them.
      6 Now, as soon as Ammon had read the record, the king inquired of him to know if he could interpret languages, and Ammon told him that he could not.
      7 And the king said unto him: Being grieved for the afflictions of my people, I caused that forty and three of my people should take a journey into the wilderness, that thereby they might find the land of Zarahemla, that we might appeal unto our brethren to deliver us out of bondage.
      8 And they were lost in the wilderness for the space of many days, yet they were diligent, and found not the land of Zarahemla but returned to this land, having traveled in a land among many waters, having discovered a land which was covered with bones of men, and of beasts, and was also covered with ruins of buildings of every kind, having discovered a land which had been peopled with a people who were as numerous as the hosts of Israel.
      9 And for a testimony that the things that they had said are true they have brought twenty-four plates which are filled with engravings, and they are of pure gold.
      10 And behold, also, they have brought breastplates, which are large, and they are of brass and of copper, and are perfectly sound.
      11 And again, they have brought swords, the hilts thereof have perished, and the blades thereof were cankered with rust; and there is no one in the land that is able to interpret the language or the engravings that are on the plates. Therefore I said unto thee: Canst thou translate? 12 And I say unto thee again: Knowest thou of any one that can translate? For I am desirous that these records should be translated into our language; for, perhaps, they will give us a knowledge of a remnant of the people who have been destroyed, from whence these records came; or, perhaps, they will give us a knowledge of this very people who have been destroyed; and I am desirous to know the cause of their destruction.
      13 Now Ammon said unto him: I can assuredly tell thee, O king, of a man that can translate the records; for he has wherewith that he can look, and translate all records that are of ancient date; and it is a gift from God. And the things are called interpreters, and no man can look in them except he be commanded, lest he should look for that he ought not and he should perish. And whosoever is commanded to look in them, the same is called seer.
      14 And behold, the king of the people who are in the land of Zarahemla is the man that is commanded to do these things, and who has this high gift from God.

    7. Mosiah 9:1-8Mosiah 9
      1 I, Zeniff, having been taught in all the language of the Nephites, and having had a knowledge of the land of Nephi, or of the land of our fathers' first inheritance, and having been sent as a spy among the Lamanites that I might spy out their forces, that our army might come upon them and destroy them--but when I saw that which was good among them I was desirous that they should not be destroyed.
      2 Therefore, I contended with my brethren in the wilderness, for I would that our ruler should make a treaty with them; but he being an austere and a blood-thirsty man commanded that I should be slain; but I was rescued by the shedding of much blood; for father fought against father, and brother against brother, until the greater number of our army was destroyed in the wilderness; and we returned, those of us that were spared, to the land of Zarahemla, to relate that tale to their wives and their children.
      3 And yet, I being over-zealous to inherit the land of our fathers, collected as many as were desirous to go up to possess the land, and started again on our journey into the wilderness to go up to the land; but we were smitten with famine and sore afflictions; for we were slow to remember the Lord our God.
      4 Nevertheless, after many days' wandering in the wilderness we pitched our tents in the place where our brethren were slain, which was near to the land of our fathers.
      5 And it came to pass that I went again with four of my men into the city, in unto the king, that I might know of the disposition of the king, and that I might know if I might go in with my people and possess the land in peace.
      6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
      7 And he also commanded that his people should depart out of the land, and I and my people went into the land that we might possess it.
      8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.

    8. Mosiah 21:22-27Mosiah 21:24,25,26
      22 And it came to pass that there was no more disturbance between the Lamanites and the people of Limhi, even until the time that Ammon and his brethren came into the land.
      23 And the king having been without the gates of the city with his guard, discovered Ammon and his brethren; and supposing them to be priests of Noah therefore he caused that they should be taken, and bound, and cast into prison. And had they been the priests of Noah he would have caused that they should be put to death.
      24 But when he found that they were not, but that they were his brethren, and had come from the land of Zarahemla, he was filled with exceedingly great joy.
      25 Now king Limhi had sent, previous to the coming of Ammon, a small number of men to search for the land of Zarahemla; but they could not find it, and they were lost in the wilderness.
      26 Nevertheless, they did find a land which had been peopled; yea, a land which was covered with dry bones; yea, a land which had been peopled and which had been destroyed; and they, having supposed it to be the land of Zarahemla, returned to the land of Nephi, having arrived in the borders of the land not many days before the coming of Ammon.
      27 And they brought a record with them, even a record of the people whose bones they had found; and it was engraven on plates of ore.

    9. Mosiah 22:7-16Mosiah 22
      7 And I will go according to thy command and pay the last tribute of wine to the Lamanites, and they will be drunken; and we will pass through the secret pass on the left of their camp when they are drunken and asleep.
      8 Thus we will depart with our women and our children, our flocks, and our herds into the wilderness; and we will travel around the land of Shilom.
      9 And it came to pass that the king hearkened unto the words of Gideon.
      10 And king Limhi caused that his people should gather their flocks together; and he sent the tribute of wine to the Lamanites; and he also sent more wine, as a present unto them; and they did drink freely of the wine which king Limhi did send unto them.
      11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren.
      12 And they had taken all their gold, and silver, and their precious things, which they could carry, and also their provisions with them, into the wilderness; and they pursued their journey.
      13 And after being many days in the wilderness they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah's people, and became his subjects.
      14 And it came to pass that Mosiah received them with joy; and he also received their records, and also the records which had been found by the people of Limhi.
      15 And now it came to pass when the Lamanites had found that the people of Limhi had departed out of the land by night, that they sent an army into the wilderness to pursue them;
      16 And after they had pursued them two days, they could no longer follow their tracks; therefore they were lost in the wilderness.

    10. Mosiah 24:18-25Mosiah 24:25
      18 Now it came to pass that Alma and his people in the night-time gathered their flocks together, and also of their grain; yea, even all the night-time were they gathering the flocks together.
      19 And in the morning the Lord caused a deep sleep to come upon the Lamanites, yea, and all their task-masters were in a profound sleep.
      20 And Alma and his people departed into the wilderness; and when they had traveled all day they pitched their tents in a valley, and they called the valley Alma, because he led their way in the wilderness.
      21 Yea, and in the valley of Alma they poured out their thanks to God because he had been merciful unto them, and eased their burdens, and had delivered them out of bondage; for they were in bondage, and none could deliver them except it were the Lord their God.
      22 And they gave thanks to God, yea, all their men and all their women and all their children that could speak lifted their voices in the praises of their God.
      23 And now the Lord said unto Alma: Haste thee and get thou and this people out of this land, for the Lamanites have awakened and do pursue thee; therefore get thee out of this land, and I will stop the Lamanites in this valley that they come no further in pursuit of this people.
      24 And it came to pass that they departed out of the valley, and took their journey into the wilderness.
      25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah did also receive them with joy.

    11. Mosiah 25:1-24Mosiah 25:5,19,23
      1 And now king Mosiah caused that all the people should be gathered together.
      2 Now there were not so many of the children of Nephi, or so many of those who were descendants of Nephi, as there were of the people of Zarahemla, who was a descendant of Mulek, and those who came with him into the wilderness.
      3 And there were not so many of the people of Nephi and of the people of Zarahemla as there were of the Lamanites; yea, they were not half so numerous.
      4 And now all the people of Nephi were assembled together, and also all the people of Zarahemla, and they were gathered together in two bodies.
      5 And it came to pass that Mosiah did read, and caused to be read, the records of Zeniff to his people; yea, he read the records of the people of Zeniff, from the time they left the land of Zarahemla until they returned again.
      6 And he also read the account of Alma and his brethren, and all their afflictions, from the time they left the land of Zarahemla until the time they returned again.
      7 And now, when Mosiah had made an end of reading the records, his people who tarried in the land were struck with wonder and amazement.
      8 For they knew not what to think; for when they beheld those that had been delivered out of bondage they were filled with exceedingly great joy.
      9 And again, when they thought of their brethren who had been slain by the Lamanites they were filled with sorrow, and even shed many tears of sorrow.
      10 And again, when they thought of the immediate goodness of God, and his power in delivering Alma and his brethren out of the hands of the Lamanites and of bondage, they did raise their voices and give thanks to God.
      11 And again, when they thought upon the Lamanites, who were their brethren, of their sinful and polluted state, they were filled with pain and anguish for the welfare of their souls.
      12 And it came to pass that those who were the children of Amulon and his brethren, who had taken to wife the daughters of the Lamanites, were displeased with the conduct of their fathers, and they would no longer be called by the names of their fathers, therefore they took upon themselves the name of Nephi, that they might be called the children of Nephi and be numbered among those who were called Nephites.
      13 And now all the people of Zarahemla were numbered with the Nephites, and this because the kingdom had been conferred upon none but those who were descendants of Nephi.
      14 And now it came to pass that when Mosiah had made an end of speaking and reading to the people, he desired that Alma should also speak to the people.
      15 And Alma did speak unto them, when they were assembled together in large bodies, and he went from one body to another, preaching unto the people repentance and faith on the Lord.
      16 And he did exhort the people of Limhi and his brethren, all those that had been delivered out of bondage, that they should remember that it was the Lord that did deliver them.
      17 And it came to pass that after Alma had taught the people many things, and had made an end of speaking to them, that king Limhi was desirous that he might be baptized; and all his people were desirous that they might be baptized also.
      18 Therefore, Alma did go forth into the water and did baptize them; yea, he did baptize them after the manner he did his brethren in the waters of Mormon; yea, and as many as he did baptize did belong to the church of God; and this because of their belief on the words of Alma.
      19 And it came to pass that king Mosiah granted unto Alma that he might establish churches throughout all the land of Zarahemla; and gave him power to ordain priests and teachers over every church.
      20 Now this was done because there were so many people that they could not all be governed by one teacher; neither could they all hear the word of God in one assembly;
      21 Therefore they did assemble themselves together in different bodies, being called churches; every church having their priests and their teachers, and every priest preaching the word according as it was delivered to him by the mouth of Alma.
      22 And thus, notwithstanding there being many churches they were all one church, yea, even the church of God; for there was nothing preached in all the churches except it were repentance and faith in God.
      23 And now there were seven churches in the land of Zarahemla. And it came to pass that whosoever were desirous to take upon them the name of Christ, or of God, they did join the churches of God;
      24 And they were called the people of God. And the Lord did pour out his Spirit upon them, and they were blessed, and prospered in the land.

    12. Mosiah 27:34-35Mosiah 27
      34 And four of them were the sons of Mosiah; and their names were Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner, and Himni; these were the names of the sons of Mosiah.
      35 And they traveled throughout all the land of Zarahemla, and among all the people who were under the reign of king Mosiah, zealously striving to repair all the injuries which they had done to the church, confessing all their sins, and publishing all the things which they had seen, and explaining the prophecies and the scriptures to all who desired to hear them.

    13. Mosiah 29:40-44Mosiah 29
      40 And they did wax strong in love towards Mosiah; yea, they did esteem him more than any other man; for they did not look upon him as a tyrant who was seeking for gain, yea, for that lucre which doth corrupt the soul; for he had not exacted riches of them, neither had he delighted in the shedding of blood; but he had established peace in the land, and he had granted unto his people that they should be delivered from all manner of bondage; therefore they did esteem him, yea, exceedingly, beyond measure.
      41 And it came to pass that they did appoint judges to Rule over them, or to judge them according to the law; and this they did throughout all the land.
      42 And it came to pass that Alma was appointed to be the first chief judge, he being also the high priest, his father having conferred the office upon him, and having given him the charge concerning all the affairs of the church.
      43 And now it came to pass that Alma did walk in the ways of the Lord, and he did keep his commandments, and he did judge righteous judgments; and there was continual peace through the land.
      44 And thus commenced the reign of the judges throughout all the land of Zarahemla, among all the people who were called the Nephites; and Alma was the first and chief judge.

    14. Alma 2:9-38Alma 2
      9 And it came to pass that they gathered themselves together, and did consecrate Amlici to be their king.
      10 Now when Amlici was made king over them he commanded them that they should take up arms against their brethren; and this he did that he might subject them to him.
      11 Now the people of Amlici were distinguished by the name of Amlici, being called Amlicites; and the remainder were called Nephites, or the people of God.
      12 Therefore the people of the Nephites were aware of the intent of the Amlicites, and therefore they did prepare to meet them; yea, they did arm themselves with swords, and with cimeters, and with bows, and with arrows, and with stones, and with slings, and with all manner of weapons of war, of every kind.
      13 And thus they were prepared to meet the Amlicites at the time of their coming. And there were appointed captains, and higher captains, and chief captains, according to their numbers.
      14 And it came to pass that Amlici did arm his men with all manner of weapons of war of every kind; and he also appointed rulers and leaders over his people, to lead them to war against their brethren.
      15 And it came to pass that the Amlicites came upon the hill Amnihu, which was east of the river Sidon, which ran by the land of Zarahemla, and there they began to make war with the Nephites.
      16 Now Alma, being the chief judge and the governor of the people of Nephi, therefore he went up with his people, yea, with his captains, and chief captains, yea, at the head of his armies, against the Amlicites to battle.
      17 And they began to slay the Amlicites upon the hill east of Sidon. And the Amlicites did contend with the Nephites with great strength, insomuch that many of the Nephites did fall before the Amlicites.
      18 Nevertheless the Lord did strengthen the hand of the Nephites, that they slew the Amlicites with great slaughter, that they began to flee before them.
      19 And it came to pass that the Nephites did pursue the Amlicites all that day, and did slay them with much slaughter, insomuch that there were slain of the Amlicites twelve thousand five hundred thirty and two souls; and there were slain of the Nephites six thousand five hundred sixty and two souls.
      20 And it came to pass that when Alma could pursue the Amlicites no longer he caused that his people should pitch their tents in the valley of Gideon, the valley being called after that Gideon who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword; and in this valley the Nephites did pitch their tents for the night.
      21 And Alma sent spies to follow the remnant of the Amlicites, that he might know of their plans and their plots, whereby he might guard himself against them, that he might preserve his people from being destroyed.
      22 Now those whom he had sent out to watch the camp of the Amlicites were called Zeram, and Amnor, and Manti, and Limher; these were they who went out with their men to watch the camp of the Amlicites.
      23 And it came to pass that on the morrow they returned into the camp of the Nephites in great haste, being greatly astonished, and struck with much fear, saying: 24 Behold, we followed the camp of the Amlicites, and to our great astonishment, in the land of Minon, above the land of Zarahemla, in the course of the land of Nephi, we saw a numerous host of the Lamanites; and behold, the Amlicites have joined them;
      25 And they are upon our brethren in that land; and they are fleeing before them with their flocks, and their wives, and their children, towards our city ; and except we make haste they obtain possession of our city, and our fathers, and our wives, and our children be slain.
      26 And it came to pass that the people of Nephi took their tents, and departed out of the valley of Gideon towards their city, which was the city of Zarahemla.
      27 And behold, as they were crossing the river Sidon, the Lamanites and the Amlicites, being as numerous almost, as it were, as the sands of the sea, came upon them to destroy them.
      28 Nevertheless, the Nephites being strengthened by the hand of the Lord, having prayed mightily to him that he would deliver them out of the hands of their enemies, therefore the Lord did hear their cries, and did strengthen them, and the Lamanites and the Amlicites did fall before them.
      29 And it came to pass that Alma fought with Amlici with the sword, face to face; and they did contend mightily, one with another.
      30 And it came to pass that Alma, being a man of God, being exercised with much faith, cried, saying: O Lord, have mercy and spare my life, that I may be an instrument in thy hands to save and preserve this people.
      31 Now when Alma had said these words he contended again with Amlici; and he was strengthened, insomuch that he slew Amlici with the sword.
      32 And he also contended with the king of the Lamanites; but the king of the Lamanites fled back from before Alma and sent his guards to contend with Alma.
      33 But Alma, with his guards, contended with the guards of the king of the Lamanites until he slew and drove them back.
      34 And thus he cleared the ground, or rather the bank, which was on the west of the river Sidon, throwing the bodies of the Lamanites who had been slain into the waters of Sidon, that thereby his people might have room to cross and contend with the Lamanites and the Amlicites on the west side of the river Sidon.
      35 And it came to pass that when they had all crossed the river Sidon that the Lamanites and the Amlicites began to flee before them, notwithstanding they were so numerous that they could not be numbered.
      36 And they fled before the Nephites towards the wilderness which was west and north, away beyond the borders of the land; and the Nephites did pursue them with their might, and did slay them.
      37 Yea, they were met on every hand, and slain and driven, until they were scattered on the west, and on the north, until they had reached the wilderness, which was called Hermounts; and it was that part of the wilderness which was infested by wild and ravenous beasts.
      38 And it came to pass that many died in the wilderness of their wounds, and were devoured by those beasts and also the vultures of the air; and their bones have been found, and have been heaped up on the earth.

    15. Alma 3:20-23Alma 3
      20 Now it came to pass that not many days after the battle which was fought in the land of Zarahemla, by the Lamanites and the Amlicites, that there was another army of the Lamanites came in upon the people of Nephi, in the same place where the first army met the Amlicites.
      21 And it came to pass that there was an army sent to drive them out of their land.
      22 Now Alma himself being afflicted with a wound did not go up to battle at this time against the Lamanites;
      23 But he sent up a numerous army against them; and they went up and slew many of the Lamanites, and drove the remainder of them out of the borders of their land.

    16. Alma 4:1-5Alma 4
      1 Now it came to pass in the sixth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, there were no contentions nor wars in the land of Zarahemla;
      2 But the people were afflicted, yea, greatly afflicted for the loss of their brethren, and also for the loss of their flocks and herds, and also for the loss of their fields of grain, which were trodden under foot and destroyed by the Lamanites.
      3 And so great were their afflictions that every soul had cause to mourn; and they believed that it was the judgments of God sent upon them because of their wickedness and their abominations; therefore they were awakened to a remembrance of their duty.
      4 And they began to establish the church more fully; yea, and many were baptized in the waters of Sidon and were joined to the church of God; yea, they were baptized by the hand of Alma, who had been consecrated the high priest over the people of the church, by the hand of his father Alma.
      5 And it came to pass in the seventh year of the reign of the judges there were about three thousand five hundred souls that united themselves to the church of God and were baptized. And thus ended the seventh year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi; and there was continual peace in all that time.

    17. Alma 5:1-5Alma 5
      1 Now it came to pass that Alma began to deliver the word of God unto the people, first in the land of Zarahemla, and from thence throughout all the land.
      2 And these are the words which he spake to the people in the church which was established in the city of Zarahemla, according to his own record, saying: 3 I, Alma, having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest over the church of God, he having power and authority from God to do these things, behold, I say unto you that he began to establish a church in the land which was in the borders of Nephi; yea, the land which was called the land of Mormon; yea, and he did baptize his brethren in the waters of Mormon.
      4 And behold, I say unto you, they were delivered out of the hands of the people of king Noah, by the mercy and power of God.
      5 And behold, after that, they were brought into bondage by the hands of the Lamanites in the wilderness; yea, I say unto you, they were in captivity, and again the Lord did deliver them out of bondage by the power of his word; and we were brought into this land, and here we began to establish the church of God throughout this land also.

    18. Alma 6:1-8Alma 6
      1 And now it came to pass that after Alma had made an end of speaking unto the people of the church, which was established in the city of Zarahemla, he ordained priests and elders, by laying on his hands according to the order of God, to preside and watch over the church.
      2 And it came to pass that whosoever did not belong to the church who repented of their sins were baptized unto repentance, and were received into the church.
      3 And it also came to pass that whosoever did belong to the church that did not repent of their wickedness and humble themselves before God--I mean those who were lifted up in the pride of their hearts--the same were rejected, and their names were blotted out, that their names were not numbered among those of the righteous.
      4 And thus they began to establish the order of the church in the city of Zarahemla.
      5 Now I would that ye should understand that the word of God was liberal unto all, that none were deprived of the privilege of assembling themselves together to hear the word of God.
      6 Nevertheless the children of God were commanded that they should gather themselves together oft, and join in fasting and mighty prayer in behalf of the welfare of the souls of those who knew not God.
      7 And now it came to pass that when Alma had made these regulations he departed from them, yea, from the church which was in the city of Zarahemla, and went over upon the east of the river Sidon, into the valley of Gideon, there having been a city built, which was called the city of Gideon, which was in the valley that was called Gideon, being called after the man who was slain by the hand of Nehor with the sword.
      8 And Alma went and began to declare the word of God unto the church which was established in the valley of Gideon, according to the revelation of the truth of the word which had been spoken by his fathers, and according to the spirit of prophecy which was in him, according to the testimony of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who should come to redeem his people from their sins, and the holy order by which he was called. And thus it is written. Amen.

    19. Alma 7:1-5Alma 7
      1 Behold my beloved brethren, seeing that I have been permitted to come unto you, therefore I attempt to address you in my language; yea, by my own mouth, seeing that it is the first time that I have spoken unto you by the words of my mouth, I having been wholly confined to the judgment-seat, having had much business that I could not come unto you.
      2 And even I could not have come now at this time were it not that the judgment-seat hath been given to another, to reign in my stead; and the Lord in much mercy hath granted that I should come unto you.
      3 And behold, I have come having great hopes and much desire that I should find that ye had humbled yourselves before God, and that ye had continued in the supplicating of his grace, that I should find that ye were blameless before him, that I should find that ye were not in the awful dilemma that our brethren were in at Zarahemla.
      4 But blessed be the name of God, that he hath given me to know, yea, hath given unto me the exceedingly great joy of knowing that they are established again in the way of his righteousness.
      5 And I trust, according to the Spirit of God which is in me, that I shall also have joy over you; nevertheless I do not desire that my joy over you should come by the cause of so much afflictions and sorrow which I have had for the brethren at Zarahemla, for behold, my joy cometh over them after wading through much affliction and sorrow.

    20. Alma 8:1-8Alma 8
      1 And now it came to pass that Alma returned from the land of Gideon, after having taught the people of Gideon many things which cannot be written, having established the order of the church, according as he had before done in the land of Zarahemla, yea, he returned to his own house at Zarahemla to rest himself from the labors which he had performed.
      2 And thus ended the ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
      3 And it came to pass in the commencement of the tenth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, that Alma departed from thence and took his journey over into the land of Melek, on the west of the river Sidon, on the west by the borders of the wilderness.
      4 And he began to teach the people in the land of Melek according to the holy order of God, by which he had been called; and he began to teach the people throughout all the land of Melek.
      5 And it came to pass that the people came to him throughout all the borders of the land which was by the wilderness side. And they were baptized throughout all the land;
      6 So that when he had finished his work at Melek he departed thence, and traveled three days' journey on the north of the land of Melek; and he came to a city which was called Ammonihah.
      7 Now it was the custom of the people of Nephi to call their lands, and their cities, and their villages, yea, even all their small villages, after the name of him who first possessed them; and thus it was with the land of Ammonihah.
      8 And it came to pass that when Alma had come to the city of Ammonihah he began to preach the word of God unto them.

    21. Alma 15:12-18Alma 15
      12 And Alma baptized Zeezrom unto the Lord; and he began from that time forth to preach unto the people.
      13 And Alma established a church in the land of Sidom, and consecrated priests and teachers in the land, to baptize unto the Lord whosoever were desirous to be baptized.
      14 And it came to pass that they were many; for they did flock in from all the region round about Sidom, and were baptized.
      15 But as to the people that were in the land of Ammonihah, they yet remained a hard-hearted and a stiffnecked people; and they repented not of their sins, ascribing all the power of Alma and Amulek to the devil; for they were of the profession of Nehor, and did not believe in the repentance of their sins.
      16 And it came to pass that Alma and Amulek, Amulek having forsaken all his gold, and silver, and his precious things, which were in the land of Ammonihah, for the word of God, he being rejected by those who were once his friends and also by his father and his kindred;
      17 Therefore, after Alma having established the church at Sidom, seeing a great check, yea, seeing that the people were checked as to the pride of their hearts, and began to humble themselves before God, and began to assemble themselves together at their sanctuaries to worship God before the altar, watching and praying continually, that they might be delivered from Satan, and from death, and from destruction-- 18 Now as I said, Alma having seen all these things, therefore he took Amulek and came over to the land of Zarahemla, and took him to his own house, and did administer unto him in his tribulations, and strengthened him in the Lord.

    22. Alma 17:1-9Alma 17
      1 And now it came to pass that as Alma was journeying from the land of Gideon southward, away to the land of Manti, behold, to his astonishment, he met with the sons of Mosiah journeying towards the land of Zarahemla.
      2 Now these sons of Mosiah were with Alma at the time the angel first appeared unto him; therefore Alma did rejoice exceedingly to see his brethren; and what added more to his joy, they were still his brethren in the Lord; yea, and they had waxed strong in the knowledge of the truth; for they were men of a sound understanding and they had searched the scriptures diligently, that they might know the word of God.
      3 But this is not all; they had given themselves to much prayer, and fasting; therefore they had the spirit of prophecy, and the spirit of revelation, and when they taught, they taught with power and authority of God.
      4 And they had been teaching the word of God for the space of fourteen years among the Lamanites, having had much success in bringing many to the knowledge of the truth; yea, by the power of their words many were brought before the altar of God, to call on his name and confess their sins before him.
      5 Now these are the circumstances which attended them in their journeyings, for they had many afflictions; they did suffer much, both in body and in mind, such as hunger, thirst and fatigue, and also much labor in the spirit.
      6 Now these were their journeyings: Having taken leave of their father, Mosiah, in the first year of the judges; having refused the kingdom which their father was desirous to confer upon them, and also this was the minds of the people;
      7 Nevertheless they departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and took their swords, and their spears, and their bows, and their arrows, and their slings; and this they did that they might provide food for themselves while in the wilderness.
      8 And thus they departed into the wilderness with their numbers which they had selected, to go up to the land of Nephi, to preach the word of God unto the Lamanites.
      9 And it came to pass that they journeyed many days in the wilderness, and they fasted much and prayed much that the Lord would grant unto them a portion of his Spirit to go with them, and abide with them, that they might be an instrument in the hands of God to bring, if it were possible, their brethren, the Lamanites, to the knowledge of the truth, to the knowledge of the baseness of the traditions of their fathers, which were not correct.

    23. Alma 22:27,28,30,32Alma 22
      For detailed analysis and maps regarding Alma 22 (see section 4.2 commentary)
      27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.
      28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; Yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore; and also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.
      29 And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites. Nevertheless, the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land: bordering on the wilderness at the head of the river Sidon; from the east to the west round about on the wilderness side; on the north even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.
      30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.
      31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.
      32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
      33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.
      34 Therefore the Lamanites could have no more possessions only in the land of Nephi, and the wilderness round about. Now this was wisdom in the Nephites--as the Lamanites were an enemy to them, they would not suffer their afflictions on every hand, and also that they might have a country whither they might flee, according to their desires.

    24. Alma 25:2Alma 25
      1 And behold, now it came to pass that those Lamanites were more angry because they had slain their brethren; therefore they swore vengeance upon the Nephites; and they did no more attempt to slay the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi at that time.
      2 But they took their armies and went over into the borders of the land of Zarahemla, and fell upon the people who were in the land of Ammonihah and destroyed them.
      3 And after that, they had many battles with the Nephites, in the which they were driven and slain.
      4 And among the Lamanites who were slain were almost all the seed of Amulon and his brethren, who were the priests of Noah, and they were slain by the hands of the Nephites;
      5 And the remainder, having fled into the east wilderness, and having usurped the power and authority over the Lamanites, caused that many of the Lamanites should perish by fire because of their belief-- 6 For many of them, after having suffered much loss and so many afflictions, began to be stirred up in remembrance of the words which Aaron and his brethren had preached to them in their land; therefore they began to disbelieve the traditions of their fathers, and to believe in the Lord, and that he gave great power unto the Nephites; and thus there were many of them converted in the wilderness.
      7 And it came to pass that those rulers who were the remnant of the children of Amulon caused that they should be put to death, yea, all those that believed in these things.
      8 Now this martyrdom caused that many of their brethren should be stirred up to anger; and there began to be contention in the wilderness; and the Lamanites began to hunt the seed of Amulon and his brethren and began to slay them; and they fled into the east wilderness.

    25. Alma 26:1,9,23Alma 26
      1 And now, these are the words of Ammon to his brethren, which say thus: My brothers and my brethren, behold I say unto you, how great reason have we to rejoice; for could we have supposed when we started from the land of Zarahemla that God would have granted unto us such great blessings? ...
      9 For if we had not come up out of the land of Zarahemla, these our dearly beloved brethren, who have so dearly beloved us, would still have been racked with hatred against us, yea, and they would also have been strangers to God.
      ...
      23 Now do ye remember, my brethren, that we said unto our brethren in the land of Zarahemla, we go up to the land of Nephi, to preach unto our brethren, the Lamanites, and they laughed us to scorn?

    26. Alma 27:5,14-16,20-26Alma 27
      5 Let us gather together this people of the Lord, and let us go down to the land of Zarahemla to our brethren the Nephites, and flee out of the hands of our enemies, that we be not destroyed.
      ...
      14 And they gathered together all their people, yea, all the people of the Lord, and did gather together all their flocks and herds, and departed out of the land, and came into the wilderness which divided the land of Nephi from the land of Zarahemla, and came over near the borders of the land.
      15 And it came to pass that Ammon said unto them: Behold, I and my brethren will go forth into the land of Zarahemla, and ye shall remain here until we return; and we will try the hearts of our brethren, whether they will that ye shall come into their land.
      16 And it came to pass that as Ammon was going forth into the land, that he and his brethren met Alma, over in the place of which has been spoken; and behold, this was a joyful meeting.
      ...
      20 And now it came to pass that Alma conducted his brethren back to the land of Zarahemla; even to his own house. And they went and told the chief judge all the things that had happened unto them in the land of Nephi, among their brethren, the Lamanites.
      21 And it came to pass that the chief judge sent a proclamation throughout all the land, desiring the voice of the people concerning the admitting their brethren, who were the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi.
      22 And it came to pass that the voice of the people came, saying: Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea, which joins the land Bountiful, which is on the south of the land Bountiful; and this land Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance.
      23 And behold, we will set our armies between the land Jershon and the land Nephi, that we may protect our brethren in the land Jershon; and this we do for our brethren, on account of their fear to take up arms against their brethren lest they should commit sin; and this their great fear came because of their sore repentance which they had, on account of their many murders and their awful wickedness.
      24 And now behold, this will we do unto our brethren, that they may inherit the land Jershon; and we will guard them from their enemies with our armies, on condition that they will give us a portion of their substance to assist us that we may maintain our armies.
      25 Now, it came to pass that when Ammon had heard this, he returned to the people of Anti-Nephi-Lehi, and also Alma with him, into the wilderness, where they had pitched their tents, and made known unto them all these things. And Alma also related unto them his conversion, with Ammon and Aaron, and his brethren.
      26 And it came to pass that it did cause great joy among them. And they went down into the land of Jershon, and took possession of the land of Jershon; and they were called by the Nephites the people of Ammon; therefore they were distinguished by that name ever after.

    27. Alma 28:1-3Alma 28
      1 And now it came to pass that after the people of Ammon were established in the land of Jershon, and a church also established in the land of Jershon, and the armies of the Nephites were set round about the land of Jershon, yea, in all the borders round about the land of Zarahemla; behold the armies of the Lamanites had followed their brethren into the wilderness.
      2 And thus there was a tremendous battle; yea, even such an one as never had been known among all the people in the land from the time Lehi left Jerusalem; yea, and tens of thousands of the Lamanites were slain and scattered abroad.
      3 Yea, and also there was a tremendous slaughter among the people of Nephi; nevertheless, the Lamanites were driven and scattered, and the people of Nephi returned again to their land.

    28. Alma 30:6,19-21,29-30Alma 30
      6 But it came to pass in the latter end of the seventeenth year, there came a man into the land of Zarahemla, and he was Anti-Christ, for he began to preach unto the people against the prophecies which had been spoken by the prophets, concerning the coming of Christ.
      ...
      19 Now this man went over to the land of Jershon also, to preach these things among the people of Ammon, who were once the people of the Lamanites.
      20 But behold they were more wise than many of the Nephites; for they took him, and bound him, and carried him before Ammon, who was a high priest over that people.
      21 And it came to pass that he caused that he should be carried out of the land. And he came over into the land of Gideon, and began to preach unto them also; and here he did not have much success, for he was taken and bound and carried before the high priest, and also the chief judge over the land.
      ...
      29 Now when the high priest and the chief judge saw the hardness of his heart, yea, when they saw that he would revile even against God, they would not make any reply to his words; but they caused that he should be bound; and they delivered him up into the hands of the officers, and sent him to the land of Zarahemla, that he might be brought before Alma, and the chief judge who was governor over all the land.
      30 And it came to pass that when he was brought before Alma and the chief judge, he did go on in the same manner as he did in the land of Gideon; yea, he went on to blaspheme.

    29. Alma 31:1-7Alma 31
      1 Now it came to pass that after the end of Korihor, Alma having received tidings that the Zoramites were perverting the ways of the Lord, and that Zoram, who was their leader, was leading the hearts of the people to bow down to dumb idols, his heart again began to sicken because of the iniquity of the people.
      2 For it was the cause of great sorrow to Alma to know of iniquity among his people; therefore his heart was exceedingly sorrowful because of the separation of the Zoramites from the Nephites.
      3 Now the Zoramites had gathered themselves together in a land which they called Antionum, which was east of the land of Zarahemla, which lay nearly bordering upon the seashore, which was south of the land of Jershon, which also bordered upon the wilderness south, which wilderness was full of the Lamanites.
      4 Now the Nephites greatly feared that the Zoramites would enter into a correspondence with the Lamanites, and that it would be the means of great loss on the part of the Nephites.
      5 And now, as the preaching of the word had a great tendency to lead the people to do that which was just--yea, it had had more powerful effect upon the minds of the people than the sword, or anything else, which had happened unto them--therefore Alma thought it was expedient that they should try the virtue of the word of God.
      6 Therefore he took Ammon, and Aaron, and Omner; and Himni he did leave in the church in Zarahemla; but the former three he took with him, and also Amulek and Zeezrom, who were at Melek; and he also took two of his sons.
      7 Now the eldest of his sons he took not with him, and his name was Helaman; but the names of those whom he took with him were Shiblon and Corianton; and these are the names of those who went with him among the Zoramites, to preach unto them the word.

    30. Alma 35:1-14Alma 35
      1 Now it came to pass that after Amulek had made an end of these words, they withdrew themselves from the multitude and came over into the land of Jershon.
      2 Yea, and the rest of the brethren, after they had preached the word unto the Zoramites, also came over into the land of Jershon.
      3 And it came to pass that after the more popular part of the Zoramites had consulted together concerning the words which had been preached unto them, they were angry because of the word, for it did destroy their craft; therefore they would not hearken unto the words.
      4 And they sent and gathered together throughout all the land all the people, and consulted with them concerning the words which had been spoken.
      5 Now their rulers and their priests and their teachers did not let the people know concerning their desires; therefore they found out privily the minds of all the people.
      6 And it came to pass that after they had found out the minds of all the people, those who were in favor of the words which had been spoken by Alma and his brethren were cast out of the land; and they were many; and they came over also into the land of Jershon.
      7 And it came to pass that Alma and his brethren did minister unto them.
      8 Now the people of the Zoramites were angry with the people of Ammon who were in Jershon, and the chief ruler of the Zoramites, being a very wicked man, sent over unto the people of Ammon desiring them that they should cast out of their land all those who came over from them into their land.
      9 And he breathed out many threatenings against them. And now the people of Ammon did not fear their words; therefore they did not cast them out, but they did receive all the poor of the Zoramites that came over unto them; and they did nourish them, and did clothe them, and did give unto them lands for their inheritance; and they did administer unto them according to their wants.
      10 Now this did stir up the Zoramites to anger against the people of Ammon, and they began to mix with the Lamanites and to stir them up also to anger against them.
      11 And thus the Zoramites and the Lamanites began to make preparations for war against the people of Ammon, and also against the Nephites.
      12 And thus ended the seventeenth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi.
      13 And the people of Ammon departed out of the land of Jershon, and came over into the land of Melek, and gave place in the land of Jershon for the armies of the Nephites, that they might contend with the armies of the Lamanites and the armies of the Zoramites; and thus commenced a war betwixt the Lamanites and the Nephites, in the eighteenth year of the reign of the judges; and an account shall be given of their wars hereafter.
      14 And Alma, and Ammon, and their brethren, and also the two sons of Alma returned to the land of Zarahemla, after having been instruments in the hands of God of bringing many of the Zoramites to repentance; and as many as were brought to repentance were driven out of their land; but they have lands for their inheritance in the land of Jershon, and they have taken up arms to defend themselves, and their wives, and children, and their lands.

    31. Alma 45:17-18Alma 45:18
      17 And now, when Alma had said these words he blessed the church, yea, all those who should stand fast in the faith from that time henceforth.
      18 And when Alma had done this he departed out of the land of Zarahemla, as if to go into the land of Melek. And it came to pass that he was never heard of more; as to his death or burial we know not of.

    32. Alma 46:39-33Alma 46
      29 And it came to pass that when Amalickiah saw that the people of Moroni were more numerous than the Amalickiahites--and he also saw that his people were doubtful concerning the justice of the cause in which they had undertaken--therefore, fearing that he should not gain the point, he took those of his people who would and departed into the land of Nephi.
      30 Now Moroni thought it was not expedient that the Lamanites should have any more strength; therefore he thought to cut off the people of Amalickiah, or to take them and bring them back, and put Amalickiah to death; yea, for he knew that he would stir up the Lamanites to anger against them, and cause them to come to battle against them; and this he knew that Amalickiah would do that he might obtain his purposes.
      31 Therefore Moroni thought it was expedient that he should take his armies, who had gathered themselves together, and armed themselves, and entered into a covenant to keep the peace--and it came to pass that he took his army and marched out with his tents into the wilderness, to cut off the course of Amalickiah in the wilderness.
      32 And it came to pass that he did according to his desires, and marched forth into the wilderness, and headed the armies of Amalickiah.
      33 And it came to pass that Amalickiah fled with a small number of his men, and the remainder were delivered up into the hands of Moroni and were taken back into the land of Zarahemla.

    33. Alma 47:1,5-10,19-21,29Alma 47
      1 Now we will return in our record to Amalickiah and those who had fled with him into the wilderness; for, behold, he had taken those who went with him, and went up in the land of Nephi among the Lamanites, and did stir up the Lamanites to anger against the people of Nephi, insomuch that the king of the Lamanites sent a proclamation throughout all his land, among all his people, that they should gather themselves together again to go to battle against the Nephites.
      ...
      5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
      6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
      7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle.
      8 Now it was not Amalickiah's intention to give them battle according to the commandments of the king; but behold, it was his intention to gain favor with the armies of the Lamanites, that he might place himself at their head and dethrone the king and take possession of the kingdom.
      9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas.
      10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him.
      ...
      19 Now, when Lehonti was dead, the Lamanites appointed Amalickiah to be their leader and their chief commander.
      20 And it came to pass that Amalickiah marched with his armies (for he had gained his desires) to the land of Nephi, to the city of Nephi, which was the chief city.
      21 And the king came out to meet him with his guards, for he supposed that Amalickiah had fulfilled his commands, and that Amalickiah had gathered together so great an army to go against the Nephites to battle.
      ...
      29 Now when the servants of the king saw an army pursuing after them, they were frightened again, and fled into the wilderness, and came over into the land of Zarahemla and joined the people of Ammon.

    34. Alma 48:4-6Alma 48
      4 For he was determined, because of the greatness of the number of his people, to overpower the Nephites and to bring them into bondage.
      5 And thus he did appoint chief captains of the Zoramites, they being the most acquainted with the strength of the Nephites, and their places of resort, and the weakest parts of their cities; therefore he appointed them to be chief captains over his armies.
      6 And it came to pass that they took their camp, and moved forth toward the land of Zarahemla in the wilderness.

    35. Alma 50:6-15Alma 50
      6 Thus Moroni did prepare strongholds against the coming of their enemies, round about every city in all the land.
      7 And it came to pass that Moroni caused that his armies should go forth into the east wilderness; yea, and they went forth and drove all the Lamanites who were in the east wilderness into their own lands, which were south of the land of Zarahemla.
      8 And the land of Nephi did run in a straight course from the east sea to the west.
      9 And it came to pass that when Moroni had driven all the Lamanites out of the east wilderness, which was north of the lands of their own possessions, he caused that the inhabitants who were in the land of Zarahemla and in the land round about should go forth into the east wilderness, even to the borders by the seashore, and possess the land.
      10 And he also placed armies on the south, in the borders of their possessions, and caused them to erect fortifications that they might secure their armies and their people from the hands of their enemies.
      11 And thus he cut off all the strongholds of the Lamanites in the east wilderness, yea, and also on the west, fortifying the line between the Nephites and the Lamanites, between the land of Zarahemla and the land of Nephi, from the west sea, running by the head of the river Sidon--the Nephites possessing all the land northward, yea, even all the land which was northward of the land Bountiful, according to their pleasure.
      12 Thus Moroni, with his armies, which did increase daily because of the assurance of protection which his works did bring forth unto them, did seek to cut off the strength and the power of the Lamanites from off the lands of their possessions, that they should have no power upon the lands of their possession.
      13 And it came to pass that the Nephites began the foundation of a city, and they called the name of the city Moroni; and it was by the east sea; and it was on the south by the line of the possessions of the Lamanites.
      14 And they also began a foundation for a city between the city of Moroni and the city of Aaron, joining the borders of Aaron and Moroni; and they called the name of the city, or the land, Nephihah.
      15 And they also began in that same year to build many cities on the north, one in a particular manner which they called Lehi, which was in the north by the borders of the seashore.

    36. Alma 51:11-12Alma 51
      11 Now his armies were not so great as they had hitherto been, because of the many thousands who had been slain by the hand of the Nephites; but notwithstanding their great loss, Amalickiah had gathered together a wonderfully great army, insomuch that he feared not to come down to the land of Zarahemla.
      12 Yea, even Amalickiah did himself come down, at the head of the Lamanites. And it was in the twenty and fifth year of the reign of the judges; and it was at the same time that they had begun to settle the affairs of their contentions concerning the chief judge, Pahoran.

    37. Alma 52:11-13Alma 52
      11 And he also said unto him, I would come unto you, but behold, the Lamanites are upon us in the borders of the land by the west sea; and behold, I go against them, therefore I cannot come unto you.
      12 Now, the king (Ammoron) had departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and had made known unto the queen concerning the death of his brother, and had gathered together a large number of men, and had marched forth against the Nephites on the borders by the west sea.
      13 And thus he was endeavoring to harass the Nephites, and to draw away a part of their forces to that part of the land, while he had commanded those whom he had left to possess the cities which he had taken, that they should also harass the Nephites on the borders by the east sea, and should take possession of their lands as much as it was in their power, according to the power of their armies.

    38. Alma 53:10-12Alma 53
      10 And now behold, I have somewhat to say concerning the people of Ammon, who, in the beginning, were Lamanites; but by Ammon and his brethren, or rather by the power and word of God, they had been converted unto the Lord; and they had been brought down into the land of Zarahemla, and had ever since been protected by the Nephites.
      11 And because of their oath they had been kept from taking up arms against their brethren; for they had taken an oath that they never would shed blood more; and according to their oath they would have perished; yea, they would have suffered themselves to have fallen into the hands of their brethren, had it not been for the pity and the exceeding love which Ammon and his brethren had had for them.
      12 And for this cause they were brought down into the land of Zarahemla; and they ever had been protected by the Nephites.

    39. Alma 56:21-28,57Alma 56
      21 Now we were desirous that the Lamanites should come upon us; for we were not desirous to make an attack upon them in their strongholds.
      22 And it came to pass that we kept spies out round about, to watch the movements of the Lamanites, that they might not pass us by night nor by day to make an attack upon our other cities which were on the northward.
      23 For we knew in those cities they were not sufficiently strong to meet them; therefore we were desirous, if they should pass by us, to fall upon them in their rear, and thus bring them up in the rear at the same time they were met in the front. We supposed that we could overpower them; but behold, we were disappointed in this our desire.
      24 They durst not pass by us with their whole army, neither durst they with a part, lest they should not be sufficiently strong and they should fall.
      25 Neither durst they march down against the city of Zarahemla; neither durst they cross the head of Sidon, over to the city of Nephihah.
      26 And thus, with their forces, they were determined to maintain those cities which they had taken.
      27 And now it came to pass in the second month of this year, there was brought unto us many provisions from the fathers of those my two thousand sons.
      28 And also there were sent two thousand men unto us from the land of Zarahemla. And thus we were prepared with ten thousand men, and provisions for them, and also for their wives and their children.
      ...
      57 And as we had no place for our prisoners, that we could guard them to keep them from the armies of the Lamanites, therefore we sent them to the land of Zarahemla, and a part of those men who were not slain of Antipus, with them; and the remainder I took and joined them to my stripling Ammonites, and took our march back to the city of Judea.

    40. Alma 57:6,11,15-16,28-30Alma 57
      6 And it came to pass that in the commencement of the twenty and ninth year, we received a supply of provisions, and also an addition to our army, from the land of Zarahemla, and from the land round about, to the number of six thousand men, besides sixty of the sons of the Ammonites who had come to join their brethren, my little band of two thousand. And now behold, we were strong, yea, and we had also plenty of provisions brought unto us.
      ...
      11 And notwithstanding the Lamanites being cut off from their support after this manner, they were still determined to maintain the city ; therefore it became expedient that we should take those provisions and send them to Judea, and our prisoners to the land of Zarahemla.
      ...
      15 Therefore it became expedient for us, that we should put an end to their lives, or guard them, sword in hand, down to the land of Zarahemla; and also our provisions were not any more than sufficient for our own people, notwithstanding that which we had taken from the Lamanites.
      16 And now, in those critical circumstances, it became a very serious matter to determine concerning these prisoners of war; nevertheless, we did resolve to send them down to the land of Zarahemla; therefore we selected a part of our men, and gave them charge over our prisoners to go down to the land of Zarahemla.
      > ...
      28 And now it came to pass that after we had thus taken care of our wounded men, and had buried our dead and also the dead of the Lamanites, who were many, behold, we did inquire of Gid concerning the prisoners whom they had started to go down to the land of Zarahemla with.
      29 Now Gid was the chief captain over the band who was appointed to guard them down to the land.
      30 And now, these are the words which Gid said unto me: Behold, we did start to go down to the land of Zarahemla with our prisoners. And it came to pass that we did meet the spies of our armies, who had been sent out to watch the camp of the Lamanites.

    41. Alma 58:1-4,23-29,38-39Alma 58
      1 And behold, now it came to pass that our next object was to obtain the city of Manti; but behold, there was no way that we could lead them out of the city by our small bands. For behold, they remembered that which we had hitherto done; therefore we could not decoy them away from their strongholds.
      ...
      2 And they were so much more numerous than was our army that we durst not go forth and attack them in their strongholds.
      3 Yea, and it became expedient that we should employ our men to the maintaining those parts of the land which we had regained of our possessions; therefore it became expedient that we should wait, that we might receive more strength from the land of Zarahemla and also a new supply of provisions.
      4 And it came to pass that I thus did send an embassy to the governor of our land, to acquaint him concerning the affairs of our people. And it came to pass that we did wait to receive provisions and strength from the land of Zarahemla.
      23 And it came to pass that Gid and Teomner by this means had obtained possession of their strongholds. And it came to pass that we took our course, after having traveled much in the wilderness towards the land of Zarahemla.
      24 And when the Lamanites saw that they were marching towards the land of Zarahemla, they were exceedingly afraid, lest there was a plan laid to lead them on to destruction; therefore they began to retreat into the wilderness again, yea, even back by the same way which they had come.
      25 And behold, it was night and they did pitch their tents, for the chief captains of the Lamanites had supposed that the Nephites were weary because of their march; and supposing that they had driven their whole army therefore they took no thought concerning the city of Manti.
      26 Now it came to pass that when it was night, I caused that my men should not sleep, but that they should march forward by another way towards the land of Manti.
      27 And because of this our march in the night-time, behold, on the morrow we were beyond the Lamanites, insomuch that we did arrive before them at the city of Manti.
      28 And thus it came to pass, that by this stratagem we did take possession of the city of Manti without the shedding of blood.
      29 And it came to pass that when the armies of the Lamanites did arrive near the city, and saw that we were prepared to meet them, they were astonished exceedingly and struck with great fear, insomuch that they did flee into the wilderness.
      ...
      38 Behold, this is the twenty and ninth year, in the latter end, and we are in the possession of our lands; and the Lamanites have fled to the land of Nephi.
      39 And those sons of the people of Ammon, of whom I have so highly spoken, are with me in the city of Manti; and the Lord had supported them, yea, and kept them from falling by the sword, insomuch that even one soul has not been slain.

    42. Alma 59:4Alma 59
      1 Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, after Moroni had received and had read Helaman's epistle, he was exceedingly rejoiced because of the welfare, yea, the exceeding success which Helaman had had, in obtaining those lands which were lost.
      2 Yea, and he did make it known unto all his people, in all the land round about in that part where he was, that they might rejoice also.
      3 And it came to pass that he immediately sent an epistle to Pahoran, desiring that he should cause men to be gathered together to strengthen Helaman, or the armies of Helaman, insomuch that he might with ease maintain that part of the land which he had been so miraculously prospered in regaining.
      4 And it came to pass when Moroni had sent this epistle to the land of Zarahemla, he began again to lay a plan that he might obtain the remainder of those possessions and cities which the Lamanites had taken from them.

    43. Alma 60:1-2,30Alma 60
      1 And it came to pass that he wrote again to the governor of the land, who was Pahoran, and these are the words which he wrote, saying: Behold, I direct mine epistle to Pahoran, in the city of Zarahemla, who is the chief judge and the governor over the land, and also to all those who have been chosen by this people to govern and manage the affairs of this war.
      2 For behold, I have somewhat to say unto them by the way of condemnation; for behold, ye yourselves know that ye have been appointed to gather together men, and arm them with swords, and with cimeters, and all manner of weapons of war of every kind, and send forth against the Lamanites, in whatsoever parts they should come into our land. ...
      30 Behold, I wait for assistance from you; and, except ye do administer unto our relief, behold, I come unto you, even in the land of Zarahemla, and smite you with the sword, insomuch that ye can have no more power to impede the progress of this people in the cause of our freedom.

    44. Alma 61:7-8,17-20Alma 61
      7 And they have come unto us, insomuch that those who have risen up in rebellion against us are set at defiance, yea, insomuch that they do fear us and durst not come out against us to battle.
      8 They have got possession of the land, or the city, of Zarahemla; they have appointed a king over them, and he hath written unto the king of the Lamanites, in the which he hath joined an alliance with him; in the which alliance he hath agreed to maintain the city of Zarahemla, which maintenance he supposeth will enable the Lamanites to conquer the remainder of the land, and he shall be placed king over this people when they shall be conquered under the Lamanites.
      ...
      17 Gather together whatsoever force ye can upon your march hither, and we will go speedily against those dissenters, in the strength of our God according to the faith which is in us.
      18 And we will take possession of the city of Zarahemla, that we may obtain more food to send forth unto Lehi and Teancum; yea, we will go forth against them in the strength of the Lord, and we will put an end to this great iniquity.
      19 And now, Moroni, I do joy in receiving your epistle, for I was somewhat worried concerning what we should do, whether it should be just in us to go against our brethren.
      20 But ye have said, except they repent the Lord hath commanded you that ye should go against them.

    45. Alma 62:6-14,42-45Alma 62
      6 And thus, when Moroni had gathered together whatsoever men he could in all his march, he came to the land of Gideon; and uniting his forces with those of Pahoran they became exceedingly strong, even stronger than the men of Pachus, who was the king of those dissenters who had driven the freemen out of the land of Zarahemla and had taken possession of the land.
      7 And it came to pass that Moroni and Pahoran went down with their armies into the land of Zarahemla, and went forth against the city, and did meet the men of Pachus, insomuch that they did come to battle.
      8 And behold, Pachus was slain and his men were taken prisoners, and Pahoran was restored to his judgment-seat.
      9 And the men of Pachus received their trial, according to the law, and also those king-men who had been taken and cast into prison; and they were executed according to the law; yea, those men of Pachus and those king-men, whosoever would not take up arms in the defence of their country, but would fight against it, were put to death. 10 And thus it became expedient that this law should be strictly observed for the safety of their country; yea, and whosoever was found denying their freedom was speedily executed according to the law.
      11 And thus ended the thirtieth year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi; Moroni and Pahoran having restored peace to the land of Zarahemla, among their own people, having inflicted death upon all those who were not true to the cause of freedom.
      12 And it came to pass in the commencement of the thirty and first year of the reign of the judges over the people of Nephi, Moroni immediately caused that provisions should be sent, and also an army of six thousand men should be sent unto Helaman, to assist him in preserving that part of the land.
      13 And he also caused that an army of six thousand men, with a sufficient quantity of food, should be sent to the armies of Lehi and Teancum. And it came to pass that this was done to fortify the land against the Lamanites.
      14 And it came to pass that Moroni and Pahoran, leaving a large body of men in the land of Zarahemla, took their march with a large body of men towards the land of Nephihah, being determined to overthrow the Lamanites in that city.
      42 And it came to pass that after Moroni had fortified those parts of the land which were most exposed to the Lamanites, until they were sufficiently strong, he returned to the city of Zarahemla; and also Helaman returned to the place of his inheritance; and there was once more peace established among the people of Nephi.
      43 And Moroni yielded up the command of his armies into the hands of his son, whose name was Moronihah; and he retired to his own house that he might spend the remainder of his days in peace.
      44 And Pahoran did return to his judgment-seat; and Helaman did take upon him again to preach unto the people the word of God; for because of so many wars and contentions it had become expedient that a regulation should be made again in the church.
      45 Therefore, Helaman and his brethren went forth, and did declare the word of God with much power unto the convincing of many people of their wickedness, which did cause them to repent of their sins and to be baptized unto the Lord their God.
      46 And it came to pass that they did establish again the church of God, throughout all the land.

    46. Alma 63:4-7Alma 63
      4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward.
      5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
      6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
      7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.

    47. Helaman 1:1-33Helaman 1
      17 Therefore he did stir them up to anger, and he did gather together his armies, and he did appoint Coriantumr to be their leader, and did cause that they should march down to the land of Zarahemla to battle against the Nephites.
      18 And it came to pass that because of so much contention and so much difficulty in the government, that they had not kept sufficient guards in the land of Zarahemla; for they had supposed that the Lamanites durst not come into the heart of their lands to attack that great city Zarahemla.
      19 But it came to pass that Coriantumr did march forth at the head of his numerous host, and came upon the inhabitants of the city, and their march was with such exceedingly great speed that there was no time for the Nephites to gather together their armies.
      20 Therefore Coriantumr did cut down the watch by the entrance of the city, and did march forth with his whole army into the city, and they did slay every one who did oppose them, insomuch that they did take possession of the whole city.
      21 And it came to pass that Pacumeni, who was the chief judge, did flee before Coriantumr, even to the walls of the city. And it came to pass that Coriantumr did smite him against the wall, insomuch that he died. And thus ended the days of Pacumeni.
      22 And now when Coriantumr saw that he was in possession of the city of Zarahemla, and saw that the Nephites had fled before them, and were slain, and were taken, and were cast into prison, and that he had obtained the possession of the strongest hold in all the land, his heart took courage insomuch that he was about to go forth against all the land.
      23 And now he did not tarry in the land of Zarahemla, but he did march forth with a large army, even towards the city of Bountiful; for it was his determination to go forth and cut his way through with the sword, that he might obtain the north parts of the land.
      24 And, supposing that their greatest strength was in the center of the land, therefore he did march forth, giving them no time to assemble themselves together save it were in small bodies; and in this manner they did fall upon them and cut them down to the earth.
      25 But behold, this march of Coriantumr through the center of the land gave Moronihah great advantage over them, notwithstanding the greatness of the number of the Nephites who were slain.
      26 For behold, Moronihah had supposed that the Lamanites durst not come into the center of the land, but that they would attack the cities round about in the borders as they had hitherto done; therefore Moronihah had caused that their strong armies should maintain those parts round about by the borders.
      27 But behold, the Lamanites were not frightened according to his desire, but they had come into the center of the land, and had taken the capital city which was the city of Zarahemla, and were marching through the most capital parts of the land, slaying the people with a great slaughter, both men, women, and children, taking possession of many cities and of many strongholds.
      28 But when Moronihah had discovered this, he immediately sent forth Lehi with an army round about to head them before they should come to the land Bountiful.
      29 And thus he did; and he did head them before they came to the land Bountiful, and gave unto them battle, insomuch that they began to retreat back towards the land of Zarahemla.
      30 And it came to pass that Moronihah did head them in their retreat, and did give unto them battle, insomuch that it became an exceedingly bloody battle; yea, many were slain, and among the number who were slain Coriantumr was also found.
      31 And now, behold, the Lamanites could not retreat either way, neither on the north, nor on the south, nor on the east, nor on the west, for they were surrounded on every hand by the Nephites.
      32 And thus had Coriantumr plunged the Lamanites into the midst of the Nephites, insomuch that they were in the power of the Nephites, and he himself was slain, and the Lamanites did yield themselves into the hands of the Nephites.
      33 And it came to pass that Moronihah took possession of the city of Zarahemla again, and caused that the Lamanites who had been taken prisoners should depart out of the land in peace.

    48. Helaman 3:3-5,25-31Helaman 3
      3 And it came to pass in the forty and sixth, yea, there was much contention and many dissensions; in the which there were an exceedingly great many who departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and went forth unto the land northward to inherit the land.
      4 And they did travel to an exceedingly great distance, insomuch that they came to large bodies of water and many rivers.
      5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
      ...
      25 And so great was the prosperity of the church, and so many the blessings which were poured out upon the people, that even the high priests and the teachers were themselves astonished beyond measure.
      26 And it came to pass that the work of the Lord did prosper unto the baptizing and uniting to the church of God, many souls, yea, even tens of thousands.
      27 Thus we may see that the Lord is merciful unto all who will, in the sincerity of their hearts, call upon his holy name.
      28 Yea, thus we see that the gate of heaven is open unto all, even to those who will believe on the name of Jesus Christ, who is the Son of God.
      29 Yea, we see that whosoever will may lay hold upon the word of God, which is quick and powerful, which shall divide asunder all the cunning and the snares and the wiles of the devil, and lead the man of Christ in a strait and narrow course across that everlasting gulf of misery which is prepared to engulf the wicked-- 30 And land their souls, yea, their immortal souls, at the right hand of God in the kingdom of heaven, to sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and with Jacob, and with all our holy fathers, to go no more out.
      31 And in this year there was continual rejoicing in the land of Zarahemla, and in all the regions round about, even in all the land which was possessed by the Nephites.

    49. Helaman 4:4-6 Helaman 4
      4 But it came to pass in the fifty and sixth year of the reign of the judges, there were dissenters who went up from the Nephites unto the Lamanites; and they succeeded with those others in stirring them up to anger against the Nephites; and they were all that year preparing for war.
      5 And in the fifty and seventh year they did come down against the Nephites to battle, and they did commence the work of death; yea, insomuch that in the fifty and eighth year of the reign of the judges they succeeded in obtaining possession of the land of Zarahemla; yea, and also all the lands, even unto the land which was near the land Bountiful.
      6 And the Nephites and the armies of Moronihah were driven even into the land of Bountiful;

    50. Helaman 5:13-20Helaman 5
      13 And it came to pass that these were the words which Helaman taught to his sons; yea, he did teach them many things which are not written, and also many things which are written.
      14 And they did remember his words; and therefore they went forth, keeping the commandments of God, to teach the word of God among all the people of Nephi, beginning at the city Bountiful;
      15 And from thenceforth to the city of Gid; and from the city of Gid to the city of Mulek;
      16 And even from one city to another, until they had gone forth among all the people of Nephi who were in the land southward; and from thence into the land of Zarahemla, among the Lamanites.
      17 And it came to pass that they did preach with great power, insomuch that they did confound many of those dissenters who had gone over from the Nephites, insomuch that they came forth and did confess their sins and were baptized unto repentance, and immediately returned to the Nephites to endeavor to repair unto them the wrongs which they had done.
      18 And it came to pass that Nephi and Lehi did preach unto the Lamanites with such great power and authority, for they had power and authority given unto them that they might speak, and they also had what they should speak given unto them-- 19 Therefore they did speak unto the great astonishment of the Lamanites, to the convincing them, insomuch that there were eight thousand of the Lamanites who were in the land of Zarahemla and round about baptized unto repentance, and were convinced of the wickedness of the traditions of their fathers.
      20 And it came to pass that Nephi and Lehi did proceed from thence to go to the land of Nephi.

    51. Helaman 6:4Helaman 6
      3 Nevertheless, the people of the church did have great joy because of the conversion of the Lamanites, yea, because of the church of God, which had been established among them. And they did fellowship one with another, and did rejoice one with another, and did have great joy.
      4 And it came to pass that many of the Lamanites did come down into the land of Zarahemla, and did declare unto the people of the Nephites the manner of their conversion, and did exhort them to faith and repentance.
      5 Yea, and many did preach with exceedingly great power and authority, unto the bringing down many of them into the depths of humility, to be the humble followers of God and the Lamb.
      6 And it came to pass that many of the Lamanites did go into the land northward; and also Nephi and Lehi went into the land northward, to preach unto the people. And thus ended the sixty and third year.
      7 And behold, there was peace in all the land, insomuch that the Nephites did go into whatsoever part of the land they would, whether among the Nephites or the Lamanites.
      8 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did also go whithersoever they would, whether it were among the Lamanites or among the Nephites; and thus they did have free intercourse one with another, to buy and to sell, and to get gain, according to their desire.
      9 And it came to pass that they became exceedingly rich, both the Lamanites and the Nephites; and they did have an exceeding plenty of gold, and of silver, and of all manner of precious metals, both in the land south and in the land north.
      10 Now the land south was called Lehi and the land north was called Mulek, which was after the son of Zedekiah; for the Lord did bring Mulek into the land north, and Lehi into the land south.

    52. Helaman 7:1,10Helaman 7
      1 Behold, now it came to pass in the sixty and ninth year of the reign of the judges over the people of the Nephites, that Nephi, the son of Helaman, returned to the land of Zarahemla from the land northward.
      ...
      10 And behold, now it came to pass that it was upon a tower, which was in the garden of Nephi, which was by the highway which led to the chief market, which was in the city of Zarahemla; therefore, Nephi had bowed himself upon the tower which was in his garden, which tower was also near unto the garden gate by which led the highway.

    53. Helaman 13:12-16Helaman 13
      12 Yea, wo unto this great city of Zarahemla; for behold, it is because of those who are righteous that it is saved; yea, wo unto this great city, for I perceive, saith the Lord, that there are many, yea, even the more part of this great city, that will harden their hearts against me, saith the Lord.
      13 But blessed are they who will repent, for them will I spare. But behold, if it were not for the righteous who are in this great city, behold, I would cause that fire should come down out of heaven and destroy it.
      14 But behold, it is for the righteous' sake that it is spared. But behold, the time cometh, saith the Lord, that when ye shall cast out the righteous from among you, then shall ye be ripe for destruction; yea, wo be unto this great city, because of the wickedness and abominations which are in her.
      15 Yea, and wo be unto the city of Gideon, for the wickedness and abominations which are in her.
      16 Yea, and wo be unto all the cities which are in the land round about, which are possessed by the Nephites, because of the wickedness and abominations which are in them.

    54. 3 Nephi 1:23 Nephi 1
      2 And Nephi, the son of Helaman, had departed out of the land of Zarahemla, giving charge unto his son Nephi, who was his eldest son, concerning the plates of brass, and all the records which had been kept, and all those things which had been kept sacred from the departure of Lehi out of Jerusalem.

    55. 3 Nephi 2:93 Nephi 2
      9 And Nephi, who was the father of Nephi, who had the charge of the records, did not return to the land of Zarahemla, and could nowhere be found in all the land.

    56. 3 Nephi 3:12-263 Nephi 3
      See commentary in Section 4.4.14 regarding verse 23 and the central Nephite gathering 12 Now behold, this Lachoneus, the governor, was a just man, and could not be frightened by the demands and the threatenings of a robber; therefore he did not hearken to the epistle of Giddianhi, the governor of the robbers, but he did cause that his people should cry unto the Lord for strength against the time that the robbers should come down against them.
      13 Yea, he sent a proclamation among all the people, that they should gather together their women, and their children, their flocks and their herds, and all their substance, save it were their land, unto one place.
      14 And he caused that fortifications should be built round about them, and the strength thereof should be exceedingly great. And he caused that armies, both of the Nephites and of the Lamanites, or of all them who were numbered among the Nephites, should be placed as guards round about to watch them, and to guard them from the robbers day and night.
      15 Yea, he said unto them: As the Lord liveth, except ye repent of all your iniquities, and cry unto the Lord, ye will in no wise be delivered out of the hands of those Gadianton robbers.
      16 And so great and marvelous were the words and prophecies of Lachoneus that they did cause fear to come upon all the people; and they did exert themselves in their might to do according to the words of Lachoneus.
      17 And it came to pass that Lachoneus did appoint chief captains over all the armies of the Nephites, to command them at the time that the robbers should come down out of the wilderness against them.
      18 Now the chiefest among all the chief captains and the great commander of all the armies of the Nephites was appointed, and his name was Gidgiddoni.
      19 Now it was the custom among all the Nephites to appoint for their chief captains, (save it were in their times of wickedness) some one that had the spirit of revelation and also prophecy; therefore, this Gidgiddoni was a great prophet among them, as also was the chief judge.
      20 Now the people said unto Gidgiddoni: Pray unto the Lord, and let us go up upon the mountains and into the wilderness, that we may fall upon the robbers and destroy them in their own lands.
      21 But Gidgiddoni saith unto them: The Lord forbid; for if we should go up against them the Lord would deliver us into their hands; therefore we will prepare ourselves in the center of our lands, and we will gather all our armies together, and we will not go against them, but we will wait till they shall come against us; therefore as the Lord liveth, if we do this he will deliver them into our hands.
      22 And it came to pass in the seventeenth year, in the latter end of the year, the proclamation of Lachoneus had gone forth throughout all the face of the land, and they had taken their horses, and their chariots, and their cattle, and all their flocks, and their herds, and their grain, and all their substance, and did march forth by thousands and by tens of thousands, until they had all gone forth to the place which had been appointed that they should gather themselves together, to defend themselves against their enemies.
      23 And the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla, and the land which was between the land Zarahemla and the land Bountiful, yea, to the line which was between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation.
      24 And there were a great many thousand people who were called Nephites, who did gather themselves together in this land. Now Lachoneus did cause that they should gather themselves together in the land southward, because of the great curse which was upon the land northward.
      25 And they did fortify themselves against their enemies; and they did dwell in one land, and in one body, and they did fear the words which had been spoken by Lachoneus, insomuch that they did repent of all their sins; and they did put up their prayers unto the Lord their God, that he would deliver them in the time that their enemies should come down against them to battle.
      26 And they were exceedingly sorrowful because of their enemies. And Gidgiddoni did cause that they should make weapons of war of every kind, and they should be strong with armor, and with shields, and with bucklers, after the manner of his instruction.

    57. 3 Nephi 6:25-263 Nephi 6
      25 Therefore a complaint came up unto the land of Zarahemla, to the governor of the land, against these judges who had condemned the prophets of the Lord unto death, not according to the law.
      26 Now it came to pass that they were taken and brought up before the judge, to be judged of the crime which they had done, according to the law which had been given by the people.

    58. 3 Nephi 9:33 Nephi 9
      2 Wo, wo, wo unto this people; wo unto the inhabitants of the whole earth except they shall repent; for the devil laugheth, and his angels rejoice, because of the slain of the fair sons and daughters of my people; and it is because of their iniquity and abominations that they are fallen! 3 Behold, that great city Zarahemla have I burned with fire, and the inhabitants thereof.
    Reign of the Judges [91 BC to 30 AD] : Zeezrom
    +[Zeezrom] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Zeezrom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Manti]
    +[Zeezrom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Cumeni]
    +[Zeezrom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Judea]
    +[Zeezrom] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antiparah]
    1. Alma 56:14Alma 56
      12 And the Lamanites had also retained many prisoners, all of whom are chief captains, for none other have they spared alive. And we suppose that they are now at this time in the land of Nephi; it is so if they are not slain.
      13 And now these are the cities of which the Lamanites have obtained possession by the shedding of the blood of so many of our valiant men;
      14 The land of Manti, or the city of Manti, and the city of Zeezrom, and the city of Cumeni, and the city of Antiparah.
    Late History : Angola
    +[Angola] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Angola] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]
    +[Angola] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Joshua]
    +[Angola] ⇒ <is in or near to> ⇒ [David]
    1. Mormon 2:1-6Mormon 2
      1 And it came to pass in that same year there began to be a war again between the Nephites and the Lamanites. And notwithstanding I being young, was large in stature; therefore the people of Nephi appointed me that I should be their leader, or the leader of their armies.
      2 Therefore it came to pass that in my sixteenth year I did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites, against the Lamanites; therefore three hundred and twenty and six years had passed away.
      3 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and twenty and seventh year the Lamanites did come upon us with exceedingly great power, insomuch that they did frighten my armies; therefore they would not fight, and they began to retreat towards the north countries.
      4 And it came to pass that we did come to the city of Angola, and we did take possession of the city, and make preparations to defend ourselves against the Lamanites. And it came to pass that we did fortify the city with our might; but notwithstanding all our fortifications the Lamanites did come upon us and did drive us out of the city.
      5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
      6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
    Late History : Antum
    +[Antum] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Antum] ⇒ <contains> ⇒ [Shim]
    1. Mormon 1:1-5Mormon 1
      1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
      2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
      3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
      4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
      5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
    Late History : Boaz
    +[Boaz] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Boaz] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antum]
    +[Boaz] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Desolation]
    +[Boaz] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shim]
    1. Mormon 4:20Mormon 4
      16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
      17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
      18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
      19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
      20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
      21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
      22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
      23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.
    Period Entity Relationship Notes References
    Late History : Cumorah
    +[Cumorah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill|land}
    +[Cumorah] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {gathering}
    +[Cumorah] ⇒ <contains> ⇒ {waters,rivers,fountains}
    +[Cumorah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ [Ramah]
    Cumorah is one of anchor points of Book of Mormon Geography. We know exactly where it is from scripture and Church history. It is not central in the Nephite civilization but rather on the periphery to where the Nephites retreated in the last conflict. It is a natural gathering place because, by boat, one can travel to Cumorah from any location on the Great Lakes. See also Section 2.2.1.
    1. DC 128:20DC 128
      20 And again, what do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah! Moroni, an angel from heaven, declaring the fulfilment of the prophets--the book to be revealed. A voice of the Lord in the wilderness of Fayette, Seneca county, declaring the three witnesses to bear record of the book! The voice of Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna, detecting the devil when he appeared as an angel of light! The voice of Peter, James, and John in the wilderness between Harmony, Susquehanna county, and Colesville, Broome county, on the Susquehanna river, declaring themselves as possessing the keys of the kingdom, and of the dispensation of the fulness of times!
      Mormon 6:1-11Mormon 6
      1 And now I finish my record concerning the destruction of my people, the Nephites. And it came to pass that we did march forth before the Lamanites.
      2 And I, Mormon, wrote an epistle unto the king of the Lamanites, and desired of him that he would grant unto us that we might gather together our people unto the land of Cumorah, by a hill which was called Cumorah, and there we could give them battle.
      3 And it came to pass that the king of the Lamanites did grant unto me the thing which I desired.
      4 And it came to pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, and we did pitch our tents around about the hill Cumorah; and it was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains; and here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites.
      5 And when three hundred and eighty and four years had passed away, we had gathered in all the remainder of our people unto the land of Cumorah.
      6 And it came to pass that when we had gathered in all our people in one to the land of Cumorah, behold I, Mormon, began to be old; and knowing it to be the last struggle of my people, and having been commanded of the Lord that I should not suffer the records which had been handed down by our fathers, which were sacred, to fall into the hands of the Lamanites, (for the Lamanites would destroy them) therefore I made this record out of the plates of Nephi, and hid up in the hill Cumorah all the records which had been entrusted to me by the hand of the Lord, save it were these few plates which I gave unto my son Moroni.
      7 And it came to pass that my people, with their wives and their children, did now behold the armies of the Lamanites marching towards them; and with that awful fear of death which fills the breasts of all the wicked, did they await to receive them.
      8 And it came to pass that they came to battle against us, and every soul was filled with terror because of the greatness of their numbers.
      9 And it came to pass that they did fall upon my people with the sword, and with the bow, and with the arrow, and with the ax, and with all manner of weapons of war.
      10 And it came to pass that my men were hewn down, yea, even my ten thousand who were with me, and I fell wounded in the midst; and they passed by me that they did not put an end to my life.
      11 And when they had gone through and hewn down all my people save it were twenty a nd four of us, (among whom was my son Moroni) and we having survived the dead of our people, did behold on the morrow, when the Lamanites had returned unto their camps, from the top of the hill Cumorah, the ten thousand of my people who were hewn down, being led in the front by me.
    2. Mormon 8:1-2Mormon 8
      1 Behold I, Moroni, do finish the record of my father, Mormon. Behold, I have but few things to write, which things I have been commanded by my father.
      2 And now it came to pass that after the great and tremendous battle at Cumorah, behold, the Nephites who had escaped into the country southward were hunted by the Lamanites, until they were all destroyed.
    3. Ether 15:11Ether 15
      11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.
    Late History : David
    +[David] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[David] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Angola]
    +[David] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Joshua]
    +[David] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Zarahemla]
    1. Mormon 2:1-6Mormon 2
      1 And it came to pass in that same year there began to be a war again between the Nephites and the Lamanites. And notwithstanding I being young, was large in stature; therefore the people of Nephi appointed me that I should be their leader, or the leader of their armies.
      2 Therefore it came to pass that in my sixteenth year I did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites, against the Lamanites; therefore three hundred and twenty and six years had passed away.
      3 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and twenty and seventh year the Lamanites did come upon us with exceedingly great power, insomuch that they did frighten my armies; therefore they would not fight, and they began to retreat towards the north countries.
      4 And it came to pass that we did come to the city of Angola, and we did take possession of the city, and make preparations to defend ourselves against the Lamanites. And it came to pass that we did fortify the city with our might; but notwithstanding all our fortifications the Lamanites did come upon us and did drive us out of the city.
      5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
      6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
    Late History : Desolation
    +[Desolation] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city |land}
    +[Desolation] ⇒ <is near> ⇒ [Teancum]
    +[Desolation] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Antum]
    +[Desolation] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Boaz]
    +[Desolation] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shim]
    1. Mormon 3:4-8Mormon 3
      4 And it came to pass that after this tenth year had passed away, making, in the whole, three hundred and sixty years from the coming of Christ, the king of the Lamanites sent an epistle unto me, which gave unto me to know that they were preparing to come again to battle against us.
      5 And it came to pass that I did cause my people that they should gather themselves together at the land Desolation, to a city which was in the borders, by the narrow pass which led into the land southward.
      6 And there we did place our armies, that we might stop the armies of the Lamanites, that they might not get possession of any of our lands; therefore we did fortify against them with all our force.
      7 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and first year the Lamanites did come down to the city of Desolation to battle against us; and it came to pass that in that year we did beat them, insomuch that they did return to their own lands again.
      8 And in the three hundred and sixty and second year they did come down again to battle. And we did beat them again, and did slay a great number of them, and their dead were cast into the sea.
    2. Mormon 4:1-9,16-23Mormon 4
      1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
      2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
      3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
      4 And it was because the armies of the Nephites went up unto the Lamanites that they began to be smitten; for were it not for that, the Lamanites could have had no power over them.
      5 But, behold, the judgments of God will overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked that the wicked are punished; for it is the wicked that stir up the hearts of the children of men unto bloodshed.
      6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
      7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
      8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
      9 And now all these things had been done, and there had been thousands slain on both sides, both the Nephites and the Lamanites.
      ...
      16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
      17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
      18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
      19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
      20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
      21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
      22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
      23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.
    Late History : Jashon
    +[Jashon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Jashon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {sacred records deposit}
    +[Jashon] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Shem]
    +[Jashon] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Joshua]
    1. Mormon 2:16,17Mormon 2
      5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
      6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
      ...
      16 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and forty and fifth year the Nephites did begin to flee before the Lamanites; and they were pursued until they came even to the land of Jashon, before it was possible to stop them in their retreat.
      17 And now, the city of Jashon was near the land where Ammaron had deposited the records unto the Lord, that they might not be destroyed. And behold I had gone according to the word of Ammaron, and taken the plates of Nephi, and did make a record according to the words of Ammaron.
      ...
      20 And it came to pass that in this year the people of Nephi again were hunted and driven. And it came to pass that we were driven forth until we had come northward to the land which was called Shem.
      21 And it came to pass that we did fortify the city of Shem, and we did gather in our people as much as it were possible, that perhaps we might save them from destruction.
    Late History : Jordan
    +[Jordon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Jordon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Desolation]
    +[Jordon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Boaz]
    +[Jordan] ⇒ <is near to > ⇒ [Teancum]
    +[Jordon] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shim]
    1. Mormon 4:13-14,19-23 - 5:3-5 Mormon 4
      13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
      14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.
      19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
      19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
      20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
      21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
      22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
      23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.
      Mormon 5
      3 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come against us as we had fled to the city of Jordan; but behold, they were driven back that they did not take the city at that time.
      4 And it came to pass that they came against us again, and we did maintain the city. And there were also other cities which were maintained by the Nephites, which strongholds did cut them off that they could not get into the country which lay before us, to destroy the inhabitants of our land.
      5 And it came to pass that whatsoever lands we had passed by, and the inhabitants thereof were not gathered in, were destroyed by the Lamanites, and their towns, and villages, and cities were burned with fire; and thus three hundred and seventy and nine years passed away.
    Late History : Joshua
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Angola]
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is near to > ⇒ [David]
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is north of > ⇒ [David]
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is west of > ⇒ [David]
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is south of > ⇒ [Shem]
    +[Joshua] ⇒ <is> ⇒ {by the seashore}
    1. Mormon 2:1-6Mormon 2
      1 And it came to pass in that same year there began to be a war again between the Nephites and the Lamanites. And notwithstanding I being young, was large in stature; therefore the people of Nephi appointed me that I should be their leader, or the leader of their armies.
      2 Therefore it came to pass that in my sixteenth year I did go forth at the head of an army of the Nephites, against the Lamanites; therefore three hundred and twenty and six years had passed away.
      3 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and twenty and seventh year the Lamanites did come upon us with exceedingly great power, insomuch that they did frighten my armies; therefore they would not fight, and they began to retreat towards the north countries.
      4 And it came to pass that we did come to the city of Angola, and we did take possession of the city, and make preparations to defend ourselves against the Lamanites. And it came to pass that we did fortify the city with our might; but notwithstanding all our fortifications the Lamanites did come upon us and did drive us out of the city.
      5 And they did also drive us forth out of the land of David.
      6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
    Late History : Moriantum
    +[Moriantum] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {place}
    +[Moriantum] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Sherrizah]
    1. Moroni 9:7-9,16-17Mormon 9
      7 And now I write somewhat concerning the sufferings of this people. For according to the knowledge which I have received from Amoron, behold, the Lamanites have many prisoners, which they took from the tower of Sherrizah; and there were men, women, and children.
      8 And the husbands and fathers of those women and children they have slain; and they feed the women upon the flesh of their husbands, and the children upon the flesh of their fathers; and no water, save a little, do they give unto them.
      9 And notwithstanding this great abomination of the Lamanites, it doth not exceed that of our people in Moriantum. For behold, many of the daughters of the Lamanites have they taken prisoners; and after depriving them of that which was most dear and precious above all things, which is chastity and virtue--
      ...
      16 And again, my son, there are many widows and their daughters who remain in Sherrizah; and that part of the provisions which the Lamanites did not carry away, behold, the army of Zenephi has carried away, and left them to wander whithersoever they can for food; and many old women do faint by the way and die.
      17 And the army which is with me is weak; and the armies of the Lamanites are betwixt Sherrizah and me; and as many as have fled to the army of Aaron have fallen victims to their awful brutality.
    Late History : Narrow Passage
    +[Narrow Passage] ⇒ <leads to> ⇒ {land southward}
    1. Mormon 2:21-29Mormon 2
      21 And it came to pass that we did fortify the city of Shem, and we did gather in our people as much as it were possible, that perhaps we might save them from destruction.
      22 And it came to pass in the three hundred and forty and sixth year they began to come upon us again.
      23 And it came to pass that I did speak unto my people, and did urge them with great energy, that they would stand boldly before the Lamanites and fight for their wives, and their children, and their houses, and their homes.
      24 And my words did arouse them somewhat to vigor, insomuch that they did not flee from before the Lamanites, but did stand with boldness against them.
      25 And it came to pass that we did contend with an army of thirty thousand against an army of fifty thousand. And it came to pass that we did stand before them with such firmness that they did flee from before us.
      26 And it came to pass that when they had fled we did pursue them with our armies, and did meet them again, and did beat them; nevertheless the strength of the Lord was not with us; yea, we were left to ourselves, that the Spirit of the Lord did not abide in us; therefore we had become weak like unto our brethren.
      27 And my heart did sorrow because of this the great calamity of my people, because of their wickedness and their abominations. But behold, we did go forth against the Lamanites and the robbers of Gadianton, until we had again taken possession of the lands of our inheritance.
      28 And the three hundred and forty and ninth year had passed away. And in the three hundred and fiftieth year we made a treaty with the Lamanites and the robbers of Gadianton, in which we did get the lands of our inheritance divided.
      29 And the Lamanites did give unto us the land northward, yea, even to the narrow passage which led into the land southward. And we did give unto the Lamanites all the land southward.
    Late History : Shem
    +[Shem] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land|city}
    +[Shem] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Joshon]
    1. Mormon 2:6-7,16-21Mormon 2
      6 And we marched forth and came to the land of Joshua, which was in the borders west by the seashore.
      7 And it came to pass that we did gather in our people as fast as it were possible, that we might get them together in one body.
      ...
      16 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and forty and fifth year the Nephites did begin to flee before the Lamanites; and they were pursued until they came even to the land of Jashon, before it was possible to stop them in their retreat.
      17 And now, the city of Jashon was near the land where Ammaron had deposited the records unto the Lord, that they might not be destroyed. And behold I had gone according to the word of Ammaron, and taken the plates of Nephi, and did make a record according to the words of Ammaron.
      18 And upon the plates of Nephi I did make a full account of all the wickedness and abominations; but upon these plates I did forbear to make a full account of their wickedness and abominations, for behold, a continual scene of wickedness and abominations has been before mine eyes ever since I have been sufficient to behold the ways of man.
      19 And wo is me because of their wickedness; for my heart has been filled with sorrow because of their wickedness, all my days; nevertheless, I know that I shall be lifted up at the last day.
      20 And it came to pass that in this year the people of Nephi again were hunted and driven. And it came to pass that we were driven forth until we had come northward to the land which was called Shem.
      21 And it came to pass that we did fortify the city of Shem, and we did gather in our people as much as it were possible, that perhaps we might save them from destruction.
    Late History : Sherrizah
    +[Sherrizah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {tower|place}
    +[Sherrizah] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Moriantum]
    1. Moroni 9:7-9,16-17Mormon 9
      7 And now I write somewhat concerning the sufferings of this people. For according to the knowledge which I have received from Amoron, behold, the Lamanites have many prisoners, which they took from the tower of Sherrizah; and there were men, women, and children.
      8 And the husbands and fathers of those women and children they have slain; and they feed the women upon the flesh of their husbands, and the children upon the flesh of their fathers; and no water, save a little, do they give unto them.
      9 And notwithstanding this great abomination of the Lamanites, it doth not exceed that of our people in Moriantum. For behold, many of the daughters of the Lamanites have they taken prisoners; and after depriving them of that which was most dear and precious above all things, which is chastity and virtue--
      ...
      16 And again, my son, there are many widows and their daughters who remain in Sherrizah; and that part of the provisions which the Lamanites did not carry away, behold, the army of Zenephi has carried away, and left them to wander whithersoever they can for food; and many old women do faint by the way and die.
      17 And the army which is with me is weak; and the armies of the Lamanites are betwixt Sherrizah and me; and as many as have fled to the army of Aaron have fallen victims to their awful brutality.
    Late History : Shim
    +[Shim] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
    +[Shim] ⇒ <is located in> ⇒ [Antum]
    +[Shim] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Teancum]
    +[Shim] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Desolation]
    +[Shim] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Boaz]
    +[Shim] ⇒ <is to the west of> ⇒ [Ablom]
    1. Mormon 1:2-3Mormon 1
      2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
      3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.

    2. Mormon 4:1-3,6-23Mormon 1
      1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
      2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
      3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
      ...
      6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
      7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
      8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
      13 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and this because their number did exceed the number of the Nephites.
      14 And they did also march forward against the city Teancum, and did drive the inhabitants forth out of her, and did take many prisoners both women and children, and did offer them up as sacrifices unto their idol gods.
      15 And it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and seventh year, the Nephites being angry because the Lamanites had sacrificed their women and their children, that they did go against the Lamanites with exceedingly great anger, insomuch that they did beat again the Lamanites, and drive them out of their lands.
      16 And the Lamanites did not come again against the Nephites until the three hundred and seventy and fifth year.
      17 And in this year they did come down against the Nephites with all their powers; and they were not numbered because of the greatness of their number.
      18 And from this time forth did the Nephites gain no power over the Lamanites, but began to be swept off by them even as a dew before the sun.
      19 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did come down against the city Desolation; and there was an exceedingly sore battle fought in the land Desolation, in the which they did beat the Nephites.
      20 And they fled again from before them, and they came to the city Boaz; and there they did stand against the Lamanites with exceeding boldness, insomuch that the Lamanites did not beat them until they had come again the second time.
      21 And when they had come the second time, the Nephites were driven and slaughtered with an exceedingly great slaughter; their women and their children were again sacrificed unto idols.
      22 And it came to pass that the Nephites did again flee from before them, taking all the inhabitants with them, both in towns and villages.
      23 And now I, Mormon, seeing that the Lamanites were about to overthrow the land, therefore I did go to the hill Shim, and did take up all the records which Ammaron had hid up unto the Lord.

    3. Ether 9:3Ether 9
      3 And the Lord warned Omer in a dream that he should depart out of the land; wherefore Omer departed out of the land with his family, and traveled many days, and came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed, and from thence eastward, and came to a place which was called Ablom, by the seashore, and there he pitched his tent, and also his sons and his daughters, and all his household, save it were Jared and his family.
    Late History : Sidon
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {river}
    +[Sidon] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Zarahemla]
    1. Mormon 1:8-12Mormon 1
      8 And it came to pass in this year there began to be a war between the Nephites, who consisted of the Nephites and the Jacobites and the Josephites and the Zoramites; and this war was between the Nephites, and the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites.
      9 Now the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites were called Lamanites, and the two parties were Nephites and Lamanites.
      10 And it came to pass that the war began to be among them in the borders of Zarahemla, by the waters of Sidon.
      11 And it came to pass that the Nephites had gathered together a great number of men, even to exceed the number of thirty thousand. And it came to pass that they did have in this same year a number of battles, in which the Nephites did beat the Lamanites and did slay many of them.
      12 And it came to pass that the Lamanites withdrew their design, and there was peace settled in the land; and peace did remain for the space of about four years, that there was no bloodshed.
    Late History : Teancum
    +[Teancum] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Teancum] ⇒ <borders the> ⇒ {seashore}
    +[Teancum] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Desolation]
    1. Mormon 4:1-9,16-23Mormon 4
      1 And now it came to pass that in the three hundred and sixty and third year the Nephites did go up with their armies to battle against the Lamanites, out of the land Desolation.
      2 And it came to pass that the armies of the Nephites were driven back again to the land of Desolation. And while they were yet weary, a fresh army of the Lamanites did come upon them; and they had a sore battle, insomuch that the Lamanites did take possession of the city Desolation, and did slay many of the Nephites, and did take many prisoners.
      3 And the remainder did flee and join the inhabitants of the city Teancum. Now the city Teancum lay in the borders by the seashore; and it was also near the city Desolation.
      4 And it was because the armies of the Nephites went up unto the Lamanites that they began to be smitten; for were it not for that, the Lamanites could have had no power over them.
      5 But, behold, the judgments of God will overtake the wicked; and it is by the wicked that the wicked are punished; for it is the wicked that stir up the hearts of the children of men unto bloodshed.
      6 And it came to pass that the Lamanites did make preparations to come against the city Teancum.
      7 And it came to pass in the three hundred and sixty and fourth year the Lamanites did come against the city Teancum, that they might take possession of the city Teancum also.
      8 And it came to pass that they were repulsed and driven back by the Nephites. And when the Nephites saw that they had driven the Lamanites they did again boast of their own strength; and they went forth in their own might, and took possession again of the city Desolation.
      9 And now all these things had been done, and there had been thousands slain on both sides, both the Nephites and the Lamanites.
    Late History : Zarahemla
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {city}
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Sidon]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [hill Shim]
    +[Zarahemla] ⇒ <south of> ⇒ [Antum]
    1. Mormon 1:1-12Mormon 1
      1 And now I, Mormon, make a record of the things which I have both seen and heard, and call it the Book of Mormon.
      2 And about the time that Ammaron hid up the records unto the Lord, he came unto me, (I being about ten years of age, and I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning of my people) and Ammaron said unto me: I perceive that thou art a sober child, and art quick to observe;
      3 Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.
      4 And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are; and ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi all the things that ye have observed concerning this people.
      5 And I, Mormon, being a descendant of Nephi, (and my father's name was Mormon) I remembered the things which Ammaron commanded me.
      6 And it came to pass that I, being eleven years old, was carried by my father into the land southward, even to the land of Zarahemla.
      7 The whole face of the land had become covered with buildings, and the people were as numerous almost, as it were the sand of the sea.
      8 And it came to pass in this year there began to be a war between the Nephites, who consisted of the Nephites and the Jacobites and the Josephites and the Zoramites; and this war was between the Nephites, and the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites.
      9 Now the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites were called Lamanites, and the two parties were Nephites and Lamanites.
      10 And it came to pass that the war began to be among them in the borders of Zarahemla, by the waters of Sidon.
      11 And it came to pass that the Nephites had gathered together a great number of men, even to exceed the number of thirty thousand. And it came to pass that they did have in this same year a number of battles, in which the Nephites did beat the Lamanites and did slay many of them.
      12 And it came to pass that the Lamanites withdrew their design, and there was peace settled in the land; and peace did remain for the space of about four years, that there was no bloodshed.
    2. Mormon 1:6,10Mormon 1
      1
    Jaredites : Ablom
    +[Ablom] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {place}
    +[Ablom] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [the seashore]
    +[Ablom] ⇒ <is east> of the> ⇒ [Shim]
    1. Ether 9:1-3Ether 9
      1 And now I, Moroni, proceed with my record. Therefore, behold, it came to pass that because of the secret combinations of Akish and his friends, behold, they did overthrow the kingdom of Omer.
      2 Nevertheless, the Lord was merciful unto Omer, and also to his sons and to his daughters who did not seek his destruction.
      3 And the Lord warned Omer in a dream that he should depart out of the land; wherefore Omer departed out of the land with his family, and traveled many days, and came over and passed by the hill of Shim, and came over by the place where the Nephites were destroyed, and from thence eastward, and came to a place which was called Ablom, by the seashore, and there he pitched his tent, and also his sons and his daughters, and all his household, save it were Jared and his family.
    Jaredites : Agosh
    +[Agosh] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {plain(s)}
    +[Agosh] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Akish]
    +[Agosh] ⇒ <is destination of> ⇒ [Coriantumr]
    +[Agosh] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {Coriantumr/Lib battle}
    1. Ether 14:12-16Ether 14
      11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
      12 And it came to pass that he fought with Lib, in which Lib did smite upon his arm that he was wounded; nevertheless, the army of Coriantumr did press forward upon Lib, that he fled to the borders upon the seashore.
      13 And it came to pass that Coriantumr pursued him; and Lib gave battle unto him upon the seashore.
      14 And it came to pass that Lib did smite the army of Coriantumr, that they fled again to the wilderness of Akish.
      15 And it came to pass that Lib did pursue him until he came to the plains of Agosh. And Coriantumr had taken all the people with him as he fled before Lib in that quarter of the land whither he fled.
      16 And when he had come to the plains of Agosh he gave battle unto Lib, and he smote upon him until he died; nevertheless, the brother of Lib did come against Coriantumr in the stead thereof, and the battle became exceedingly sore, in the which Coriantumr fled again before the army of the brother of Lib.
    Jaredites : Akish
    +[Akish] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {wilderness}
    +[Akish] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {the seashore}
    +[Akish] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Moron]
    +[Akish] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {brother of Shared vs Coriantumr battle}
    +[Akish] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {Coriantumr fleeing Lib}
    1. Ether 14:3-15Ether 14
      3 And now, after the space of two years, and after the death of Shared, behold, there arose the brother of Shared and he gave battle unto Coriantumr, in which Coriantumr did beat him and did pursue him to the wilderness of Akish.
      4 And it came to pass that the brother of Shared did give battle unto him in the wilderness of Akish; and the battle became exceedingly sore, and many thousands fell by the sword.
      5 And it came to pass that Coriantumr did lay siege to the wilderness; and the brother of Shared did march forth out of the wilderness by night, and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr, as they were drunken.
      6 And he came forth to the land of Moron, and placed himself upon the throne of Coriantumr.
      7 And it came to pass that Coriantumr dwelt with his army in the wilderness for the space of two years, in which he did receive great strength to his army.
      8 Now the brother of Shared, whose name was Gilead, also received great strength to his army, because of secret combinations.
      9 And it came to pass that his high priest murdered him as he sat upon his throne.
      10 And it came to pass that one of the secret combinations murdered him in a secret pass, and obtained unto himself the kingdom; and his name was Lib; and Lib was a man of great stature, more than any other man among all the people.
      11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
      12 And it came to pass that he fought with Lib, in which Lib did smite upon his arm that he was wounded; nevertheless, the army of Coriantumr did press forward upon Lib, that he fled to the borders upon the seashore.
      13 And it came to pass that Coriantumr pursued him; and Lib gave battle unto him upon the seashore.
      14 And it came to pass that Lib did smite the army of Coriantumr, that they fled again to the wilderness of Akish.
      15 And it came to pass that Lib did pursue him until he came to the plains of Agosh. And Coriantumr had taken all the people with him as he fled before Lib in that quarter of the land whither he fled.
    Jaredites : Comnor
    +[Comnor] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
    +[Comnor] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {Coriantumr gathering his armies}
    1. Ether 14:26-28Ether 14
      26 And it came to pass that Shiz did pursue Coriantumr eastward, even to the borders by the seashore, and there he gave battle unto Shiz for the space of three days.
      27 And so terrible was the destruction among the armies of Shiz that the people began to be frightened, and began to flee before the armies of Coriantumr; and they fled to the land of Corihor, and swept off the inhabitants before them, all them that would not join them.
      28 And they pitched their tents in the valley of Corihor; and Coriantumr pitched his tents in the valley of Shurr. Now the valley of Shurr was near the hill Comnor; wherefore, Coriantumr did gather his armies together upon the hill Comnor, and did sound a trumpet unto the armies of Shiz to invite them forth to battle.
    Jaredites : Corihor
    +[Corihor] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {valley}
    +[Corihor] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Comnor]
    +[Corihor] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Shurr]
    1. Ether 14:26-28Ether 14
      26 And it came to pass that Shiz did pursue Coriantumr eastward, even to the borders by the seashore, and there he gave battle unto Shiz for the space of three days.
      27 And so terrible was the destruction among the armies of Shiz that the people began to be frightened, and began to flee before the armies of Coriantumr; and they fled to the land of Corihor, and swept off the inhabitants before them, all them that would not join them.
      28 And they pitched their tents in the valley of Corihor; and Coriantumr pitched his tents in the valley of Shurr. Now the valley of Shurr was near the hill Comnor; wherefore, Coriantumr did gather his armies together upon the hill Comnor, and did sound a trumpet unto the armies of Shiz to invite them forth to battle.
    Jaredites : Ephraim
    +[Ephraim] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
    +[Ephraim] ⇒ <contains a> ⇒ {steel armory}
    1. Ether 7:8-11Ether 7
      8 And it came to pass that Shule was angry with his brother; and Shule waxed strong, and became mighty as to the strength of a man; and he was also mighty in judgment.
      9 Wherefore, he came to the hill Comnor, and he did molten out of the hill, and made swords out of steel for those whom he had drawn away with him; and after he had armed them with swords he returned to the city Nehor and gave battle unto his brother Corihor, by which means he obtained the kingdom and restored it unto his father Kib.
      10 And now because of the thing which Shule had done, his father bestowed upon him the kingdom; therefore he began to reign in the stead of his father.
      11 And it came to pass that he did execute judgment in righteousness; and he did spread his kingdom upon all the face of the land, for the people had become exceedingly numerous.
    Jaredites : First Inheritance
    +[First Inheritance] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {and conquered from Shule}
    1. Ether 7:13-17Ether 7
      13 And Corihor repented of the many evils which he had done; wherefore Shule gave him power in his kingdom.
      14 And it came to pass that Corihor had many sons and daughters. And among the sons of Corihor there was one whose name was Noah.
      15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
      16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
      17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.
    Jaredites : Gilgal
    +[Gilgal] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {valley}
    +[Gilgal] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {battle,Coriantumr vs Shared}
    +[Gilgal] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {plains}
    1. Ether 13:25-31Ether 13
      25 Now there began to be a war upon all the face of the land, every man with his band fighting for that which he desired.
      26 And there were robbers, and in fine, all manner of wickedness upon all the face of the land.
      27 And it came to pass that Coriantumr was exceedingly angry with Shared, and he went against him with his armies to battle; and they did meet in great anger, and they did meet in the valley of Gilgal; and the battle became exceedingly sore.
      28 And it came to pass that Shared fought against him for the space of three days. And it came to pass that Coriantumr beat him, and did pursue him until he came to the plains of Heshlon.
      29 And it came to pass that Shared gave him battle again upon the plains; and behold, he did beat Coriantumr, and drove him back again to the valley of Gilgal.
      30 And Coriantumr gave Shared battle again in the valley of Gilgal, in which he beat Shared and slew him.
      31 And Shared wounded Coriantumr in his thigh, that he did not go to battle again for the space of two years, in which time all the people upon the face of the land were shedding blood, and there was none to restrain them.
    Jaredites : Heshlon
    +[Heshlon] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {plain(s)}
    +[Heshlon] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {battle Corianturm vs Shared}
    1. Ether 13:25-31Ether 13
      25 Now there began to be a war upon all the face of the land, every man with his band fighting for that which he desired.
      26 And there were robbers, and in fine, all manner of wickedness upon all the face of the land.
      27 And it came to pass that Coriantumr was exceedingly angry with Shared, and he went against him with his armies to battle; and they did meet in great anger, and they did meet in the valley of Gilgal; and the battle became exceedingly sore.
      28 And it came to pass that Shared fought against him for the space of three days. And it came to pass that Coriantumr beat him, and did pursue him until he came to the plains of Heshlon.
      29 And it came to pass that Shared gave him battle again upon the plains; and behold, he did beat Coriantumr, and drove him back again to the valley of Gilgal.
      30 And Coriantumr gave Shared battle again in the valley of Gilgal, in which he beat Shared and slew him.
      31 And Shared wounded Coriantumr in his thigh, that he did not go to battle again for the space of two years, in which time all the people upon the face of the land were shedding blood, and there was none to restrain them.
    Jaredites : Heth
    +[Heth] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    1. Ether 8:1-3Ether 8
      1 And it came to pass that he begat Omer, and Omer reigned in his stead. And Omer begat Jared; and Jared begat sons and daughters.
      2 And Jared rebelled against his father, and came and dwelt in the land of Heth. And it came to pass that he did flatter many people, because of his cunning words, until he had gained the half of the kingdom.
      3 And when he had gained the half of the kingdom he gave battle unto his father, and he did carry away his father into captivity, and did make him serve in captivity;
    Jaredites : Moron
    +[Moron] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Moron] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ {the seashore}
    +[Moron] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Desolation]
    +[Moron] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {battle,Coriantumr vs Lib}
    1. Ether 7:1-6,15-20Ether 7
      4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him.
      5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
      6 Now the land of Moron, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
      ...
      15 And it came to pass that Noah rebelled against Shule, the king, and also his father Corihor, and drew away Cohor his brother, and also all his brethren and many of the people.
      16 And he gave battle unto Shule, the king, in which he did obtain the land of their first inheritance; and he became a king over that part of the land.
      17 And it came to pass that he gave battle again unto Shule, the king; and he took Shule, the king, and carried him away captive into Moron.
      18 And it came to pass as he was about to put him to death, the sons of Shule crept into the house of Noah by night and slew him, and broke down the door of the prison and brought out their father, and placed him upon his throne in his own kingdom.
      19 Wherefore, the son of Noah did build up his kingdom in his stead; nevertheless they did not gain power any more over Shule the king, and the people who were under the reign of Shule the king did prosper exceedingly and wax great.
      20 And the country was divided; and there were two kingdoms, the kingdom of Shule, and the kingdom of Cohor, the son of Noah.
    2. Ether 14:6,11Ether 14
      4 And it came to pass that the brother of Shared did give battle unto him in the wilderness of Akish; and the battle became exceedingly sore, and many thousands fell by the sword.
      5 And it came to pass that Coriantumr did lay siege to the wilderness; and the brother of Shared did march forth out of the wilderness by night, and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr, as they were drunken.
      6 And he came forth to the land of Moron, and placed himself upon the throne of Coriantumr.
      7 And it came to pass that Coriantumr dwelt with his army in the wilderness for the space of two years, in which he did receive great strength to his army.
      8 Now the brother of Shared, whose name was Gilead, also received great strength to his army, because of secret combinations.
      9 And it came to pass that his high priest murdered him as he sat upon his throne.
      10 And it came to pass that one of the secret combinations murdered him in a secret pass, and obtained unto himself the kingdom; and his name was Lib; and Lib was a man of great stature, more than any other man among all the people.
      11 And it came to pass that in the first year of Lib, Coriantumr came up unto the land of Moron, and gave battle unto Lib.
    Jaredites : Nehor
    +[Nehor] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {land}
    +[Nehor] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {dwelling of Corihor}
    +[Nehor] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Ephraim]
    +[Nehor] ⇒ <near> ⇒ [Neck of Land]
    +[Nehor] ⇒ <borders> ⇒ [Narrow passage]
    1. Ether 7:4-10Ether 7
      4 And when Corihor was thirty and two years old he rebelled against his father, and went over and dwelt in the land of Nehor; and he begat sons and daughters, and they became exceedingly fair; wherefore Corihor drew away many people after him.
      5 And when he had gathered together an army he came up unto the land of Moron where the king dwelt, and took him captive, which brought to pass the saying of the brother of Jared that they would be brought into captivity.
      6 Now the land of, where the king dwelt, was near the land which is called Desolation by the Nephites.
    2. Ether 7:4-10Ether 7
      20 And they built a great city (Nehor) by the narrow neck of land, by the place where the sea divides the land.
      21 And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game. And the whole face of the land northward was covered with inhabitants.
    Jaredites : Ogath
    +[Ogath] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ [place]
    +[Ogath] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Ramah]|[Cumorah]
    +[Ogath] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Ripliancum]
    1. Ether 15:7-14Ether 15
      7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
      8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
      9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
      10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
      11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.
      12 And it came to pass that they did gather together all the people upon all the face of the land, who had not been slain, save it was Ether.
      13 And it came to pass that Ether did behold all the doings of the people; and he beheld that the people who were for Coriantumr were gathered together to the army of Coriantumr; and the people who were for Shiz were gathered together to the army of Shiz.
      14 Wherefore, they were for the space of four years gathering together the people, that they might get all who were upon the face of the land, and that they might receive all the strength which it was possible that they could receive.
    Jaredites : Ramah
    +[Ramah] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {hill}
    +[Ramah] ⇒ <is> ⇒ [Cumorah]
    +[Ramah] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Ogath]
    +[Ramah] ⇒ <is north of> ⇒ [Ripliancum]
    1. Ether 15:7-14Ether 15
      7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
      8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
      9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
      10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
      11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.
      12 And it came to pass that they did gather together all the people upon all the face of the land, who had not been slain, save it was Ether.
      13 And it came to pass that Ether did behold all the doings of the people; and he beheld that the people who were for Coriantumr were gathered together to the army of Coriantumr; and the people who were for Shiz were gathered together to the army of Shiz.
      14 Wherefore, they were for the space of four years gathering together the people, that they might get all who were upon the face of the land, and that they might receive all the strength which it was possible that they could receive.
    Jaredites : Ripliancum
    +[Ripliancum] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ {largest body of water}
    +[Ripliancum] ⇒ <is north> of> ⇒ [Ogath]
    +[Ripliancum] ⇒ <is south of> ⇒ [Ramah]|[Cumorah]
    1. Ether 15:7-11Ether 15
      7 And when Coriantumr saw that he was about to fall he fled again before the people of Shiz.
      8 And it came to pass that he came to the waters of Ripliancum, which, by interpretation, is large, or to exceed all; wherefore, when they came to these waters they pitched their tents; and Shiz also pitched his tents near unto them; and therefore on the morrow they did come to battle.
      9 And it came to pass that they fought an exceedingly sore battle, in which Coriantumr was wounded again, and he fainted with the loss of blood.
      10 And it came to pass that the armies of Coriantumr did press upon the armies of Shiz that they beat them, that they caused them to flee before them; and they did flee southward, and did pitch their tents in a place which was called Ogath.
      11 And it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred.
    Jaredites : Shurr
    +[Shurr] ⇒ <is a> ⇒ [valley]
    +[Shurr] ⇒ <is near to> ⇒ [Comnor]
    +[Shurr] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {army of Coriantumr}
    +[Shurr] ⇒ <is site of> ⇒ {battle,Coriantumr vs Shiz}
    1. Ether 14:28Ether 14
      26 And it came to pass that Shiz did pursue Coriantumr eastward, even to the borders by the seashore, and there he gave battle unto Shiz for the space of three days.
      27 And so terrible was the destruction among the armies of Shiz that the people began to be frightened, and began to flee before the armies of Coriantumr; and they fled to the land of Corihor, and swept off the inhabitants before them, all them that would not join them.
      28 And they pitched their tents in the valley of Corihor; and Coriantumr pitched his tents in the valley of Shurr. Now the valley of Shurr was near the hill Comnor; wherefore, Coriantumr did gather his armies together upon the hill Comnor, and did sound a trumpet unto the armies of Shiz to invite them forth to battle.
      29 And it came to pass that they came forth, but were driven again; and they came the second time, and they were driven again the second time. And it came to pass that they came again the third time, and the battle became exceedingly sore.
      30 And it came to pass that Shiz smote upon Coriantumr that he gave him many deep wounds; and Coriantumr, having lost his blood, fainted, and was carried away as though he were dead.
      31 Now the loss of men, women and children on both sides was so great that Shiz commanded his people that they should not pursue the armies of Coriantumr; wherefore, they returned to their camp.
     3.3 Rules of Interpretation

    Rules of Interpretation are set of Rules governing how the text of the Book of Mormon in interpreted. They are working theories, not facts, on how to best read the Book of Mormon as regards to geographical references. To be accepted and remain valid, a Rule must be unanimously consistent with the ER Table. If not, then the Rule must be altered or removed.

    The Entity Relationships table in Section 3.2, the Section 3.4 Rules of Application, and these Rules of Interpretation, together, form the Logical Model for Book of Mormon geography.

    Rule Description Comments Examples
    INT_RULE_1 Assume a tight controlled translation and treat the precise wording of the text as being significant. Give priority to our best available rendition of the original text. A tight translation means that the actual words of the Book of Mormon translation came from Deity. It means that the Urim and Thummim was not a teaching device to help Joseph Smith learn "Reformed Egyptian" as an aid to translation, but was rather a direct revelatory process whereby God gave Joseph Smith the English words of the Book of Mormon. This means that the translation process was error free as it came forth from the lips of Joseph Smith to his scribes. The evidence for this is overwhelming:

    Emma Smith, The Saints Herald, Oct 1, 1879
    My belief is that the Book of Mormon is of divine authenticity - I have not the slightest doubt of it. I am satisfied that no man could have dictated the writing of the manuscripts unless he was inspired; for, when acting as his scribe, your father would dictate to me hour after hour; and when returning after meals, or after interruptions, he could at once begin where he had left off, without either seeing the manuscript or having any portion of it read to him. This was a usual thing for him to do. It would have been improbable that a learned man could do this; and, for one so ignorant and unlearned as he was, it was simply impossible.

    Joseph Smith could neither write nor dictate a coherent and well-worded letter; let alone dictating a book like the Book of Mormon. And, though I was an active participant in the scenes that transpired,...it is marvelous to me, “a marvel and a wonder,” as much so as to any one else.

    Joseph Smith
    I told the brethren, that the Book of Mormon was the most correct of any book on earth, and the keystone of our religion, and a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts, than by any other book.

    David Whitmer
    Brother Joseph would read off the English to Oliver Cowdery, who was his principal scribe, and when it was written down and repeated to Brother Joseph to see if it was correct, then it would disappear, and another character with the interpretation would appear.

    Royal Skousen
    See Translating the Book of Mormon: Evidence from the Original Manuscript. See also How Joseph Smith Translated the Book of Mormon.

    The Book of Mormon itself indicates God's direct involvement in a tight translation:

    2 Nephi 29
    2 And also, that I may remember the promises which I have made unto thee, Nephi, and also unto thy father, that I would remember your seed; and that the words of your seed should proceed forth out of my mouth unto your seed; and my words shall hiss forth unto the ends of the earth, for a standard unto my people, which are of the house of Israel;

    Ether 12
    23 And I said unto him: Lord, the Gentiles will mock at these things, because of our weakness in writing; for Lord thou hast made us mighty in word by faith, but thou hast not made us mighty in writing; for thou hast made all this people that they could speak much, because of the Holy Ghost which thou hast given them;
    24 And thou hast made us that we could write but little, because of the awkwardness of our hands. Behold, thou hast not made us mighty in writing like unto the brother of Jared, for thou madest him that the things which he wrote were mighty even as thou art, unto the overpowering of man to read them.
    25 Thou hast also made our words powerful and great, even that we cannot write them; wherefore, when we write we behold our weakness, and stumble because of the placing of our words; and I fear lest the Gentiles shall mock at our words.
    26 And when I had said this, the Lord spake unto me, saying: Fools mock, but they shall mourn; and my grace is sufficient for the meek, that they shall take no advantage of your weakness;

    The best argument that is put forth against a tightly controlled translation is DC 9:1:

    Doctrine and Covenants 9:1
    7 Behold, you have not understood; you have supposed that I would give it unto you, when you took no thought save it was to ask me.
    8 But, behold, I say unto you, that you must study it out in your mind; then you must ask me if it be right, and if it is right I will cause that your bosom shall burn within you; therefore, you shall feel that it is right.
    9 But if it be not right you shall have no such feelings, but you shall have a stupor of thought that shall cause you to forget the thing which is wrong; therefore, you cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me.
    10 Now, if you had known this you could have translated; nevertheless, it is not expedient that you should translate now.

    One interpretation of the phrase "study it out in your mind" is from the 1828 Webster Dictionary, "study: to set the thought or mind". This is different from the idea of study for the purpose of solving a problem. I think it was an actual spiritual confirmation to translate that Oliver Cowdery needed, in order to use the Urim and Thummim, not an academic preparation.

    David Whitmer:

    He [Joseph Smith] was a religious and straightforward man. He had to be; for he was illiterate and he could do nothing of himself. He had to trust in God. He could not translate unless he was humble and possessed the right feelings towards everyone. To illustrate so you can see. One morning when he was getting ready to continue the translation, something went wrong about the house and he was put out about it. Something that Emma, his wife, had done. Oliver and I went up stairs and Joseph came up soon after to continue the translation, but he could not do anything. He could not translate a single syllable. He went down stairs, out into the orchard, and made supplication to the Lord; was gone about an hour--came back to the house, asked Emma's forgiveness and then came up stairs where we were and then the translation went on all right. He could do nothing save he was humble and faithful.

    At times when Brother Joseph would attempt to translate he would look into the hat in which the stone was placed, he found he was spiritually blind and could not translate. He told us that his mind dwelt too much on earthly things, and various causes would make him incapable of proceeding with the translation. When in this condition he would go out and pray, and when he became sufficiently humble before God, he could then proceed with the translation. Now we see how very strict the Lord is, and how he requires the heart of man to be just right in his sight before he can receive revelation from him.

    Alma 16:16
    16 And there was no inequality among them; the Lord did pour out his Spirit on all the face of the land to prepare the minds of the children of men, or to prepare their hearts to receive the word which should be taught among them at the time of his coming--

    The tremendous speed of the Book of Mormon translation is strong evidence for a "tight" translation process. For example, it took Royal Skousen 21 years to determine the Book of Mormon emendations for the "Earliest Text". For the King James Version of the Bible, 6 committees of 52 learned men took 7 years. For the Book of Mormon, it was translated in 65 working days from between 7 April and 30 June 1829. There are 268,163 words in the Book of Mormon so 65 days at 8 hours a day is 515 words a minute or 8.5 words a minute. The process was for Joseph Smith to speak the words, Oliver Cowdery to write the words in long hand and then repeat back to Joseph and then correcting any errors. They were going just about a fast as possible while still being careful. So it was a dictation rather than a translation like we think of it today. In 1829 the word "translated" was often used as "transmitted". We would say "dictated".


    Where it effects geographical or historical references, the The Book of Mormon, The Earliest Text version of the Book of Mormon is used on this website, as shown below.

    — land of the Nephites —
    Standard TextEmended Text
    Alma 53:6Alma 53:6
    6 And it came to pass that Moroni had thus gained a victory over one of the greatest of the armies of the Lamanites, and had obtained possession of the city of Mulek, which was one of the strongest holds of the Lamanites in the land of Nephi; and thus he had also built a stronghold to retain his prisoners.6 And it came to pass that Moroni had thus gained a victory over one of the greatest of the armies of the Lamanites, and had obtained possession of the city of Mulek, which was one of the strongest holds of the Lamanites in the land of the Nephites; and thus he had also built a stronghold to retain his prisoners.

    — Oneidah —
    Alma 47:5Alma 47:5
    5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Onidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Onidah, to the place of arms.5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.

    — between the land —
    Alma 22:32Alma 22:32
    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward. 32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    — King Benjamin —
    Mosiah 21:28Mosiah 21:28
    28 And now Limhi was again filled with joy on learning from the mouth of Ammon that king Mosiah had a gift from God, whereby he could interpret such engravings; yea, and Ammon also did rejoice. 28 And now Limhi was again filled with joy on learning from the mouth of Ammon that king Benjamin had a gift from God, whereby he could interpret such engravings; yea, and Ammon also did rejoice.

    — Amlicites — Also: Alma 23:14 Alma 24:1,28,29 Alma 27:2,12 Alma 43:6,13,29,44
    Alma 21:2-4,16Alma 21:2-4,16
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amalekites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem.
    3 Now the Lamanites of themselves were sufficiently hardened, but the Amalekites and the Amulonites were still harder; therefore they did cause the Lamanites that they should harden their hearts, that they should wax strong in wickedness and their abominations.
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amalekites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amalekites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors.
    16 And they went forth whithersoever they were led by the Spirit of the Lord, preaching the word of God in every synagogue of the Amalekites, or in every assembly of the Lamanites where they could be admitted.
    2 Now the Lamanites and the Amlicites and the people of Amulon had built a great city, which was called Jerusalem.
    3 Now the Lamanites of themselves were sufficiently hardened, but the Amlicites and the Amulonites were still harder; therefore they did cause the Lamanites that they should harden their hearts, that they should wax strong in wickedness and their abominations.
    4 And it came to pass that Aaron came to the city of Jerusalem, and first began to preach to the Amlicites. And he began to preach to them in their synagogues, for they had built synagogues after the order of the Nehors; for many of the Amlicites and the Amulonites were after the order of the Nehors.
    16 And they went forth whithersoever they were led by the Spirit of the Lord, preaching the word of God in every synagogue of the Amlicites, or in every assembly of the Lamanites where they could be admitted.

    For Mormon's "dissertation on geography" in Alma 22, versification and punctuation changes have been made to emphasize discrete descriptions rather than a long run-on sentence.

    Versification for subject grouping (verses 28-29). Punctuation - use : and ;
    Alma 22:27-29,32Alma 22:27-29,32
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about, which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west, and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness, which ran from the sea east even to the sea west, and round about on the borders of the seashore, and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla, through the borders of Manti, by the head of the river Sidon, running from the east towards the west--and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread through the wilderness on the west, in the land of Nephi; yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla, in the borders by the seashore, and on the west in the land of Nephi, in the place of their fathers' first inheritance, and thus bordering along by the seashore.

    29 And also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them. And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites; nevertheless the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land bordering on the wilderness, at the head of the river Sidon, from the east to the west, round about on the wilderness side; on the north, even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.
    ...

    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about: which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west; and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness; which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore; and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla; through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon running from the east towards the west. And thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread: through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi; Yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla; in the borders by the seashore; and on the west in the land of Nephi; in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore. And also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them.

    29 And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites. Nevertheless, the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land: bordering on the wilderness at the head of the river Sidon; from the east to the west round about on the wilderness side; on the north even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.
    ...

    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite: On the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water; there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.
    INT_RULE_2 When determining the meaning of a word, use the Oxford English Dictionary and word definitions that date to before 1700 AD. The vocabulary used in the Book of Mormon is called "Early Modern English". EME vocabulary is used throughout the Book of Mormon. However the sentence structure and idioms in the Book of Mormon are typically more Hebraic in nature. For example the phrase "it came to pass" is Hebraic in origin as are the many examples of chiasmus. However, chiasmus and other Hebrew constructs do not help much with geography — but the correct EME word definitions can be very important. Here is what Royal Skousen says about Early Modern English regarding his work The Book of Mormon, The Earliest Text:

    Use of Early Modern English

    One of the most remarkable findings of the Critical Text Project is the frequent occurrence of vocabulary from Early Modern English. This older form of English, dating approximately from 1500 to 1700, is familiar enough from the language of the King James Bible. Yet the vocabulary of the Book of Mormon is not simply lifted from the King James Bible. In virtually all cases, the words in the Book of Mormon are still used in English, but their meanings are often different. For the most part, these meanings can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), where we often find that the citations for those meanings date to the 1500s and 1600s but do not extend into the 1700s or 1800s. Some of these word uses can be found in the King James Bible, such as require with the meaning 'to request':


    Enos 1:18
       and the Lord said unto me
       thy fathers have also required of me this thing

    OED, with citations from 1375 to 1665
       William Shakespeare, Henry VIII (1613)
          Most gracious sir,
          In humblest manner I require your Highness
          That it shall please you to declare ...

    King James Bible (1611)
       Ezra 8:22
          for I was ashamed to require of the king
          a band of soldiers and horsemen to help us
          against the enemy in the way

    Yet other word meanings in the Book of Mormon occurred in Early Modern English but are not found in the King James Bible, such as the following:


       • but if with the meaning 'unless, except'

          Mosiah 3:19 (edited to unless in the 1920 LDS edition)
             for the natural man is an enemy to God
             and has been from the fall of Adam and will be forever and ever
             but if he yieldeth to the enticings of the Holy Spirit

          OED, with citations from about 120o to 1596
          Philip Sidney, Arcadia (1580)
             He did not like that maids should once stir
             out of their fathers' houses but if it were to milk a cow.

       • counsel with the meaning 'to consult with'

          Alma 37:37 (edited to counsel with in the 1920 LDS edition)
             counsel the Lord in all thy doings

          Alma 39:10 (edited to counsel with in the 1920 LDS edition)
             take it upon you to counsel your elder brothers in your undertakings

          OED, with citations from 1382 to 1547
          John Hooper (1547)
             Moses ... counseled the Lord
             and thereupon advised his subjects what was to be done

       • depart with the meaning 'to part, divide, separate'

          Helaman 8:11 (emended to parted in the 1830 edition)
             God gave power unto one man even Moses
             to smite upon the waters of the Red Sea
             and they departed hither and thither

          OED, with citations from 1297 through 1677
          Geneva Bible, 1557 translation of John 19:24
             they departed my raiment among them

          [the King James Bible reads "they parted my raiment among them"]

    detect with the meaning 'to expose'
          Helaman 9:17 (unchanged in all textual sources)

             and now behold we will detect this man
             and he shall confess his fault and make
             known unto us the true murderer of this judge

          OED, with citations from 1449 to 1645
          Richard Hooker, Of the lawes of ecclesiastical politie (1594)
             The Gentlewoman goeth forward, and detecteth herself of a crime.

    INT_RULE_3 "Wilderness" areas are river bottom-land areas, and are therefore synonymous with "river", unless otherwise specified in the text. An understanding of how this word is used is essential to understanding Book of Mormon geography. The Old English root of the word is "wild deer-ness" where ness indicates a state of being and the Early Modern English definition of wilderness is: "uninhabited region" or inhabited only by wild animals. A wilderness is therefore a term relating to state of an area for permanent human habitation and not associated with a particular climate. The Book of Mormon follows that definition. When Lehi leaves Jerusalem they travel down the Arabian peninsula in an arid desert which they call a wilderness. Later in America, there are no arid areas in the heartland of North America, yet there are frequent mentions of wilderness. A good example of the usage of the word "wilderness" is Ether 10:21 (And they did preserve the land southward for a wilderness, to get game...) where the whole land southward becomes a "wilderness" simply because they choose to designate it as a game preserve instead of for human habitation. Also in Alma 2:37 it names a region "called Hermounts; and it was that part of the wilderness which was infested by wild and ravenous beasts". From the Book of Jacob onward, a wilderness is either a uninhabited forest region or river bottom-lands. It is much more frequently the latter case because there are lots of rivers in North America and their bottom lands are uninhabitable flood plains. Traveling is frequently done "in" the wilderness after departing "into" the wilderness.
    • Nephi makes journey from the land of first inheritance to the land of Nephi by traveling into the wilderness. Mosiah 10:16
    • Lamanites wander about in the wilderness dwelling in tents and feeding upon beasts of prey. Lamanites travel in the wilderness. Enos 1:20 - Mosiah 23:30,35
    • Nephites depart land of Nephi and go into the wilderness to Zarahemla. Omni 1:1 - Mosiah 8:7 - Mosiah 19:23 - Mosiah 21:25 - Mosiah 21:34 - Mosiah 22:2,6,8,11,12,13,15,16 - Mosiah 22:2 - Mosiah 23:1,3 - Mosiah 24:24,25 - Mosiah 25:2
    • Nephites journey into the wilderness to go to the land of Nephi. Omni 1:27,28,29 - Mosiah 7:4 - Mosiah 9:3,4 - Mosiah 28:9
    • Nephites journey from land of Nephi in the wilderness to Jaredite lands. Mosiah 8:8
    • Alma and his people travel in the wilderness on their way to Zarahemla. Mosiah 18:34 - Mosiah 23:1,3 - Mosiah 24:20
    • King Noah and his people flee from Lamanites by fleeing into the wilderness. Mosiah 19:9 - Mosiah 19:18,23 - Mosiah 20:4,5,18,23 - Mosiah 21:20
    • Amlicites, and slain and driven, until they had reached that part of the wilderness which was infested by wild and ravenous beasts. Alma 2:37
    • Jaredites "preserve" the land south as a "wilderness" to get game. Ether 10:21
    • Et cetera, there are 447 references to "wilderness", most frequently in reference to travel.
    INT_RULE_4 Use the phrase "go up" for travel to a place that is less familiar and the phrase "down to" to indicate travel to a place that is home, or more familiar. One common phrase used in the Book of Mormon is to go "down to" and to go "up to" places of some distance apart. These phrases are used very consistently for each place-name and the list to the right summarizes all the occurrences and variations of going "up" and "down".

    One possibility considered, is that up means south and down means north. Normal American-English would do the opposite, saying up for north and down for south: as in, "down to Florida" and "up to New York". According to the Logical Model, "up" is usually south and "down" is usually north in the Book of Mormon. Zarahemla is always down from Nephi (10 times) and Nephi is always up from Zarahemla (11 times). However, there are exceptions, for example: when prisoners are sent "down" to Zarahemla from Cumeni. Cumeni is north of Zarahemla. For the exceptions, I have to reject the up=south and down=north hypothesis.

    Another possibility is that up and down refer to elevation. However, this is clearly Ruled out by having Zarahemla always down from Nephi. That Zarahemla is of higher elevation as easily seen by the Sidon/Mississippi which flows downward from Zarahemla to Nephi. So it would be obvious to the Nephites that Zarahemla has higher elevation, yet they always go down to Zarahemla from Nephi. There are many other problems with the elevation hypothesis. So I reject it also.

    The interpretation that fits 100% is that "down" means home and "up" is not home. In American English we also say "down home". This interpretation is consistent with the ER model. For example there are no occurrences of going "up" to the capital city of Zarahemla from any direction or location. Zarahemla is the center, heart, and capital, so it is always "down to".
    • Go up to Jerusalem (after they have departed). 3 Nephi 3:9,10,23,29 - 1 Nephi 4:1,2,3,4 - 1 Nephi 5:6 - 1 Nephi 7:1,3,4,15
    • From Zarahemla: go up to Nephi or into the wilderness towards Nephi. Omni 1:27,28 - Mosiah 7:1,2,3,4,9,13 - Mosiah 8:2 - Mosiah 9:3 - Mosiah 10:1,8 - Mosiah 28:1,5,6,7,9 - Mosiah 29:3 - Alma 17:8 - Alma 20:2 (from Ishmael) - Alma 26:9,3 - Helaman 4:4
    • From Nephi: go down to Zarahemla. Omni 1:13 - Mormon 1:13 - Alma 27:5,7,8,9 - Alma 49:10 - Alma 51:11 - Alma 51:10 - Alma 53:12 - Alma 56:3,25 - Helaman 5:5 - Helaman 6:1
    • Go down to Zarahemla from Cumeni. Helaman 1:15.16.20
    • Gadianton robbers go down to attack Nephites. 3 Nephi 3:3,4,8,12,17,25 - 3 Nephi 4:1
    • Go down to Jershon from Nephi. Alma 27:26
    • Lamanites come down to Moronihah. Alma 63:13
    • Lamanites armies pursue Teancum down by the seashore, northward. Alma 52:23
    • Go down to Zarahemla from Cumeni. Alma 57:15,16,28,29,30
    • Lamoni and Ammon go down to Middoni from Ishmael. Alma 20:7
    • Come up to Nephi from Middoni. Alma 22:3
    • Lamanites come up to land of Nephi to replace the King. Alma 24:20
    • Lamanites came up on the north of the hill. Alma 43:34
    • Went down to some place south from Jerusalem. 1 Nephi 2:5 - 1 Nephi 3:15,16,22 - 1 Nephi 4:33,34,35 - 1 Nephi 5:1,5 - 1 Nephi 7:2,5,22
    • Lamanites come down to Desolation to battle. Mormon 3:7,8 - Mormon 4:17,18
    • Ether goes down, which is northward, to the valley of Nimrod. Ether 2:1,4
    INT_RULE_5 The word "journey" indicates a trip of more than one day, otherwise the trip is of one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less. For example, "came over to" means one day or less. In the book of Mormon, when one has a journey it appears consistent with the Book of Morman usage to say that it is a process, taking some time. The word "journey" originally comes from the French, meaning "day". So if someone "takes a journey" it means 1 or more days travel. This usage is consistent and compatible with the the rest of the Logical Model.
    • Took their journey back to Jerusalem. 1 Nephi 3:9
    • Took their journey into the wilderness. 1 Nephi 7:5,21 - 1 Nephi 16:9,16 - 1 Nephi 17:1 - 2 Nephi 5:7 - Mosiah 10:13 - Mosiah 22:12
    • Took their journey into the wilderness towards Nephi. Omni 1:29
    • Took their journey into the wilderness towards Zarahemla. Mosiah 8:7 - Mosiah 9:3
    • Alma fled eight days journey into the wilderness to Waters of Mormon. Mosiah 23:3
    • Alma fled twelve days journey into the wilderness to Zarahemla (from the Valley of Alma). Mosiah 23:3
    • Sons of Mosiah II take journey into the wilderness to Nephi. Mosiah 28:9
    • Alma takes his journey to Melek from Nephi. Alma 8:3
    • Alma travels three days journey from Melek to Ammonihah. Alma 8:6
    • Alma takes his journey to Aaron. Alma 8:13
    • Ammon and Lamoni proceeded on their journey towards Middoni. Alma 20:28
    • Aaron takes his journey to land of Jerusalem which borders Mormon. Alma 21:1
    • Lamanites take their journey from Antionum round about in the wilderness to the head of the Sidon in Manti. Alma 42:22
    • Alma went over the river to Gideon. Alma 6:7
    • Korihor went over to Jershon from Zarahemla. Alma 30:19
    • Corihor goes over to Nehor from Moron. Alma 30:19
    • Woman fled and came over to the camp of Moroni. Alma 50:31
    • Lamanites came over to dwell in the land of Ishmael. Alma 25:13
    • Aaron came over to Ani-Anti. Alma 21:11
    • Alma came over to Zarahemla. Alma 15:18
    INT_RULE_6 When cities are listed, order is bottom to top. Southern first and northern last. This APP_RULE_ is controversial because there is no reason for it, except that it works consistently well in multiple instances. This type of precise interpretation can be made if the translation process is considered a "tight" translation rather than a loose translation. See INT_RULE_1.
    INT_RULE_7 The phrase "round about" indicates "circuitous or indirect, as a road, journey" This definition goes back to the mid 1500's and is still commonly used.
    INT_RULE_8 The word "hill" means an elevated area of land but without a clearly defined peak, whereas a "mount" is a natural or man-made structure that has a clearly defined summitor as part of a fortified location. The Oxford English Dictionary definition of hill is: "A naturally raised area of land, not as high or craggy as a mountain." The distinction can be ambiguous in normal usage but a consistant Book of Mormon distinction for these words is reinforced by INT_RULE_1 and the typical Early Modern English as found in the Bible. Under this definition a "mount" in EME can also be called a "mound" (as constructed by Lamanite peoples) in modern English.
    Related word usage:

    Miriam Webster dictionary
    Mount
    1 : a high hill : mountain —used especially before an identifying name
       Mount Everest
    2 archaic : earthwork 1
    3 : mound 2a(1)

    Wikipedia
    Place of Arms
    A place-of-arms is any place in a fortification where troops can gather. The term has a number of meanings, but it generally refers to an enlarged area of the covertway designed as an assembly point for soldiers, or a square in the centre of a fortress, also known as a parade ground.

    Alma 47:5-14,18-20
    5 And now he had got the command of those parts of the Lamanites who were in favor of the king; and he sought to gain favor of those who were not obedient; therefore he went forward to the place which was called Oneidah, for thither had all the Lamanites fled; for they discovered the army coming, and, supposing that they were coming to destroy them, therefore they fled to Oneidah, to the place of arms.
    6 And they had appointed a man to be a king and a leader over them, being fixed in their minds with a determined resolution that they would not be subjected to go against the Nephites.
    7 And it came to pass that they had gathered themselves together upon the top of the mount which was called Antipas, in preparation to battle.
    8 Now it was not Amalickiah's intention to give them battle according to the commandments of the king; but behold, it was his intention to gain favor with the armies of the Lamanites, that he might place himself at their head and dethrone the king and take possession of the kingdom.
    9 And behold, it came to pass that he caused his army to pitch their tents in the valley which was near the mount Antipas.
    10 And it came to pass that when it was night he sent a secret embassy into the mount Antipas, desiring that the leader of those who were upon the mount, whose name was Lehonti, that he should come down to the foot of the mount, for he desired to speak with him.
    11 And it came to pass that when Lehonti received the message he durst not go down to the foot of the mount. And it came to pass that Amalickiah sent again the second time, desiring him to come down. And it came to pass that Lehonti would not; and he sent again the third time.
    12 And it came to pass that when Amalickiah found that he could not get Lehonti to come down off from the mount, he went up into the mount, nearly to Lehonti's camp; and he sent again the fourth time his message unto Lehonti, desiring that he would come down, and that he would bring his guards with him. 13 For they knew not that Moroni had fortified, or had built forts of security, for every city in all the land round about; therefore, they marched forward to the land of Noah with a firm determination; yea, their chief captains came forward and took an oath that they would destroy the people of that city.
    14 But behold, to their astonishment, the city of Noah, which had hitherto been a weak place, had now, by the means of Moroni, become strong, yea, even to exceed the strength of the city Ammonihah.
    ...
    18 Now behold, the Lamanites could not get into their forts of security by any other way save by the entrance, because of the highness of the bank which had been thrown up, and the depth of the ditch which had been dug round about, save it were by the entrance.
    19 And thus were the Nephites prepared to destroy all such as should attempt to climb up to enter the fort by any other way, by casting over stones and arrows at them.
    20 Thus they were prepared, yea, a body of their strongest men, with their swords and their slings, to smite down all who should attempt to come into their place of security by the place of entrance; and thus were they prepared to defend themselves against the Lamanites.


    There is a lot of warfare described in the Book of Mormon, including some detail on the fortifications which including ditches, walls, "heaps of earth", and guard towers. Another sample below. The Nephite fortifications as described are built on the same principle of English"motte-and-baily" fortifications, about a thousand years later (circa 900 AD - 1300 AD). I believe the majority of the 1000's of mounds found by the early European settlers in America were the remains of ancient fortifications. Just a sampling of the many fortifications that once existed are documented in Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley: Comprising the Results of Extensive Original Surveys and Explorations (1848) by the Americans Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis.

    Alma 50:1-6
    1 And now it came to pass that Moroni did not stop making preparations for war, or to defend his people against the Lamanites; for he caused that his armies should commence in the commencement of the twentieth year of the reign of the judges, that they should commence in digging up heaps of earth round about all the cities, throughout all the land which was possessed by the Nephites.
    2 And upon the top of these ridges of earth he caused that there should be timbers, yea, works of timbers built up to the height of a man, round about the cities.
    3 And he caused that upon those works of timbers there should be a frame of pickets built upon the timbers round about; and they were strong and high.
    4 And he caused towers to be erected that overlooked those works of pickets, and he caused places of security to be built upon those towers, that the stones and the arrows of the Lamanites could not hurt them.
    5 And they were prepared that they could cast stones from the top thereof, according to their pleasure and their strength, and slay him who should attempt to approach near the walls of the city.
    6 Thus Moroni did prepare strongholds against the coming of their enemies, round about every city in all the land.

    The Bass of Inverurie in Scotland, a large mid-12th century motte-and-bailey castle. Now just a mound.

    Plan of Topcliffe Castle in England, an archetypal motte-and-bailey design.

    A vliedburg motte in the Netherlands.

    The motte (left) and bailey (right) of Clough Castle in Ireland

    Criel mound in South Charleston West Virginia.

    From Etowah mounds in Cartersville Georgia.

    From Angel Mounds State Historic Site in Indiana

    North American mound on Tumblr, location not stated.

    Defensive ditch at Etowah Mounds in Cartersville, Georgia

     3.4 Rules of Application

    Rules of Application are a set of Rules governing how the Physical Model is built after the Entity Relationships have been considered. They are working theories, on how to topography, trade routes, distances, borders and other physical features are considered when constructing a map based on the Entity Relationships.

    The Entity Relationships in Section 3.2 (ER Table), the Rules of Interpretation, and these Rules of Application, together, form the Logical Model for Book of Mormon geography.

    Rule Description Comments Examples
    APP_RULE_1 When compatible with Entity Relationships, cities are placed along navigable rivers or water ways, especially near where the mouth of the river empties into a lake or sea and where two rivers meet, but not in river flood plains. This has alway been true of all civilizations, for travel, trade, and defense, especially in the era before mechanized transportation. New York City, Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, Los Angeles.
    APP_RULE_2 Trade and travel routes are on lakes and rivers as a first choice. This applies to exploration, military travel, migrations, and missionary journeys in the Book of Mormon. This follows logically from APP_RULE_1. Anciently rivers were the great highways. When armies travel on land, they still follow rivers because they need to live off the land where there is game and water for men and draft animals. Rivers are the best way to provide provisions, reinforcements, communications, and evacuation for the wounded. Additionally, the alluvial plains are flat for ease of travel and building roads. Rivers typically lead naturally to populated areas that need defending.
    APP_RULE_3 Present day cities and towns serve as a positive indicator of appropriate placements. Besides APP_RULE_1, there are a variety of complicated factors in choosing land for a city, including the lay of the land, the depth of water channels, the quality of the soil, and how militarily defensible the location is. These factors did not vary much between the early settlers in America and the ancient Nephites.
    APP_RULE_4 Book of Mormon "lands" are located in the areas between the rivers so that the rivers serve as the natural borders. Just like in modern times where large rivers form state boundaries, it would have been the same in Nephite times, only more so, because their "lands" were smaller than our "states".
    APP_RULE_5 Sites with archeological remains are preferred as likely Book of Mormon sites if they are compatible with the entity relationships. Using archeology is important but always a secondary consideration to the Book of Mormon text.
    APP_RULE_6 Average civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 1.5 mph. Distances in the Book of Mormon is always given in days, so it is necessary to have a set of travel formulas for land and water, for civilian, for military etc. Civilian travel distance is gaged from the accounts of pioneers who recorded that 15 miles a day was good time, better than average. It is a walking speed, with draft animals, and herds, with some baggage. Maximum travel time is eight hours after subtracting sleep, food preparation, camp set up and take down, and various emergencies that happen. So, for example, a 10 day journey is 10*8*1.5 = 120 miles. A 120 mile trip is 120/(8*1.5) = 10 days
    APP_RULE_7 Average military or emergency civilian travel marching distances are calculated at 8 hours traveling per day at 2.5 mph. Soldiers travel faster, without women and children, the elderly, herds, and extra baggage. Civilian groups can travel at this speed also if emergency conditions require, like being chased by an enemy. So, for example, a 10 day journey is 10*8*2.5 = 200 miles. A 200 mile trip is 200/(8*2.5) = 10 days.
    APP_RULE_8 Water travel with no current, as in the Great Lakes, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 4 mph. This is rowing speed, or the speed one could expect with a small sail without rowing. So, for example, a 10 day journey is 10*8*4 = 320 miles. A 320 mile trip is 320/(8*4) = 10 days.
    APP_RULE_9 Water travel with the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 6 mph. Water current averages about 2 mph so this is APP_RULE_9 plus the water current speed. So, for example, a 10 day journey is 10*8*6 = 480 miles. A 480 mile trip is 480/(8*6) = 10 days.
    APP_RULE_10 Water travel against the river current, is calculated at an average speed of 8 hours traveling per day at 2 mph. Water current averages about 2 mph so this is APP_RULE_9 minus the water current speed. So, for example, a 10 day journey is 10*8*2 = 160 miles. A 160 mile trip is 160/(8*2) = 10 days
     3.5 Finding a Consensus

    We live in a great time of Book of Mormon studies. I rejoice that there is so much good work and research going on about the Book of Mormon. It shows a respect for this sacred scripture that is so worthy of respect. I hope that all involved will keep it collegial (Collegial: Full of or conducive to good will among colleagues; friendly and respectful). It is important that the disciples of Christ not "dispute" but rather unite in the search for truth. The search and desire for truth can thus prepare our minds for truth, so we can find it by seeking, and also have it revealed to us from the Heavens as needed. It is important to be "willing to believe".

    Elder Jeffery Holland said:

    In one of the earliest such manifestations after His Resurrection, Jesus came to the eleven, inviting them to touch His hands and feet as He sat to eat meat and honeycomb. To those who doubted, Mark says He “upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart.” The message is that if members of the Godhead go to the trouble of providing “many infallible proofs” of truth, then surely we are honor bound to affirm and declare that truth and may be upbraided if we do not. My testimony to you tonight is that the gospel is infallibly true and that a variety of infallible proofs supporting that assertion will continue to come until Jesus descends as the ultimate infallible truth of all. Our testimonies aren’t dependent on evidence—we still need that spiritual confirmation in the heart of which we have spoken—but not to seek for and not to acknowledge intellectual, documentable support for our belief when it is available is to needlessly limit an otherwise incomparably strong theological position and deny us a unique, persuasive vocabulary in the latter-day arena of religious investigation and sectarian debate. Thus armed with so much evidence of the kind we have celebrated here tonight, we ought to be more assertive than we sometimes are in defending our testimony of truth.

    To that point I mention that while we were living and serving in England, I became fond of the writing of the English cleric Austin Farrer. Speaking of the contribution made by C. S. Lewis specifically and of Christian apologists generally, Farrer said: “Though argument does not create conviction, lack of it destroys belief. What seems to be proved may not be embraced; but what no one shows the ability to defend is quickly abandoned. Rational argument does not create belief, but it maintains a climate in which belief may flourish.

    May we leave to Nephi, son of Helaman, the last word regarding our celebration of gospel scholarship tonight. Said he of that which God has given an “infallible proof”:

    “And now, . . . ye know these things and cannot deny them [because of the] many evidences which ye have received; yea, even ye have received all things, both things in heaven, and all things which are in the earth, as a witness that they are true.”

    On this website, I have presented a new set of maps for the Physical Model of the Book of Mormon that is "Zarahemla Centric". I hope there is some good in it but it may or may not be correct. I care far less about the map than I care about the Logical Model and it's usefulness. No matter your favorite map, if you believe in the Book of Mormon, it is possible to come to agreement on a abstract Logical Model that is based on the Book of Mormon. Fixing and refining the Logical Model creates a useful tool and can also lead to increased respect and belief in the Book of Mormon — and help create "a climate in which belief may flourish".

     3.6 Scoring Book of Mormon maps

    Many diverse maps have been produced over the years and the Entity Relationships table in section 3.2 can be used to give Book of Mormon these maps a "score" for compliance to the Book of Mormon text. Using google I picked out the first 7 additional maps I came across to include as an example of map scoring.

    Below is the table of scores. After the table are displayed the corresponding maps, with commentary. Note that the table of scores includes Nephite/Lamanite place-names and if the place-name is missing from the map then it is marked "na" (not available). NA counts as zero in the score count and this is a major reason these maps cannot effectively compete with the ZCHM map. The 7 google found maps are not complete, which is an indication that the logical model behind them (whatever it consisted of) was probably not complete either. Another possibility is that the logical model behind them was more complete than what the physical map locale could support.

    Column Key
    ZCHM = Zarahamla Centric Heartland Map
    HLM-1 = HeartLand Map 1
    NYM-1 = New York Map 1
    NYM-2 = New York Map 2
    MAM-1 = Mesoamerica Map 1
    MAM-2 = Mesoamerica Map 2
    MAM-3 = Mesoamerica Map 3
    MAM-4 = Mesoamerica Map 4
    MAM-5 = Mesoamerica Map 5

    Map Compliance to Book of Mormon text
    Entity Relationship Map Scoring Table

    GRAND TOTAL 35935933202996119617071
    PeriodSite or FeatureER PointsZCHMHLM-1NYM-1NYM-2MAM-1MAM-2MAM-3MAM-4MAM-5
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Aaron330nana1na101
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Ammonihah66nanana13435
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Amulon44nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Amnihu22nananana10nana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Ani-Anti22nananana1nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Antionum663nana32na02
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Antiparah55na1nana2na0na
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Antipas44nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Bountiful131323610521
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    city by Seashore77nanana43na55
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Cumeni44nanana44na44
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Desolation8855521nana1
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    East Sea161620051070
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    East Wilderness55nananana3nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gad11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gadiandi11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gadiomnah11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gid44nanana3343na
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gideon44nanana233na3
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gilgal11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Gimgimno11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Hagoth33nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Helam77nanana1nananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Hermounts11nananana0nana1
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Hill North of Shilom11nanananananana1
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Ishmael44nanana22nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Jacob11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Jacobugath11nananana0nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Jershon88nanana6163na
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Jerusalem44nana021nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Judea44nanana34na42
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Kishkumen11nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Laman11nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Lehi44nanana13332
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Lehi-Nephi22nana2nanananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Lemuel33nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Manti772nana36242
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Manti hill11nananana1nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Melek66nanana32414
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Middoni33nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Midian11na0nananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Minon22nanana222nana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Mocum11nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Morianton1010nanana667nana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Mormon221nana22nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Moroni88nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Mulek33nanana3231na
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Narrow Neck44344na3na3na
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Narrow Pass/Passage554nanananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Narrow Strip110nanananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Nephi151531276618
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Nephihah55nanana31333
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Noah11nanana1na011
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Omner55nananana4na3na
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Onidah22nananana2nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Onidah11nananana1nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Onihah11nananana1nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Riplah44nananana1nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Ripliancum331na1nanananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Sebus22nananana2nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Shemlon66nanana3nanana2
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Shilom88nana21nanana4
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Shim33nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Shimnilom44nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Sidom11nana010101
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Sidon55011na4231
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Sidon Head550nana2nananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Siron11nanana10nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Teancum22nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Waters of Mormon22nanana00nanana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Valley of Alma55nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Valley of Gideon55nananananananana
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    West Sea121232330020
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Zarahemla1515312713483
    Reign of the Judges
    [91 BC to 30 AD]
    Zeezrom44nanana44na44
    Nephite Late PeriodAngola33nanana22nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodAntum11nanana01nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodBoaz33nananana3nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodCumorah1111na11019
    Nephite Late PeriodDavid33nananana2nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodDesolation440nanana0nana0
    Nephite Late PeriodJashon22nanana02nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodJordon22nananana2nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodJoshua66nananana2nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodMoriantum11nananana1nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodNarrow Passage11nananananananana
    Nephite Late PeriodShem 11nananana0nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodSherrizah11nananana1nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodShim55nananana1nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodSidon11nananana0nanana
    Nephite Late PeriodTeancum22nananananananana
    Nephite Late PeriodZarahemla11011na0111

    ZCHM = Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map

    Below is the Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map, a Heartland map of North American but with significant variations. Note that the color coding for the ZCHM map is yellow for early Nephite through the Reign of the Judges period and then red for late Nephite history. Increase size to see additional detail.

      Pros
    1. Has good detail/resolution.
    2. Includes all Nephite/Lamanite place-names and geographical features.
    3. Conforms to the to the Entity Relationship definitions with a perfect score.

      Cons
    1. Could still use a little higher resolution. Hard to fit everything on the map.

    HLM-1 = HeartLand Map 1

    This is a Heartland map and typical of it's genre I think.

      Pros
    1. Gets Zarahemla and Cumorah in the right locations.
    2. Generally attractive in its graphical presentation.

      Cons
    1. Cluttered with too many current day locations. Most of Book of Mormon locations are missing.
    2. Requires the invention of lakes and seas that were not extant 2000 years ago. From 600BC to 420AD the Great Lakes had pretty much the same outline as today. If anything, the weather was warmer at that time, and the water level of the lakes 3-6 feet lower. See section 3.6
    3. Requires the invention of places not mentioned in the Book of Mormon. There is only one west sea in the Book of Mormon. Not a "sea west north" and a separate "sea west south".

    NYM-1 = New York Map 1

    This is a New York map. I am sympathetic to New York maps. I once postulated that the narrow neck of land mentioned in the Book of Mormon was between Lakes Erie and Ontario.

      Pros
    1. Easy to read.

      Cons
    1. Suffers from a dearth of Book of Mormon locations.
    2. Requires the invention of lakes and seas that were not extant 2000 years ago. Lake Tonawanda, for example, existed at the tail end of the last ice age - way before the Book of Mormon period.
    3. Requires the invention of places not mentioned in the Book of Mormon. There is only one west sea in the Book of Mormon. Not a "sea west north" and a separate "sea west south".
    4. Does not place the actual cities.

    NYM-2 = New York Map 2

    This is a New York map that is much better than the first New York map. One of the problems with "limited area" New York maps is that the Book of Mormon clearly states it was not a limited location, even at the earlier time of the Reign of the Judges. See Helaman 3:8

      Pros
    1. Easy to read.
    2. Shows city locations.

      Cons
    1. Better than NYM-1 but still suffers from a dearth of Book of Mormon locations.
    2. The locations seem almost random. Despite naming many more places than NYM-1, NYM-2 has a similar score.

    MAM-1 = Mesoamerica Map 1

    Mesoamerica maps, in general, score much better than New York maps and Heartland maps simply because more work was put into them and more place-names identified.

      Pros
    1. Includes a lot of place-names.
    2. Unlike many Mesoamerica maps, the sea names are plausible.

      Cons
    1. This map looks "gerrymandered" and without regard for topography. For example, Bountiful stretches around to cover North, West, and Southern locations, which is improbable.
    2. Includes the description of many places not mentioned in the Book of Mormon: 1) Bountiful East, Bountiful Center, Bountiful West, Lesser Land of Nephi.
    3. Does not identify cities and geographical features (like the "narrow neck of land").

    MAM-2 = Mesoamerica Map 2

    The is the most complete Mesoamerica map and the second highest scoring overall.

      Pros
    1. Includes most place-names. They are probably all there but some are not possible to read in this version.
    2. Shows topography.

      Cons
    1. Many names are hard to read.
    2. The sea names do not match the geographical directions.

    MAM-3 = Mesoamerica Map 3

    Another Mesoamerica map, quite different from the others.

      Pros
    1. Easy to read.
    2. Shows topography.

      Cons
    1. Suffers from a dearth of Book of Mormon locations (compared to other Mesoamerican maps).
    2. The seas are not named. The cities are not included.

    MAM-4 = Mesoamerica Map 4

    A beautifully made Mesoamerica map.

      Pros
    1. Extremely attractive map. Sharp and easy to read.
    2. Shows topography.

      Cons
    1. Is apparently intended only to include campaigns of "captain" Moroni, so it is limited.
    2. The campaign routes are nonsensical when it come to rivers and terrain.

    MAM-5 = Mesoamerica Map 5

    A Mesoamerica map that is kind of combination of MAM-1 and MAM-3.

      Pros
    1. Very easy to read.
    2. Shows topography to some extent.

      Cons
    1. The seas are not named. The cities are not specified.
    2. Topography and rivers are totally ignored as boundaries.
     4 Physical Model
     4.1 Building the Physical Model

    The creation of a Logical Model comes first. The foundational component for the Logical Model are the entity relationships (ER Table in Section 3.2). In NO CASE does the Nephite master map in Section 1.1 serve as input to the ER table definitions. The ER table is actually just a condensed and formalized version of the Book of Mormon text itself as is relates to geography. Therefore when the ER Table changes because of textual analysis THEN the map may change but NEVER vice-versa. The Logical Model consists of both the ER Table and the Rules of Navigation in Section 3.3. The Rules of Navigation ARE affected by map contents and topography. In order to be a "Rule" (which means an acceptable working theory) in Section 3.3 a Rule/theory must be consistent with every occasion it is used. If a Rule/theory fails even once to be 100% consistant then it is removed from Section 3.3. So far, in every case, I have found that the Entity Relationships, which is based on the Book of Mormon text alone, to be 100% internally compatible with itself. This finding is a testimony, to me, of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon. Starting with Zarahemla to be near Montgomery Iowa and then using the Logical Model as the guide (Zarahemla Centric Heartland Map), I have found little difficulty in creating a Physical Model. It just fits and feels so comfortable. This second finding is, to me, a testimony of the validity of the Zarahemla Centric Model Book of Mormon geography.

     4.2 Mormon's Dissertation on Book Of Mormon Lands

    Book of Mormon locations and directions are frequently and prominently mentioned in the narratives. So also is the chronology. I believe that everything in the Book of Mormon is important, was placed there for a reason, and has a role to play in the latter-days. Room on the plates was precious so it shows the Nephite prophets thought the basic geography was important also, because they included a remarkable amount of both geography and chronology, especially for the period of the Reign of the Judges. Geography and chronology are the "backbone of history" and, once understood, create a opportunity where the Book of Mormon can be studied in its full depth.

    In Alma 22:27-34, Mormon takes a break in the abridged narrative, to give us a major explanation in his own words of all the locations and political boundaries of about 80 BC. Unfortunately, the way it currently reads is confusing and sometimes contradictory because the original Book of Mormon manuscript was totally unpunctuated, except for a mark indicating chapter breaks. Punctuation wasn't added until the typesetter set the type for the press. Therefore, the original sentence punctuation is not revealed knowledge from heaven and I believe it is incorrect for Alma 22:27-34. The problems with Alma 22 can be resolved by replacing the long run-on sentences with discrete shorter ones and by using bullet items for clearer emphasis.

    Alma 22:27-34 -- Side by Side With Bullet Item Changes

    Here are the proposed changes in Alma 22:27-34, followed by further analysis of the text in subsequent commentary. The purpose of the bullet items in the verses below is to separate each phrase as its own thought, so they are not read as part of the bullet item before or after, but tie back to the sentence ending in a colon. Also, in this case, the bullets are labeled in capital letters for ready reference to the adjoining map.

    Note that:

    • Verse 27 is a description of the borders separating Nephites from Lamanites.
    • Verse 28 describes where the major populations of Lamanites are located;
    • Verse 29 describes where major populations of Nephites are located. (The first sentence of verse 29 moved to last sentence of verse 28.)
    • Verses 30-32 describe the northern lands of former Jaredite territories.
    • Verses 33-34 describe the land as it relates to the Nephite military situation.
    Text without bullet items Text with bullet items  

    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about, which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west, and which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness, which ran from the sea east even to the sea west, and round about on the borders of the seashore, and the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla, through the borders of Manti, by the head of the river Sidon, running from the east towards the west; and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.

    27 And it came to pass that the king sent a proclamation throughout all the land, amongst all his people who were in all his land, who were in all the regions round about:

    1. Which was bordering even to the sea, on the east and on the west.
    2. And which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness.
    3. Which ran from the sea east even to the sea west and round about on the borders of the seashore (A again)
    4. And the borders of the wilderness which was on the north by the land of Zarahemla (also F),
    5. Through the borders of Manti by the head of the river Sidon (C→A) running from the east towards the west (C again).

    and thus were the Lamanites and the Nephites divided.



    Verse 27 explains borders as opposed to verse 28 which describes inhabited locations. Borders are light blue. Narrow strip of wilderness is yellow.

    There is no sea directly west of Nephite lands. However, from the perspective of the Great Lake "seas", Lake Superior is the western most sea, called the "west sea". Therefore Lake Superior is the west sea because that is how it best relates to the other seas. In one case, Nephite lands are described as being south of the west sea - therefore the west sea is north of Nephite lands and west of the east sea. See commentary on Alma 53:22. See also the entities "West Sea" and "East Sea" in Section 3.2.

    Borders separating Nephite lands from Lamanite lands at about 80 BC
    Map showing border of Nephite lands, 80 BC

    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread through the wilderness on the west, in the land of Nephi; yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla, in the borders by the seashore, and on the west in the land of Nephi, in the place of their fathers' first inheritance, and thus bordering along by the seashore.

    28 Now, the more idle part of the Lamanites lived in the wilderness, and dwelt in tents; and they were spread:

    1. through the wilderness on the west in the land of Nephi;
    2. yea, and also on the west of the land of Zarahemla;
    3. in the borders by the seashore;;
    4. and on the west in the land of Nephi;
    5. in the place of their fathers' first inheritance and thus bordering along by the seashore.

    And also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore (F), whither the Nephites had driven them.


    Verse 28 tells where major populations of Lamanites were located at the time. A = river wilderness west of St. Louis; B = western Iowa; C = Minnesota; D = Western Missouri; E = New Orleans; and CF = Chicago region. I believe "wilderness", "strip of wilderness", "borders by the wilderness", means a tributary system of the Mississippi/Sidon. So, in this case, A would indicate locations along the Missouri river. E is a little further away. There would be Lamanites all the way from Nephi to E.

    Lamanite population concentrations near to Nephites, at about 80 BC
    Lamanite population concentrations, at about 80 BC

    29 And also there were many Lamanites on the east by the seashore, whither the Nephites had driven them. And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites; nevertheless the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land bordering on the wilderness, at the head of the river Sidon, from the east to the west, round about on the wilderness side; on the north, even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.

    29 And thus the Nephites were nearly surrounded by the Lamanites. Nevertheless, the Nephites had taken possession of all the northern parts of the land:

    1. bordering on the wilderness at the head of the river Sidon;
    2. from the east to the west round about on the wilderness side;
    3. on the north even until they came to the land which they called Bountiful.


    In verse 29 the Nephites are nearly surrounded by the Lamanites and in verse 32 they are nearly surrounded by water. Which is it? First, it doesn't mean a 360 degree encirclement. In the Early Modern English, the word "surrounded" means to "hem in" or "seal off" as used in verse 33 and 3 Nephi 4:16. With that meaning in mind we can see the Nephites are surrounded (hemmed in) by the Lamanites on the west and south and surrounded (hemmed in) by water on the north and east. This makes the most sense when you consider the word "nearly". They have that small neck of land in the northeast as an escape route to the land northward. A partial encirclement for water and for Lamanites makes sense in light of Helaman 1:31 where a full encirclement is described — the specific distinction is made that not only were the Lamanites "surrounded" by they were "surrounded on every hand".

    Helaman 1:31
    And now, behold, the Lamanites could not retreat either way, neither on the north, nor on the south, nor on the east, nor on the west, for they were surrounded on every hand by the Nephites.

    Border between Lamanite and Nephite lands, outlined in blue.
    Border between Lamanite and Nephite lands

    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation, it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla, it being the place of their first landing.

    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness. Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation, and the land on the southward was called Bountiful, it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.

    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite, on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water, there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.

    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful, even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward.

    30 And it bordered upon the land which they called Desolation (D), it being so far northward that it came into the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken, which was discovered by the people of Zarahemla (Z), it being the place of their first landing (D).

    This sentence could refer to the first landing of the Jaredites or the first landing of the people of Zarahemla (Mulekites), depending on how you read it. Clearly however, to be compatible with Book of Mormon narrative as well as the Logical Model (ER table), it must be referring to the first landing of the Jaredites. Remember that the last Jeredite king, Coriantumr, wanders into Zarahemla and stays nine moons with the people of Zarahemla, where he sees the new inhabitants of the land, as Ether prophesied he would. The indication is clear that this was a first contact event because of the Lord had told Coriantumr through Ether that he would live to see the new people who were to inherit the land. There is a remarkable number of Jaredite names later used among the Nephites. I think this is best explained by the 24 gold plates that were found by the scouting party sent out by King Limhi and which were translated by King Benjamin. Thus was the detailed history of the Jaredites known among the Nephites. Our book of Ether is Mormon's abridgement of the 24 plates and not the full record.

    The question then becomes "How did the Mulekites get to Zarahemla". The narrative doesn't say but, based on their location, logic would indicate they were lead by the Lord to come right up the Mississippi just like the original Nephites did (see Section 4.3.1). Since quite a few years go by before there is contact between the two peoples, the Mulekites must have made it to the promised land first. Unlike Lehi's family traveling in the wilderness for eight plus years, Mulek and his group could have sailed to the promised land in a much more direct way, out of an Egyptian or Phonecian port. That is a story we don't have, yet.

    31 And they came from there up into the south wilderness (S). Thus the land on the northward was called Desolation (D), and the land on the southward was called Bountiful (S), it being the wilderness which is filled with all manner of wild animals of every kind, a part of which had come from the land northward for food.

    32 And now, it was only the distance of a day and a half's journey for a Nephite:

    1. on the line between the land Bountiful and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea;
    2. and thus the land of Nephi and the land of Zarahemla were nearly surrounded by water;
    3. there being a small neck of land between the land northward (D) and the land southward (S and C).

    33 And it came to pass that the Nephites had inhabited the land Bountiful (S and C), even from the east unto the west sea, and thus the Nephites in their wisdom, with their guards and their armies, had hemmed in the Lamanites on the south, that thereby they should have no more possession on the north, that they might not overrun the land northward (D).



    The (A) journey is from the east sea to the west sea so the whole journey would be by boat. And the line, between Bountiful and Desolation, would be the water border, the same border that exists today between Upper Michigan and Ontario. So it is a day and a half journey by boat following the yellow line between the east sea, Lake Michigan and the west sea, Lake Superior. From Lake Michigan, the route is north, sailing past Mackinac Island, past De Tour Village and then on to Lake Superior.

    Land of Bountiful, Narrow Neck of Land, and Border between Bountiful and Desolation.
    Land of Zarahemla (Z) and Land of Nephi (N) "nearly" surrounded by water and showing a blue border between Nephite and Lamanite lands. The Land of Zarahemla (all Nephite lands in this case) is half surrounded by water (North and East), half surrounded by Lamanites (South and West). The Land of Nephi (Lamanite land) is less "surrounded" by water since there is Nephite land in the way, at least in terms of Lake Superior (west sea) and Lake Michigan (sea East).

    34 Therefore the Lamanites could have no more possessions only in the land of Nephi, and the wilderness round about. Now this was wisdom in the Nephites, as the Lamanites were an enemy to them, they would not suffer their afflictions on every hand, and also that they might have a country whither they might flee, according to their desires.

    34 Therefore the Lamanites could have no more possessions, only in the land of Nephi, and the wilderness round about (B). Now this was wisdom in the Nephites, as the Lamanites were an enemy to them, they would not suffer their afflictions on every hand, and also that they might have a country whither they might flee, according to their desires.

    Border between Lamanite and Nephite lands outlined in blue.
     4.3 The Lands Near Nephi
     4.3.1 From Landfall to the Land of Nephi

    For Nephi to get to the heart of America it would be necessary to hitch a ride on that great river highway - the lower Mississippi. To do this the Lord, via the Liahona, led them directly to the mouth of Mississippi river, near New Orleans.

    Nephi records the very minimum about their journey to the heartland of America.

    2 Nephi 5:5-12
    5 And it came to pass that the Lord did warn me, that I, Nephi, should depart (L) from them [Laman & Lemual] and flee into the wilderness, and all those who would go with me.
    6 Wherefore, it came to pass that I, Nephi, did take my family, and also Zoram and his family, and Sam, mine elder brother and his family, and Jacob and Joseph, my younger brethren, and also my sisters, and all those who would go with me. And all those who would go with me were those who believed in the warnings and the revelations of God; wherefore, they did hearken unto my words.
    7 And we did take our tents and whatsoever things were possible for us, and did journey in the wilderness (L→N) for the space of many days. And after we had journeyed for the space of many days we did pitch our tents.
    8 And my people would that we should call the name of the place Nephi; wherefore, we did call it Nephi (N).
    9 And all those who were with me did take upon them to call themselves the people of Nephi.
    10 And we did observe to keep the judgments, and the statutes, and the commandments of the Lord in all things, according to the law of Moses.
    11 And the Lord was with us; and we did prosper exceedingly; for we did sow seed, and we did reap again in abundance. And we began to raise flocks, and herds, and animals of every kind.
    12 And I, Nephi, had also brought the records which were engraven upon the plates of brass; and also the ball, or compass, which was prepared for my father by the hand of the Lord, according to that which is written.

    Notice that they took their tents on the journey but did not pitch them for many days — not until after they arrived at the Land of Nephi. This indicates they continued to travel by boat after they left the Lamanites in "the land of first inheritance" near landfall. They took their tents and supplies with them on the ship, traveled up the Mississippi (the alluvial plains of the mid and lower Mississippi being the "wilderness" - see Section 3.3), arrived in the Land of Nephi, disembarked and pitched their tents at the end of the journey. Also note that it was not a migration over a long period of time but described as a single trip of "many days". Nephi was still alive and leading his people when they arrived. Nephi mentions he took the Liahona "compass" with him, so he had a divine means of guidance to their final destination. They arrived at the center of North America at the confluence all the major rivers (Missouri, Mississippi, Illinois, and Ohio rivers) of the American heartland. The center of America is also where Adam and Eve and the antediluvian patriarchs lived, and near to the ancient locations of the city of Enoch, the Garden of Eden, and Adam-ondi-Ahman.

    These are maps etched in rock of the Mississippi river system and the first one is shown with a corresponding paper copy that someone has drawn out. I would date these map inscriptions prior to 280 BC on the basis of the Zarahemla region not being yet included. The center corresponds with the Land of Nephi (N) or the St. Louis, Missouri area. The maps are obviously not extremely accurate and not to scale but are obviously a useful reference nevertheless. The second appears to be copy made of the first, with maybe a little more detail on the first. The scope of the maps confirms the ER Table in that early Nephite/Lamanite civilizations were centered at the central Mississippi where all the other rivers meet and that, in the view of the mapmaker, the Mississippi is the trunk and all other rivers are branches. The Ohio river is depicted with what might be interpreted as settlements and activity. Various sections of river are marked with dots and dashes which may be an indication of distance. Distance in the Book of Mormon is always given in terms of how many days travel it is. If the dashes were days and the dots were weeks then that would be a pretty good indication of the travel times I think. In the ocean, at the mouth of the Mississippi/Sidon is a depiction of a ship that may indicate Lehi's arrival, or some other. It is not distinct on the first map but more prominent on the second. Regarding the authenticity of artifacts, see Section 3.7. In red, I have identified the likely features of the map as follows:
    • G = Gulf of Mexico
    • M = Mississippi River
    • LP = Lake Pontchartrain. (note that the course of the Mississippi used to be further west than it is today)
    • A = Arkansas River, leading to Pine Bluff and Little Rock Arkansas
    • P = Pearl River, leading to Jackson Mississippi
    • N = Land of Nephi
    • MR = Missouri river going as far as Jefferson city.
    • I = Illinois River
    • D = DesPlains River
    • K = Kankakee River
    • O = Ohio River
    • W = Wabash River
    • S = Ship
    Nephite journey to heartland America
    Early "Mound city " = St Louis

    The Land of Nephi

    The Logical Model indicates the Land of Nephi to be located at where today is the city of St Louis. This is a key location in the heartland of America. It is near the center of the land and the hub of the river spokes - the exact confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois Rivers. Not too far south is also the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. This was the perfect location for the Nephites for same reasons the early settler Pierre LaClede chose the location in 1764 and specifically the high bluff area (100 ft above the flood plain) immune to flooding where downtown St Louis now resides. Of course the ancient peoples would have noticed the terrain and done the same thing.

    St Louis Missouri was once called "Mound city " because of the numerous number of large Native American mounds in the area. On the west side of the Mississippi they have all been removed for development except just part of one that remains. On the east side of the river from St. Louis is the famous Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site. Native Americans have been in the Land of Nephi locale for a very long time.

    Land of Nephi and Surrounding Lands

    The term "Land of Nephi" is where the Nephites originally settled in the promise land about 580 BC. Eventually the Nephite capital moved to Zarahemla and during the Reign of the Judges period this area was occupied by a Lamanite population. It is often referred to as Nephi, the "Land of Nephi" and sometimes as "Lehi-Nephi".

    Section 4.2 onward places the various cities and lands into map locations that are compatible with the 1) ER Model; 2) the physical terrain; and 3) the narratives contained in the Book of Mormon. The Logical Model requires he Land of Nephi proper (which includes the city of Nephi) to be land between the rivers and the land extending to the southwest, which borders the land of Mormon (the Ozarks). Also directly bordering the Land Of Nephi are Ishmael, Shilom, Shemlon, Midian, Amulon, East Wilderness (River bottomlands), and Middoni. Sometimes in the Book of Mormon the term "Land of Nephi" is used in a broad sense to include all the suburbs and surrounding areas of the city of Nephi.

    The city of St. Louis and suburbs is the ancient Land of Nephi. The Land of Nephi and surrounding areas are shown at about about 90 BC
     4.3.2 Strip of Wilderness

    Strip of Wilderness separating Nephi from Zarahemla

    There are 14 journeys between Nephi and Zarahemla mentioned in the Book of Mormon and three of these were migrations of large groups of people (people of Limhi, Alma, and Ammon), so it must not have been difficult or hazardous to travel from Nephi to Zarahemla. There is also mentioned an homogeneous piece of land called a "wilderness" or "strip of wilderness" that separates the two lands. In the case of the people of Alma we do actually have a distance in days, which is 12 (Mosiah 24), for a trip that actually starts at least two days south of Nephi. So at an estimated rate of 19 miles per day, it is a 190 mile trip from Nephi to Zarahemla for 10 days traveling by land. For early American pioneers traveling west, 20 miles a day would be the top end speed for traveling with a fully loaded wagon. More typical would be 15 miles in a day. However, for the the people of Alma there is no indication of wagons, although we do know Nephites had animals as beasts of burden. In general, pack animals are faster than wagons (and break down a lot less). Additionally, the people of Alma were in a hurry to escape their pursuers as well, so that 19 miles per day seems quite plausible. For more information on travel distances, see Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.

    Alma 22 (See Section 4.1 for an explanation of this verse)
    27 And it came to pass that the king [in Nephi] sent a proclamation throughout all the land ... which was divided from the land of Zarahemla by a narrow strip of wilderness ...

    Mosiah 22
    11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom in the wilderness, and bent their course towards the land of Zarahemla, being led by Ammon and his brethren.
    12 And they had taken all their gold, and silver, and their precious things, which they could carry, and also their provisions with them, into the wilderness; and they pursued their journey.
    13 And after being many days in the wilderness they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah II's people, and became his subjects.
    15 And now it came to pass when the Lamanites had found that the people of Limhi had departed out of the land by night, that they sent an army into the wilderness to pursue them;
    16 And after they had pursued them two days, they could no longer follow their tracks; therefore they were lost in the wilderness.

    Mosiah 23
    25 For behold, it came to pass that while they were in the land of Helam, yea, in the city of Helam, while tilling the land round about, behold an army of the Lamanites was in the borders of the land. ...
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days.
    35 ... and they were traveling in the wilderness in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.

    Mosiah 24
    16 And it came to pass that so great was their faith and their patience that the voice of the Lord came unto them again, saying: Be of good comfort, for on the morrow I will deliver you out of bondage.
    17 And he said unto Alma: Thou shalt go before this people, and I will go with thee and deliver this people out of bondage.
    18 Now it came to pass that Alma and his people in the night-time gathered their flocks together, and also of their grain; yea, even all the night-time were they gathering the flocks together. ...
    24 And it came to pass that they departed out of the valley, and took their journey into the wilderness.
    25 And after they had been in the wilderness twelve days they arrived in the land of Zarahemla; and king Mosiah II did also receive them with joy.

    The bottom lands of the Mississippi well qualify as the "narrow strip of wilderness" that divides Nephi from Zarahemla. The map to the right shows a top view topography of upper Mississippi/Sidon bottom lands. Below is a representation of typical bottom land elevations.

    River bottom lands are:

    • Forested, especially next to the river but also contain un forested regions where flooding may have occured.
    • Flat and so easier to travel on than hilly regions, especially after a trail is established.
    • Can be traveled by canoe or raft - but not large craft on most rivers due to shallow waters.
    • Are not suitable for permanent settlement due to seasonal flooding.
    • Attract all kinds of game and so are ideal for hunting.
    • Provide ready drinking water for men and beasts.
    • Naturally lead to settlements which are located close to rivers.

    Typical bottom lands (exaggerated elevations)
    "Wilderness" river bottoms route from Zarahemla to the city of Nephi (only 1/3 of total distance shown, from Fort Madison to Hannibal)

    Understanding the use of the term "wilderness" is an important part of the ER model. See Section 3.3 Rules of Interpretation.

     4.3.3 Missionary Journey of Ammon, Aaron, Muloki and Ammah

    Ammon enters the Land of Ishmael

    When Ammon and the sons of Mosiah II departed on their missionary journey, they traveled from Zarahemla south towards the Land of Nephi. The first place they encountered was the land of Ishmael which was not too far from the city of Nephi. Ammon departs from the others (implying that the others continued their journey, probably by boat) and enters the land of Ishmael. Thus I place Ishmael as the first land bordering Nephi that one would see when traveling down the Sidon river from Zarahemla to Nephi. Later there are frequent trips mentioned between the land of Ishmael and the land of Nephi where King Lamoni's father Rules as "king over all the land" so the two locations must be near to each other. No "city of Ishmael" is mentioned but the population would naturally have been concentrated by the Missouri river. In my opinion, the west side of the Missouri River, where the city of St. Charles is located today, is the most logical location.

    Alma 17
    13 And it came to pass when they had arrived in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, that they separated themselves and departed one from another (A)
    ...
    18 Now Ammon being the chief among them, or rather he did administer unto them, and he departed from them (A), ...
    19 And Ammon went to the land of Ishmael, the land being called after the sons of Ishmael, who also became Lamanites.

    Alma 20
    1 And it came to pass that when they had established a church in that land, that king Lamoni desired that Ammon should go with him to the land of Nephi, that he might show him unto his father.
    2 And the voice of the Lord came to Ammon, saying: Thou shalt not go up to the land of Nephi, for behold, the king will seek thy life; but thou shalt go to the land of Middoni; for behold, thy brother Aaron, and also Muloki and Ammah are in prison.
    6 Now when Lamoni had heard this he caused that his servants should make ready his horses and his chariots.
    7 And he said unto Ammon: Come, I will go with thee down to the land of Middoni, and there I will plead with the king that he will cast thy brethren out of prison.
    8 And it came to pass that as Ammon and Lamoni were journeying thither (F), they met the father of Lamoni (G), who was king over all the land.
    28 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni proceeded on their journey towards the land of Middoni. And Lamoni found favor in the eyes of the king of the land; therefore the brethren of Ammon were brought forth out of prison.

    Alma 21
    1 Now when Ammon and his brethren separated themselves (A) in the borders of the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron took his journey (D) towards the land which was called by the Lamanites, Jerusalem, calling it after the land of their fathers' nativity; and it was away joining the borders of Mormon.
    11 Therefore, when he saw that they would not hear his words, he departed out of their synagogue, and came over (H) to a village which was called Ani-Anti, and there he found Muloki preaching the word unto them; and also Ammah and his brethren. And they contended with many about the word.
    12 And it came to pass that they saw that the people would harden their hearts, therefore they departed and came over into the land of Middoni (E). And they did preach the word unto many, and few believed on the words which they taught.
    13 Nevertheless, Aaron and a certain number of his brethren were taken and cast into prison (E), ...
    14 And those who were cast into prison suffered many things, and they were delivered by the hand of Lamoni and Ammon, and they were fed and clothed.
    18 And it came to pass that Ammon and Lamoni returned from the land of Middoni to the land of Ishmael (F), which was the land of their inheritance.

    Alma 23
    1 Now, as Ammon was thus teaching the people of Lamoni continually (B), we will return to the account of Aaron and his brethren; for after he departed from the land of Middoni he was led by the Spirit to the land of Nephi>, even to the house of the king (L) which was over all the land save it were the land of Ishmael; and he was the father of Lamoni.
    2 And it came to pass that he went in unto him into the king's palace (L), with his brethren, and bowed himself before the king, and said unto him: Behold, O king, we are the brethren of Ammon, whom thou hast delivered out of prison.

    Alma 23
    8 Now, these are they who were converted unto the Lord:
    9 The people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Ishmael;
    10 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Middoni;
    11 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the city of Nephi;
    12 And also of the people of the Lamanites who were in the land of Shilom, and who were in the land of Shemlon, and in the city of Lemuel, and in the city of Shimnilom.
    13 And these are the names of the cities of the Lamanites which were converted unto the Lord; and these are they that laid down the weapons of their rebellion, yea, all their weapons of war; and they were all Lamanites.

    Map of present day St Louis area, showing the proposed routes of the missionary journeys of Ammon and the Sons of Mosiah to the lands of Ishmael, Nephi, Middoni, and Ani-Anti.
     4.3.4 East of Nephi

    Near to the land/city of Nephi is the land/city of Shilom, Shimnilom and the land of Shemlon. In the Book of Mormon the three places are frequently mentioned together, leaving the impression that they are very close to each other.

    We also know that there was a tower (T1) built near the temple at Nephi (placed in the former location of "Big Mound") and another tower built on a hill north of Shilom called Antipas. (T2). What is seen from these towers in the narrative indicates that Nephi, Shilom and Shemlon are adjacent to each other.

    Being on the west side of the river, Nephi is on a bit higher ground. Shilom and Shemlon are both visible from Nephi and adjacent to each other on the east side of the river. The east side is river bottom lands, and all flat except for one hill named "Antipas". Of course this would be the ideal place for a second look-out tower (T2). The Missouri/Sidon river itself once flowed through this area in a big horseshoe shape. The remnants of that are now called Horseshoe lake (H) and Canteen lake (C).

    As you can see from the topographical map, the Hill North of Shilom, called Antipas (A) has an elevation of 500 feet. By comparison, Monks mound (the red square north of Shimnilom is a man-made pyramid/mound at 100 feet high (and a footprint of 14.4 acres). Monks mound itself is dated later than the Book of Mormon narratives. The Hill North of Shilom called Antipas (A) is visible from the top of Monks mound. See images to the right.

    Mosiah 7
    7 And behold, they met the king of the people who were in the land of Nephi, and in the land of Shilom;
    21 ... who having entered into a treaty with king Zeniff, and having yielded up into his hands the possessions of a part of the land, or even the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom; and the land round about

    Mosiah 90
    6 And I went in unto the king, and he covenanted with me that I might possess the land of Lehi-Nephi, and the land of Shilom.
    8 And we began to build buildings, and to repair the walls of the city, yea, even the walls of the city of Lehi-Nephi, and the city of Shilom.
    14 For, in the thirteenth year of my reign in the land of Nephi, away on the south of the land of Shilo>, when my people were watering and feeding their flocks, and tilling their lands, a numerous host of Lamanites came upon them and began to slay them, and to take off their flocks, and the corn of their fields.

    Mosiah 11
    12 And it came to pass that he built a tower (T1) near the temple (T1); yea, a very high tower, even so high that he could stand upon the top thereof and overlook the land of Shilom, and also the land of Shemlon, which was possessed by the Lamanites; and he could even look over all the land round about.
    13 And it came to pass that he caused many buildings to be built in the land Shilom; and he caused a great tower (T2) to be built on the hill north (A) of the land Shilom, which had been a resort (O) for the children of Nephi at the time they fled out of the land; and thus he did do with the riches which he obtained by the taxation of his people.

    Omni 1
    12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness--(A,O)
    13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness (A,O), as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla (A→Zarahemla).

    Mosiah 19
    5 And it came to pass that he fought with the king; and when the king saw that he was about to overpower him, he fled and ran and got upon the tower which was near the temple (T1).
    6 And Gideon pursued after him and was about to get upon the tower to slay the king, and the king cast his eyes round about towards the land of Shemlon (S2), and behold, the army of the Lamanites (L) were within the borders of the land.

    Mosiah 20
    8 And now Limhi had discovered them from the tower (T1), even all their preparations for war did he discover; therefore he gathered his people together, and laid wait for them in the fields and in the forests.

    Map showing land of Nephi and lands east of Nephi (proposed)
    Old painting of St. Louis showing "Big Mound", before it was demolished.
    Artist depiction of ancient Cahokia and in the far distance what is know known as Monks Mound. Notice the guard towers and wooden palisade walls, the remains (post holes) of which have been found, which match Book of Mormon descriptions of defensive fortifications.
     4.3.5 Alma, the Waters of Mormon, and People of Limhi

    Alma Flees to the Land Of Mormon

    After the prophet Abinidi is martyred by the King Noah and his corrupt government, Alma (the younger) has a change of heart and leads those who believed Abinidi to a place of refuge, called "The Land of Mormon".

    Wayne May, Robert Meldrum and others have proposed the "Waters of Mormon" are located at Big Spring in the Ozarks Mountains. This is totally compatible with the ER table! In the Physical Model the Ozarks plateau is designated as the Land of Mormon (green and purple).

    If one is looking for a natural spring anywhere near Nephi, the place to look is in the Ozarks where springs are located. The Book of Mormon describes the Waters of Mormon as being a beautiful place, with a forest nearby and located in the Land of Mormon which borders the Land of Nephi. There are 20 springs in the Ozarks, most of them quite small. Big Spring (the biggest in term of water volume flow) is the leading candidate for the waters of Mormon because its size, beauty, forest nearby, seclusion and yet ease of travel, via rivers, from Nephi.

    From Nephi, Big Spring/Waters of Mormon is best accessible by going south via the Mississippi by boat (N → R), and then following the Current River up to Big Spring. This is a distance of about 200 miles but today it would mean about 60 miles of travel over flat lands (R → C) from the Mississippi to the Current River. This would make the trip much more difficult than simply traveling down the river. However, it is certain that the Mississippi did not follow the course then that it follows now. The alluvial plain of the Mississippi in Missouri and Arkansas is 50 miles wide (A). That means that over time the great river has meandered east-west within that 50 mile stretch. In it's natural state the Mississippi makes a major course change in this flatland area once or twice every thousand years due to the buildup of silt. Earthquakes can also cause river course changes and this area is known the "New Madrid" earthquake zone. Therefore, it is possible that in the time of the Book of Mormon, the Mississippi flowed from (R) to (C) rather than (D) where it goes today. Therefore, the journey from Nephi to the Waters of Mormon would be starting at Nephi, traveling completely on the river (S) to (R) to (C) and then to the Waters of Mormon. The Mississippi flows along at about 3 mph so the whole scenic float trip could be made in about a week -- and faster if oars or sails are used.

    The Ozarks is a highland region of the central United States. Although referred to as the Ozark Mountains, the region is actually a high dissected plateau. Geologically, the area is a broad dome around the Saint Francois Mountains.
    Map to Waters of Mormon
    Possible water travel route from Nephi to the Waters of Mormon
    Topography of Big Spring/Waters of Mormon, which joins the Current River flowing left to right.
    Possible direction of Sidon/Mississippi 2100 years ago -- flowing more westerly rather than the present easterly route.
    Aerial view of Big Spring/Waters of Mormon.
    Where the old Sidon/Mississippi River, circa 100 BC, would have met the Current River flowing out of the Ozark plateau. Today the Current River later joins the White River which then joins the Mississippi 200 miles further south.
    The Waters of Mormon = Big Spring. There is a hardwood forest next to Big Spring. Big Spring is located along the Ozark National Scenic Riverway — a very beautiful place to visit. Big Spring itself produces so much water that it is a major tributary to the Current River.

    The map (below and right) outlines the proposed travel routes for the people of Alma (400+ people) departing from Limhi and traveling to Zarahemla and also the people of Limhi (a larger group) departing from Nephi and traveling to Zarahemla. In both cases they have to escape Lamanite guards and pursuing Lamanite armies. The Book of Mormon has an amazing amount of descriptive detail in the text which, when combined with a map, produce a limited number of plausible scenarios. Remember that my goal here is to produce plausible scenarious that make good sense on the map, while reading the Book of Mormon. It has been a confidence builder that the mapping presented comes out to be so very realistic. I haven't had to stretch credibility at all because the map and the distances involved really does fit well. To validate this, I created the Travel Chart and explanations below which show that, mathematically, it works.

    King Limhi and his people depart for Zarahemla

    Mosiah 22
    11 And it came to pass that the people of king Limhi did depart by night into the wilderness with their flocks and their herds, and they went round about the land of Shilom (1) in the wilderness (2), and bent (3) their course towards the land of Zarahemla (4), being led by Ammon and his brethren.

    Shilom is southeast of the city of Nephi but Zarahemla is north of Nephi, so they headed south and later "bent" their course to the north. Verse 16 indicates they were pursued by the Lamanites for two days. It appears they expected to be pursued and wanted to confuse the Lamanites as to their final destination. Thus, it appears that the course bending occured after two days travel at which point the pursuing Lamanite army lost their tracks.

    12 And they had taken all their gold, and silver, and their precious things, which they could carry, and also their provisions with them, into the wilderness (1→2→3→4); and they pursued their journey.

    This indicates they are on foot. They must have had pack animals also in addition to flocks and herds, similar to what Moroni later describes what the Jaredites had. Moroni is familiar with the animals named.

    Ether 9
    17 Having all manner of fruit, and of grain, and of silks, and of fine linen, and of gold, and of silver, and of precious things;
    18 And also all manner of cattle, of oxen, and cows, and of sheep, and of swine, and of goats, and also many other kinds of animals which were useful for the food of man.
    19 And they also had horses, and asses, and there were elephants and cureloms and cumoms; all of which were useful unto man, and more especially the elephants and cureloms and cumoms.

    Since the cureloms and cumoms are included together with the elephants, it indicates a likely similarity of type and purpose, so that they are probably mammoths and mastodons.

    Reproductions: Mastodon to the left and Mammoth to the right.

    13 And after being many days in the wilderness (4 →) they arrived in the land of Zarahemla, and joined Mosiah II's people, and became his subjects.

    Since they bent their course at (3) which is almost to the Valley of Alma, the length of the journey from (3) would be around 12 days or less to reach Zarahemla, if they traveled the same speed as the people of Alma. On the map I show them crossing the Mississippi at the same time they bend their course to Zarahemla. It would be unrealistic to imagine them crossing today's Mississippi on foot. However we live in an era where the river is dammed, locked, and levee'd to make it dramatically deeper, and also dredged to maintain a depth of at least 9 feet for river traffic. However, anciently the river was wider and shallower. It meandered more and changed course frequently. It would also split into two or more smaller rivers and then join back up again later. At the right point, back then, it could be crossed on foot. Rather than just doubling back to Zarahemla on the west side, it is much more logical to assume that they would want to cross to the east side to hide their tracks and also avoid encountering the pursuing Lamanites.

    14 And it came to pass that Mosiah II received them with joy; and he also received their records, and also the records which had been found by the people of Limhi.
    15 And now it came to pass when the Lamanites had found that the people of Limhi had departed out of the land by night, that they sent an army into the wilderness to pursue them (2) ;
    16 And after they had pursued them two days (3), they could no longer follow their tracks (3); therefore they were lost in the wilderness (5).

    This is the same Lamanite army that end up finding the people of Alma in the land of Helam, as noted in Mosiah 23:30, which ties the two narratives together both chronologically and geographically. See Mosiah 23:30 below.

    Alma Returns from the Land Of Mormon

    Mosiah 18
    5 Now, there was in Mormon a fountain of pure water, and Alma resorted thither, there being near the water a thicket of small trees, where he did hide himself in the daytime from the searches of the king.
    6 And it came to pass that as many as believed him went thither to hear his words.
    7 And it came to pass after many days there were a goodly number gathered together at the place of Mormon, to hear the words of Alma. Yea, all were gathered together that believed on his word, to hear him. And he did teach them, and did preach unto them repentance, and redemption, and faith on the Lord.
    8 And it came to pass that he said unto them: Behold, here are the waters of Mormon (for thus were they called) and now, as ye are desirous to come into the fold of God, and to be called his people, and are willing to bear one another's burdens, that they may be light ...
    ...
    16 And after this manner he did baptize every one that went forth to the place of Mormon; and they were in number about two hundred and four souls; yea, and they were baptized in the waters of Mormon , and were filled with the grace of God.
    17 And they were called the church of God, or the church of Christ, from that time forward. And it came to pass that whosoever was baptized by the power and authority of God was added to his church. ...
    30 And now it came to pass that all this was done in Mormon, yea, by the waters of Mormon, in the forest that was near the waters of Mormon; yea, the place of Mormon, the waters of Mormon, the forest of Mormon, how beautiful are they to the eyes of them who there came to the knowledge of their Redeemer; yea, and how blessed are they, for they shall sing to his praise forever.
    31 And these things were done in the borders of the land, that they might not come to the knowledge of the king.
    32 But behold, it came to pass that the king, having discovered a movement among the people, sent his servants to watch them. Therefore on the day that they were assembling themselves together to hear the word of the Lord they were discovered unto the king.
    33 And now the king said that Alma was stirring up the people to rebellion against him; therefore he sent his army to destroy them.
    34 And it came to pass that Alma and the people of the Lord were apprised of the coming of the king's army; therefore they took their tents and their families and departed into the wilderness (W→C).
    35 And they were in number about four hundred and fifty souls.

    Mosiah 23
    1 Now Alma, having been warned of the Lord that the armies of king Noah would come upon them, and having made it known to his people, therefore they gathered together their flocks, and took of their grain, and departed into the wilderness before the armies of king Noah.

    My best theory at this point is that they traveled by boat. Flocks, grains, and tents can be transported by water easier than on land and we know there were only 450 people. It is easy to forget that the Nephites were technologically advanced when compared to the later Lamanites that the European settlers encountered. The Book of Mormon is very clear about that. Nephites had boats, writing, advanced metallurgy, buildings, machinery, education, and representative system of government. They were a Nation with a vast territory and cultural diversity and not just a tribe. In any case, whether by boat or by land, the trip to Helam comes out to 8 days either way.

    2 And the Lord did strengthen them, that the people of king Noah could not overtake them to destroy them.
    3 And they fled eight days' journey into the wilderness (W→C→R→H by water or (W→H by land).
    4 And they came to a land, yea, even a very beautiful and pleasant land, a land of pure water.

    My best candidate for Helam is the current "Twin Cities" of Festus and Crystal city. This area was chosen as the first location coming up river from Mississippi towards St. Louis/Nephi that has water and land suitable for a city. There is room here for a small population. Today the Twin Cities has a total population of about 17,000 people.

    Obviously the people of Alma wouldn't want to settle too close to Nephi for fear of being discovered. Unfortunately they were eventually discovered anyway by the Lamanite army pursuing the people of Limhi. As seen in the topographical map, the river used to swing inward to Crystal city, and this would have been very useful in ancient times.

    5 And they pitched their tents, and began to till the ground, and began to build buildings; yea, they were industrious, and did labor exceedingly.
    6 And the people were desirous that Alma should be their king, for he was beloved by his people. ...
    19 And it came to pass that they began to prosper exceedingly in the land; and they called the land Helam.
    20 And it came to pass that they did multiply and prosper exceedingly in the land of Helam; and they built a city, which they called the city of Helam. ...
    25 For behold, it came to pass that while they were in the land of Helam, yea, in the city of Helam, while tilling the land round about, behold an army of the Lamanites was in the borders of the land (5).
    26 Now it came to pass that the brethren of Alma fled from their fields, and gathered themselves together in the city of Helam; and they were much frightened because of the appearance of the Lamanites.
    27 But Alma went forth and stood among them, and exhorted them that they should not be frightened, but that they should remember the Lord their God and he would deliver them.
    28 Therefore they hushed their fears, and began to cry unto the Lord that he would soften the hearts of the Lamanites, that they would spare them, and their wives, and their children.
    29 And it came to pass the the Lord did soften the hearts of the Lamanites. And Alma and his brethren went forth and delivered themselves up into their hands; and the Lamanites took possession of the land of Helam (6).
    30 Now the armies of the Lamanites, which had followed after the people of king Limhi, had been lost in the wilderness for many days (3, 5).
    31 And behold, they had found those priests of king Noah, in a place which they called Amulon; and they had begun to possess the land of Amulon and had begun to till the ground.
    32 Now the name of the leader of those priests was Amulon.
    33 And it came to pass that Amulon did plead with the Lamanites; and he also sent forth their wives, who were the daughters of the Lamanites, to plead with their brethren, that they should not destroy their husbands.
    34 And the Lamanites had compassion on Amulon and his brethren, and did not destroy them, because of their wives.
    35 And Amulon and his brethren did join the Lamanites, and they were traveling in the wilderness (2,3,5) in search of the land of Nephi when they discovered (6) the land of Helam, which was possessed by Alma and his brethren.
    36 And it came to pass that the Lamanites promised unto Alma and his brethren, that if they would show them the way which led to the land of Nephi (7) that they would grant unto them their lives and their liberty.

    It is not indicated why these Lamanites would be lost and searching for a way to get back to Nephi. Since they just came from Nephi, all they really have to do is retrace their steps backwards along the wilderness river route to get home and that should not be too hard. One reasonable explanation is that their original route back is no longer feasible and, once again, if there is some flooding going on this would explain why. So they need another way back, an inland route (7) that does not following the river flood plains. So this could be the information that Alma gives to them. Alma and his people have been in Helam for some time by now and know their way around.

    37 But after Alma had shown them the way that led to the land of Nephi (7) the Lamanites would not keep their promise; but they set guards round about the land of Helam (6), over Alma and his brethren.
    38 And the remainder of them went to the land of Nephi (7) and a part of them returned to the land of Helam, and also brought with them the wives and the children of the guards who had been left in the land.
    39 And the king of the Lamanites had granted unto Amulon that he should be a king and a ruler over his people, who were in the land of Helam; nevertheless he should have no power to do anything contrary to the will of the king of the Lamanites.

    Mosiah 24
    16 And it came to pass that so great was their faith and their patience that the voice of the Lord came unto them again, saying: Be of good comfort, for on the morrow I will deliver you out of