The New Millennial Science

… the Standard Works of the Church are the measuring rods the Lord has given us by which we are to measure every doctrine, every theory and teaching, and if there is anything that does not conform to that which is given to us in the revelations, we do not have to accept it. Whether I say it or anyone else says it, whether it comes through the philosophy of men, or whenever a statement is made, that is in conflict with what the Lord has revealed, you know what course to take. So far as I am concerned, I will just put it aside. And I don’t care how many men may believe it. I don’t care how much backing it has in the world of so-called science or philosophy. If it does not harmonize with what the Lord has revealed, to me it is not worth anything. (Joseph Fielding Smith, 1942, The Signs of the Times, A Series of Discussions, pp 21-22)

Joseph Fielding Smith

There is a LOT of pseudo-science that conflicts with holy scripture that I do not believe in. I feel exactly the same way as Joseph Fielding Smith. To most that will seem incredulous, however much more scripture truth can now be backed up with empirical evidence than ever before. Joseph Fielding Smith was just ahead of his time. So, for example:
I don’t believe in macro-evolution (speciation). and I don’t believe in anthropogenic climate change. Actually I don’t believe really in any theory of man that has solidified by into a “fact” just because it has been repeated as such so many times. What I strive for is empirical data. Some proof. I always expect to begin by faith both in religion and in science, but each principle must eventually, via experiment, be put to the test. Each-and-every-one. This concept in and of itself is scriptural, as shown below:

Book of Mormon, Alma 32:27-36
27 But behold, if ye will awake and arouse your faculties, even to an experiment upon my words, and exercise a particle of faith, yea, even if ye can no more than desire to believe, let this desire work in you, even until ye believe in a manner that ye can give place for a portion of my words.
28 Now, we will compare the word unto a seed. Now, if ye give place, that a seed may be planted in your heart, behold, if it be a true seed, or a good seed, if ye do not cast it out by your unbelief, that ye will resist the Spirit of the Lord, behold, it will begin to swell within your breasts; and when you feel these swelling motions, ye will begin to say within yourselves–It must needs be that this is a good seed, or that the word is good, for it beginneth to enlarge my soul; yea, it beginneth to enlighten my understanding, yea, it beginneth to be delicious to me.
29 Now behold, would not this increase your faith? I say unto you, Yea; nevertheless it hath not grown up to a perfect knowledge.
30 But behold, as the seed swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, then you must needs say that the seed is good; for behold it swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow. And now, behold, will not this strengthen your faith? Yea, it will strengthen your faith: for ye will say I know that this is a good seed; for behold it sprouteth and beginneth to grow.
31 And now, behold, are ye sure that this is a good seed? I say unto you, Yea; for every seed bringeth forth unto its own likeness.
32 Therefore, if a seed groweth it is good, but if it groweth not, behold it is not good, therefore it is cast away.
33 And now, behold, because ye have tried the experiment, and planted the seed, and it swelleth and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, ye must needs know that the seed is good.
34 And now, behold, is your knowledge perfect? Yea, your knowledge is perfect in that thing, and your faith is dormant; and this because you know, for ye know that the word hath swelled your souls, and ye also know that it hath sprouted up, that your understanding doth begin to be enlightened, and your mind doth begin to expand.
35 O then, is not this real? I say unto you, Yea, because it is light; and whatsoever is light, is good, because it is discernible, therefore ye must know that it is good; and now behold, after ye have tasted this light is your knowledge perfect?
36 Behold I say unto you, Nay; neither must ye lay aside your faith, for ye have only exercised your faith to plant the seed that ye might try the experiment to know if the seed was good.

One of my great disappointments in life is seeing Brigham Young University failing to promote and support the teaching of the scriptures and the prophets. For example, BYU could have and should have led the way for the concept of Intelligent Design over Macro-Evolution. But instead, more intelligent scientists like David Galernter, Phillip Johnson, Stephen Meyer and others lead the revolution in evolution — while stodgy BYU still embraces the pseudo theories. Apparently there are way too many BYU academics with both feet in Babylon. Fools.

Hominid Evolution display at Brigham Young University, Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum

Fortunately there are some really good dedicated truth seekers. I recently met Dean Sessions, the author of the Universal Model. I had read just a very little about the Universal Model beforehand and what I read was negative. However I was intrigued and I like to be an open minded and a seeker of truth, so I pursued a discussion with him. I found he had what sounded like solid answers. I was quickly persuaded to read the books.

Dean W Sessions

Volume 1 and 2 of the Universal Model are big and heavy. Too heavy to hold comfortably for reading and too large for my book stand as well. I solved the weight problem by reading on my iPad instead. It turns out that’s the book size was the only problem I ever had with these books — because the content is amazing.

Dean Sessions calls the Universal Model the start of a New Millennial Science. I believe that is true. The Universal Model introduces a new scientific paradigm of thinking about our physical world that is revolutionary and that finally provides great answers to long time unanswered questions, especially in the field of geology.

Based on empirical evidence and reproducible experiments, some of which Dean Sessions shares in the books. I found the Universal Model geology to be consistent with physical evidence, holy scripture, and the historical records of many cultures around the world. Below are just a few examples which contrast Pseudo Science vs Millennial Science vs Scripture.

Pseudo ScienceMillennial ScienceScripture
The creation of our earth was based on a series of fortunate accidents.

We are running out of natural resources that took millions of years to create and is very limited, so we need to halt consumption. Peak oil, etc.

The use of theses resources is causing catastrophic warming of the planet via anthropogenic climate change.

Humans are ruining the planet and it would be better if we were not here at all.
The universal flood created vast oil, coal, gas, rock, mineral and sand deposits we have today and we still have much to discover. These were globally created by tremendous heat and pressure, up to 850F at 15,000 psi.

The creation of all the earths natural resources has been duplicated in the laboratory under conditions that existed during the global flood and they do not take millions of years to form.

Earth was created intentionally by God for the use of mankind.
DC 104
17 For the earth is full, and there is enough and to spare; yea, I prepared all things, and have given unto the children of men to be agents unto themselves.

Genesis 7:6-7
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
7 And God made the firmament [earth crust], and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

Genesis 1
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
The earth was first formed by the slow accretion of hard materials that smashed into each other until they melted into liquid and then combined into a molten liquid the size of earth.Star forming clouds in space are primarily liquid water which is the most plentiful substance in the universe. Water in the vacuum of space is in liquid form at a few degrees above absolute zero — because of the lack of pressure. Water droplets naturally congeal into perfect spheres which combine to grow larger and larger due to gravitational attraction. Like our bodies the earth is also mostly water.Genesis 1
9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, … and it was so.
10 … and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
Under the thin crust of the earth is molten magma where radioactivity keeps the rock melted. It has been like this for 4.5 billion years. Below the mantle is a layer of hot liquid iron and finally solid iron at the center. The iron is the source of the magnetic field that surrounds the earth.The ocean floor/crust is crystalline basalt and the continental crust is crystalline granite plus other crystalline rocks which grow in saturated mineral water under heat and pressure (hyprethermic conditions which have been duplicated in the lab). There is no magma and it has never been demonstrated that it exists at all. All melted rock is glass and not crystal. The mantle below the earths crust is both rock and water. Then there is a layer of liquid water is below the mantle and with a stable crystalline form of ice (not ordinary ice) at the core. Few rocks have any radioactivity and those that do are not hot because of it. Heat within the earth comes from tidal friction and the friction from plate tectonics. This friction is the source of the heat creating lava from volcanoes. The electrical magnetic field around the earth is not a permanent magnet but is generated by the tidal flexing (earth tides) of piezoelectric rock.Genesis 1
9 And God said, .. let the dry land appear [hypretherm processes]: and it was so.
10 And God called the dry land Earth; … and God saw that it was good.
A universal flood is impossible because there is not enough water in the oceans, skies, and glaciers for that to ever happen.

The present processes are the key to the past (uniformitarianism pseudo-theory) so nothing as catastrophic as a universal flood ever happened.

Everything takes millions of years to happen, including the Pangaea continental break up.

The only water on the earth is in the ocean, sky, glaciers and within the crust of the earth.
The earth is a hydroplanet composed mostly of water and also with piezoelectric crystalline rock. It is not a magma planet made out of liquid rock.

The mantle beneath the earths crust contains many times the total water of all the surface oceans.

In 2345 BC the continents and seafloor cracked with fissures releasing huge amount of water and heat and covering the earth about 30,000 feet deep. This led to hyprethermal (rock making) conditions responsible for many of the rock and sand formations seen today.

A universal flood was also was the beginning of continents separating from the original Pangaea super-continent which occurred in only a 100 or so years.
Genesis 7
10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. …
19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. …
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.
A universal flood is impossible because there could not have been room for all the animals to fit.

The animals on the earth come from the macro-evolutionary processes over the course of millions of years as evidenced by fossils found in layers of rock.
Because of micro evolution (adaptation within a species) only one type of each species was required in the ark. For example, all types of dog originate from the original wolf.

The ark was quite large at 450 feet in length but not all animal species entered the ark.

Evolution is not supported by the fossil record. Petrified wood and bone changing into rock are not happening today and were only created during the universal flood hyprethermic conditions involving intense heat and pressure.
Genesis 6:15, Jasher 5:27
15/27 And thus shalt thou make it; three hundred cubits its length, fifty cubits broad and thirty cubits high.

Jasher 6
2 And thou shalt go and seat thyself by the doors of the ark, and all the beasts, the animals, and the fowls, shall assemble and place themselves before thee, and such of them as shall come and crouch before thee, shalt thou take and deliver into the hands of thy sons, who shall bring them to the ark, and all that will stand before thee thou shalt leave.
A universal flood is just a myth and belief in God is a myth too.

The flood never happened according to accepted scientific theory.
Pseudo-Theories are not facts. The flood is recorded in the annals of many cultures and the majority of people on the planet believe their own history.

It is true than nearly 100% of modern scientists do not believe in God or the universal flood — but scientific evidence for the flood is overwhelming for those who know what to look for. It requires a paradigm shift to the hydroplanet reality.

Atheism is untenable given the scientific evidence available. The universal flood occurred in part because of atheism. History is repeating itself.
Jasher 6
18 And they called to Noah, saying, Open for us that we may come to thee in the ark–and wherefore shall we die?
19 And Noah, with a loud voice, answered them from the ark, saying, Have you not all rebelled against the Lord, and said that he does not exist? and therefore the Lord brought upon you this evil, to destroy and cut you off from the face of the earth.
20 Is not this the thing that I spoke to you of one hundred and twenty years back, and you would not hearken to the voice of the Lord, and now do you desire to live upon earth?
21 And they said to Noah, We are ready to return to the Lord; only open for us that we may live and not die.
22 And Noah answered them, saying, Behold now that you see the trouble of your souls, you wish to return to the Lord; why did you not return during these hundred and twenty years, which the Lord granted you as the determined period?
23 But now you come and tell me this on account of the troubles of your souls, now also the Lord will not listen to you, neither will he give ear to you on this day, so that you will not now succeed in your wishes.
The age of the earth is millions and billions of years old. This is a fact that contradicts the universal flood timeline.

Macro-evolution, petrified fossils and radiometric dating prove the age of the earth to be billions of years old and that a universal flood never happened.

So-called geological flood evidence are really the result of glaciers of the ice ages.
The universal flood happened 2345 BC and Adam at 4000 BC.

There is no macroevolution (speciation) and no millions of years.

Radiometric dating assumes melted glass type rocks which is a false premise and is therefore totally unreliable. Carbon 14 dating is also unreliable without Dendrochronology and especially to pre-historic timelines.

Most Dinosaurs were not on the Ark and died in the universal flood as evidenced by large numbers of petrified rock fossil remains which could only have been made during the flood hyperthermal conditions which includes intense heat.

The universal flood with accompanying earthquakes and multiple inundations of ever higher surging water account for geological conditions are now falsely attributed to ice ages but it all happened during the universal flood in a matter of months and not billions, millions or even thousands of years. The only truly reliable dating methods are:

1) Historical records attested from multiple sources;
2) Events in historical records that can be correlated astronomically;
3) Dendrochronology which can go back 10,000 years with overlapping tree ring patterns.

Observation of natural processes that occurred during the universal flood can be duplicated in a laboratory so we know the processes do not take millions of years.
Genesis 7
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

Jasher 6
26 And the rain was still descending upon the earth, and it descended forty days and forty nights, and the waters prevailed greatly upon the earth; and all flesh that was upon the earth or in the waters died, whether men, animals, beasts, creeping things or birds of the air, and there only remained Noah and those that were with him in the ark.
27 And the waters prevailed and they greatly increased upon the earth, and they lifted up the ark and it was raised from the earth.
28 And the ark floated upon the face of the waters, and it was tossed upon the waters so that all the living creatures within were turned about like pottage in a cauldron.
29 And great anxiety seized all the living creatures that were in the ark, and the ark was like to be broken.
30 And all the living creatures that were in the ark were terrified, and the lions roared, and the oxen lowed, and the wolves howled, and every living creature in the ark spoke and lamented in its own language, so that their voices reached to a great distance, and Noah and his sons cried and wept in their troubles; they were greatly afraid that they had reached the gates of death.
31 And Noah prayed unto the Lord, and cried unto him on account of this, and he said, O Lord help us, for we have no strength to bear this evil that has encompassed us, for the waves of the waters have surrounded us, mischievous torrents have terrified us, the snares of death have come before us; answer us, O Lord, answer us, light up thy countenance toward us and be gracious to us, redeem us and deliver us.
32 And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Noah, and the Lord remembered him.

The Translation Process of the Book of Mormon

The Zarahemla Centric Heartland Model (ZCHM) of Book of Mormon geography is based first and foremost directly upon the text of the Book of Mormon — and as close to the original text as possible for technical accuracy. This is made possible by Royal Skousen’s study of the original manuscripts which has resulted in the publication of The Book of Mormon – The Earliest Text. Understanding the Book of Mormon translation process reveals that it was a “tight” translation, which is technically important to know when analyzing the text for geography. A “tight” translation means there should be great respect for the accuracy and the sacred nature of each and every word of the Book of Mormon.

There is much of controversy and conflicting testimony when it comes to the actual translation process. Most of the conflicting information comes from disaffected former members of the Church with a personal agenda to push (like Emma Smith) and with accounts that vary widely from one telling to the next, depending on the audience (like David Whitmer). In truth, only Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery had direct experience with the translation process. Fortunately their testimony is consistent, clear and concise, as in the Wentworth letter5 and other authoritative statements1. Therefore the testimony of Joseph and Oliver must be paramount. They testified the translation was: 1) Done by the power of God; 2) Included reading the golden plates; and 3) Involved the use of the Urim and Thummim — also called the Holy Interpreters. The only real question in my mind is the role of the Urim and Thummim had in the translation process.

One fact we do know based on testimony and examination of the original manuscripts is that the translation was a one-time dictation1a,1b,1c. Some have argued that a young Joseph Smith had the necessary biblical vocabulary to dictate the Book of Mormon. However, I don’t believe this is correct — and almost no one does.

It is also argued, for good reason, that the young Joseph Smith studied2a the language2b of the plates for at least three months2c, was tutored by angelic messengers3 and could actually understand the language on the plates2b based on his own study2d. I do believe this is true based on the historical record and also Section 9 of the Doctrine and Covenants4. However, the idea that Joseph Smith could understand the Reformed Egyptian characters on the plates does not explain a one-time dictation into a complex Biblical style English with no revisions. This is where, in my opinion, the role of the Urim and Thummim5 comes in. I believe that Joseph Smith had a gift of translating the written meaning from the plates into his own mind and then the role of the Urim and Thummim (also called “Interpreters”6) was to interpret (consecutive interpreting) those thoughts into the precise Hebrew-like language constructs and Bible-like vocabulary that is now found in the Book of Mormon.

This concept also explains why it was a one-time dictation instead of the normal multiple attempts required “to get the words right”. Multiple attempts and revisions would be needed (double interpretation) for interpreting such a complex text without the aid of the Urim and Thummim. Nobody but nobody, on their own, would get the wording exactly right the very first time with no revision. Only God could do that7 and I believe God did do this via the Urim and Thummim. This was a blessing not only to Joseph Smith but also fulfilled prophecy given by the Lord to the ancient Nephite prophets8.

Thus, I believe the original text of the Book of Mormon to be the ultimate “tight” translation. Every word and every spelling is significant and precise as it came from the lips of Joseph Smith. That is also my experience and testimony as I have studied the text in regard to the geography of the Book of Mormon.

1 See the Wentworth Letter, also Doctrine and Covenants 3:19, 5:4, 10:38-45

1a The work of translation proceeded haltingly through 1828. Joseph’s wife, Emma, and others served as scribes until the spring of 1829, when Oliver Cowdery took over, recording the bulk of the 275,000-word text from Joseph’s dictation, concluding near the end of June 1829, a period of about 60 to 90 days. (see Church History,

1b These were days never to be forgotten-to sit under the sound of a voice dictated by the inspiration of heaven, awakened the utmost gratitude of this bosom! Day after day I continued, uninterrupted, to write from his mouth as he translated” (Messenger and Advocate 1 [Oct. 1834]:14)

1c All witnesses of the translation stated that Joseph Smith dictated the text of the Book of Mormon. This claim is supported by certain errors in the original manuscript which clearly resulted from the scribe mishearing what Joseph had dictated. … Evidence from the original manuscript supports the traditional belief that Joseph Smith received a revealed text by means of the interpreters. … In fact, the occurrence of non-English Hebraisms such as the if-and construction strongly suggests that the text was tightly controlled down to the level of the word at least. This tight control is also supported by the consistent phraseology in the original text. And the spelling of names such as Coriantumr suggests that control could be imposed down to the very letter. (How Joseph Smith Translated the Book of Mormon, Royal Skousen, pp 25,30)

2a …Joseph began to make arrangements to accomplish the translation of the Record; And the first step which he was instructed to take in regard to this matter, was, to take a Fac-Simile of the characters composing the alphabet: which characters were called reformed Egyptian… (Lucy Mack Smith History, 1845, pp 117,122, Joseph Smith Papers)

2b for truth is a matter of fact — and the fact is, by the power of God I translated the book of Mormon from hieroglyphics; the knowledge of which was lost to the world. In which wonderful event, I stood alone, an unlearned youth, to combat the worldly wisdom and multiplied ignorance of eighteen centuries. (James Arlington Bennet letter, Joseph Smith Papers)

2c I commenced copying the characters of all the plates. I copyed a considerable number of them and by means of the Urim and Thummin I translated some of them which I did between the time I arrived at the house of my wife’s father in the month of December, and the February following. (Lucy Mack Smith History, 1845, pp 117,122, Joseph Smith Papers)

2d With “true alphabet” languages, like English, one needs to generally speak the language in order to read it. However, for Pictographic and Logographic writing systems, this is not the case. See below. The “Reformed Egyptian” (Mormon 9:32) of the plates was likely a altered/customized form of the Egyptian Hieratic. The beautiful Egyptian Hieroglyphic’s was used for monuments and Hieratic was the everyday “cursive” form, much simpler to write – and designed for parchment. Mormon explains that he used “Reformed Eyptian” that had been altered by the Nephites. One reason it had to be altered is that it was designed to be engraven on metal plates rather than parchment. That it also had to be logographic is clear when Mormon explains it was shorter than the Hebrew (Mormon 9:33).

In context of the Book of Mormon it is useful to understand the basics of the following writing systems

Pictographic/ideographic writing systems:

    • There is no single way to read them, because there is no one-to-one correspondence between symbol and language.
    • Only the author of a text can read it with any certainty, and it may be said that they are interpreted rather than read.
    • Such scripts often work best as mnemonic aids for oral texts, or as outlines that will be fleshed out in speech.
    • – Examples: Aztec, Mixtec, other Mesoamerican writing systems with the exception of Maya Hieroglyphs.

Logographic writing systems

    • Glyphs (A symbol, such as a stylized figure or arrow on a public sign, that imparts information nonverbally) represent words or morphemes (meaningful components of words, as in mean-ing-ful), rather than phonetic elements.
    • No logographic script is composed solely of logograms (A written symbol representing an entire spoken word without expressing its pronunciation; for example, for 4 read “four” in English, “quattro” in Italian.). All contain graphemes that represent phonetic (sound-based) elements as well.
    • Many glyphs are purely phonetic, whereas others function as either logograms or phonetic elements, depending on context.
    • Consonant-based logographies
    • – Examples: Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic – the writing systems of Ancient Egypt.
    • Syllable-based logographies
    • – Examples: Cuneiform, Chinese, Japanese, Mayan.

Abjad writing systems

    • Script containing symbols for consonants only, or where vowels are optionally written with diacritics.
    • – Examples: Arabian, Aramaic, Hebrew.

True Alphabets writing systems

    • A true alphabet contains separate letters (not diacritic marks) for both consonants and vowels..
    • – Examples: Coptic Egyptian, Cyrillic – Eastern Slavic languages, Greek, Latin-Roman (current western and central European languages).

3 And when Joseph Smith was raised up a a Prophet of God, Mormon, Moroni, Nephi and others of the ancient Prophets who formerly lived on this Continent, and Peter and John and others who lived on the Asiatic Continent, came to him and communicated to him certain principles pertaining to the Gospel of the Son of God. (John Taylor, Journal of Discourses, April 8 1875, Vol 17, p 374)

4 (revelation given through Joseph Smith to Oliver Cowdery)
Doctrine and Covenants 9
7 Behold, you have not understood; you have supposed that I would give it unto you, when you took no thought save it was to ask me.
8 But, behold, I say unto you, that you must study it out in your mind; then you must ask me if it be right, and if it is right I will cause that your bosom shall burn within you; therefore, you shall feel that it is right.
9 But if it be not right you shall have no such feelings, but you shall have a stupor of thought that shall cause you to forget the thing which is wrong; therefore, you cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me.
10 Now, if you had known this you could have translated; nevertheless, it is not expedient that you should translate now. (Doctrine and Covenants, 9:7-10).

5 “With the records was found a curious instrument, which the ancients called ‘Urim and Thummim’, which consisted of two transparent stones set in the rim of a bow fastened to a breast plate. Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift and power of God” (Joseph Smith, Wentworth Letter, History of the Church, 4:537).

6 5 Wherefore the Lord hath commanded me to write them; and I have written them. And he commanded me that I should seal them up; and he also hath commanded that I should seal up the interpretation thereof; wherefore I have sealed up the interpreters, according to the commandment of the Lord. (Book of Mormon, Ether 4:5).

7 2 And also, that I may remember the promises which I have made unto thee, Nephi, and also unto thy father, that I would remember your seed; and that the words of your seed should proceed forth out of my mouth unto your seed; and my words shall hiss forth unto the ends of the earth, for a standard unto my people, which are of the house of Israel; (Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 29:2).

8 Ether 12:
23 And I said unto him: Lord, the Gentiles will mock at these things, because of our weakness in writing; for Lord thou hast made us mighty in word by faith, but thou hast not made us mighty in writing; for thou hast made all this people that they could speak much, because of the Holy Ghost which thou hast given them;
24 And thou hast made us that we could write but little, because of the awkwardness of our hands. Behold, thou hast not made us mighty in writing like unto the brother of Jared, for thou madest him that the things which he wrote were mighty even as thou art, unto the overpowering of man to read them.
25 Thou hast also made our words powerful and great, even that we cannot write them; wherefore, when we write we behold our weakness, and stumble because of the placing of our words; and I fear lest the Gentiles shall mock at our words.
26 And when I had said this, the Lord spake unto me, saying: Fools mock, but they shall mourn; and my grace is sufficient for the meek, that they shall take no advantage of your weakness; (Book of Mormon, Ether 12:23-26).